卷二基督奧跡的慶典-七件聖事/THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH

天主教教理卷二
基督奧跡的慶典

第二部分教會的七件聖事

 

1210. 新約聖事是由基督建立的,共有七件,就是聖洗、堅振、感恩(聖體)、懺悔、病人傅油、聖秩以及婚姻。七件聖事涉及基督徒生命中的所有階段,以及一切重要時刻:它們產生、滋長、治癒基督徒的信仰生命,並賦予使命。這樣,自然生命的各階段與靈性生命的各階段之間,有著某些類似之處。

1211. 按照這類比,我們將首先闡明基督徒入門的三件聖事(第一章),然後是治療的聖事(第二章),最後論及為信徒的共融和使命而服務的聖事(第三章)。當然,這並不是唯一可行的次序,但它讓我們看到七件聖事組成一個有機體,而每件聖事在其中都有它的重要位置。在這有機體中,感恩(聖體)聖事佔有獨特的位置;它是「聖事中的聖事」:「其他所有聖事的安排,都是以感恩(聖體)聖事為其終向」。

第一章

基督徒入門聖事

 

1212. 基督徒入門聖事──聖洗、堅振和感恩(聖體)聖事,奠定整個基督徒生命的基礎。「藉著基督的恩寵,人類分享天主性體,這與本性生命的肇始、發展和滋養有類似之處。信徒透過聖洗而重生;藉著堅振而堅強,並在感恩(聖體)聖事中領受永生之糧。如此,藉著基督徒入門聖事,他們常能更豐盛地接受天主的生命,並且邁向愛德的成全」。

第一條

聖洗聖事

 

1213. 聖洗是整個基督徒生命的基礎, 進入在聖神內生活之門 (vitae spiritualis ianua),以及通往其他聖事的大門。藉著聖洗,我們從罪惡中獲得解放,重生為天主的子女,成為基督的肢體,加入教會,並分擔她的使命:「聖洗是在聖言中,藉著水而重生的聖事」。

SECTION TWO

THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH

1210 Christ instituted the sacraments of the new law. There are seven: Baptism, Confirmation (or Chrismation), the Eucharist, Penance, the Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders and Matrimony. the seven sacraments touch all the stages and all the important moments of Christian life:1 they give birth and increase, healing and mission to the Christian's life of faith. There is thus a certain resemblance between the stages of natural life and the stages of the spiritual life.

1211 Following this analogy, the first chapter will expound the three sacraments of Christian initiation; the second, the sacraments of healing; and the third, the sacraments at the service of communion and the mission of the faithful. This order, while not the only one possible, does allow one to see that the sacraments form an organic whole in which each particular sacrament has its own vital place. In this organic whole, the Eucharist occupies a unique place as the "Sacrament of sacraments": "all the other sacraments are ordered to it as to their end."2

CHAPTER ONE

THE SACRAMENTS OF CHRISTIAN INITIATION

1212 The sacraments of Christian initiation - Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist - lay the foundations of every Christian life. "The sharing in the divine nature given to men through the grace of Christ bears a certain likeness to the origin, development, and nourishing of natural life. the faithful are born anew by Baptism, strengthened by the sacrament of Confirmation, and receive in the Eucharist the food of eternal life. By means of these sacraments of Christian initiation, they thus receive in increasing measure the treasures of the divine life and advance toward the perfection of charity."3

Article 1

THE SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM

1213 Holy Baptism is the basis of the whole Christian life, the gateway to life in the Spirit (vitae spiritualis ianua),4 and the door which gives access to the other sacraments. Through Baptism we are freed from sin and reborn as sons of God; we become members of Christ, are incorporated into the Church and made sharers in her mission: "Baptism is the sacrament of regeneration through water in the word."5

 

一、怎樣稱這聖事?

1214. 我們根據這聖事的主要儀式,稱它為聖洗:施洗(希臘文: baptizein)含有「沒入水中」、「浸入水中」的意思;「浸入」水中象徵慕道者(望教者)被埋葬於基督的死亡中,又藉著與祂一起復活,從死亡中出來,成為「新的受造物」(格後 5:17;迦 6:15)。

1215. 這件聖事亦稱為藉著聖神所施行的重生和更新的洗禮(鐸 3:5),因為它象徵並實現那由水和聖神的再生;除非由水和聖神而生,「沒有人能進天主的國」(若 3:5)。

1216. 「這洗禮稱為光照,因為誰接受這(教理)教導,心靈就蒙受光照 」。受洗者在洗禮中接受了聖言,即接受了「那普照每人的真光」(若 1:9),在「蒙受光照」(希 10:32)之後,成為「光明之子」(得前 5:5),也成了「光明」本身 (弗 5:8):

聖額我略•納祥,《演講》:洗禮是天主恩賜最美麗、最奇妙的禮物……。我們稱它為禮物、恩寵、傅油、光照、不朽的衣服、重生之洗、印記,以及一切最寶貴的東西。它是禮物,因為它是贈予那些一無所有的人的;它是恩寵,因為它是賜予罪人的;它是聖洗,因為罪惡被埋葬在水中;它是傅油,因為它是神聖和王家的(那些受傅者就是如此的);它是光照,因為它是燦爛的光輝;它是衣服,因為它遮蓋了我們的羞恥;它是水洗,因為它洗滌我們;它是印記,因為它保護我們,且是天主主宰我們的標記。

二、救恩史中的聖洗

舊約裡有關聖洗的預象
1217.教會在逾越節的守夜禮儀祝福洗禮用水時,隆重紀念救恩史上的偉大事跡,這些事跡已預示聖洗的奧跡:

《羅馬彌撒經書》,逾越節守夜:「祝福洗禮用水」:天父,……祢以不可見的德能,在聖事中實現奇妙的救世工程;祢在救恩歷史中,以多種方式,藉著祢所創造的水使人認識洗禮的恩寵。

1218.自創世之初, 水──這卑微而又奇妙的受造物──已是生命和孕育生命的泉源。聖經說天主之神「孵卵式地」運行水上:
《羅馬彌撒經書》,逾越節守夜:「祝福洗禮用水」:祢的神在創世之初已運行在大水之上,使大水富有聖化的德能。
1219.在諾厄方舟上,教會看到藉聖洗使人得救的一個預象。的確,「當時賴方舟經由水而得救的不多,只有八個生靈」(伯前 3:20)。
《羅馬彌撒經書》,逾越節守夜:「祝福洗禮用水」:祢曾藉洪水預告了使人重生的洗禮,祢今天如同昔日,用水結束了人的罪惡,開始了義人的新生。
1220.如果泉水象徵生命,海水就是死亡的象徵。因此海水可以是十字架奧跡的象徵。藉這個象徵,聖洗象徵與基督的死亡結合。
1221.尤其以色列子民越過紅海──從埃及的奴隸生活中獲得真正解放的事件,宣告了聖洗所帶來的解放:
《羅馬彌撒經書》,逾越節守夜:「祝福洗禮用水」:祢使亞巴郎的子孫越過紅海而不濕雙足,擺脫了奴隸生涯,成為新約選民受洗獲得自由的預象。

1222. 最後,橫渡約旦河也預示了聖洗;天主子民藉此接受福地的恩賜;這福地是天主預許給亞巴郎的子孫的,它是永生的預象。這繼承福地的許諾在新約中得以實現。

基督的洗禮

1223. 舊約的一切預象都實現在基督耶穌身上。祂在約旦河接受洗者聖若翰的洗禮後,開始公開生活。祂在復活後,賦予宗徒們這個使命:「你們要去使萬民成為門徒,因父及子及聖神之名給他們授洗;教訓他們遵守我所吩咐你們的一切」(瑪 28:19-20)

1224. 我們的主自願接受聖若翰為罪人所施的洗禮,以「完成全義」(瑪 3:15)。耶穌此舉顯示出祂的「自我空虛」(斐 2:7)。在起初,天主創造天地時,那運行水面的聖神,現在降臨基督身上,作為新創造的序幕,而聖父顯示耶穌是祂的「愛子」(瑪 3:16-17)。

1225. 基督以祂的逾越,為全人類開啟了聖洗的泉源。事實上,耶穌早已談及祂將在耶路撒冷所應受的苦難,視之為祂當受的「洗禮」(谷 10:38)。耶穌被釘十字架上,從祂被刺透的肋旁流出血和水(若 19:34),就是新生命的聖事──聖洗和聖體的象徵:從此,我們可「由水和聖神而生」,好能進入天主的國(若 3:5)。

聖安博,《論聖事》:看,你在哪裡受了洗;看,洗禮從哪裡來的;不是從基督的十字架,不是從祂的死亡來的嗎?這正是整個奧跡的所在:祂為你而受死。是在祂內,你才被贖回;是在祂內,你才得到拯救。

教會內的洗禮

1226. 自五旬節聖神降臨那天起,教會舉行並施行聖洗聖事。聖伯多祿向驚愕的群眾講道,宣告說:「你們悔改罷!你們每人要以耶穌基督的名字受洗,好赦免你們的罪過,並領受聖神的恩惠」(宗 2:38)。宗徒和他們的合作者為所有相信耶穌的人授洗:不論是猶太人、敬畏天主的人或是外邦人。洗禮常常與信德有著緊密的連繫。聖保祿在斐理伯坐監時,對他的獄警宣告說:「你信主耶穌罷!你和你一家就必得救。」聖經接著記載:「獄警立刻領了洗,他的親人也都領了洗」 (宗 16:31-33)。

1227.按聖保祿所說,信徒藉著洗禮與基督的死亡結合,與基督一同被埋葬,也一同復活:

我們受過洗歸於基督耶穌的人,就是受洗歸於祂的死亡。我們藉著洗禮已歸於死亡與祂同葬了,為的是基督怎樣藉著父的光榮,從死者中復活了,我們也怎樣在新生活中度生(羅 6:3-4)

接受了洗禮的人,就「穿上了基督」(迦 3:27)。藉著聖神,洗禮是淨化、聖化和使人成義的水洗。

1228. 聖洗因此是一種水洗;在這水洗中,天主聖言──那「不可朽壞的種子」──產生祂賦予生命力的效能。聖奧思定在論及洗禮時說:「天主的言語,與物質成分結合,就成為聖事」。

 I. What is This Sacrament Called?

1214 This sacrament is called Baptism, after the central rite by which it is carried out: to baptize (Greek baptizein) means to "plunge" or "immerse"; the "plunge" into the water symbolizes the catechumen's burial into Christ's death, from which he rises up by resurrection with him, as "a new creature."6

1215 This sacrament is also called "the washing of regeneration and renewal by the Holy Spirit," for it signifies and actually brings about the birth of water and the Spirit without which no one "can enter the kingdom of God."7

1216 "This bath is called enlightenment, because those who receive this [catechetical] instruction are enlightened in their understanding 
. . . ."8 Having received in Baptism the Word, "the true light that enlightens every man," the person baptized has been "enlightened," he becomes a "son of light," indeed, he becomes "light" himself:9

Baptism is God's most beautiful and magnificent gift....We call it gift, grace, anointing, enlightenment, garment of immortality, bath of rebirth, seal, and most precious gift. It is called gift because it is conferred on those who bring nothing of their own; grace since it is given even to the guilty; Baptism because sin is buried in the water; anointing for it is priestly and royal as are those who are anointed; enlightenment because it radiates light; clothing since it veils our shame; bath because it washes; and seal as it is our guard and the sign of God's Lordship.10

 

II. Baptism in the Economy of Salvation

Prefigurations of Baptism in the Old Covenant

1217 In the liturgy of the Easter Vigil, during the blessing of the baptismal water, the Church solemnly commemorates the great events in salvation history that already prefigured the mystery of Baptism:

Father, you give us grace through sacramental signs which tell us of the wonders of your unseen power.

 

In Baptism we use your gift of water, which you have made a rich symbol of the grace you give us in this sacrament.11

1218 Since the beginning of the world, water, so humble and wonderful a creature, has been the source of life and fruitfulness. Sacred Scripture sees it as "oveshadowed" by the Spirit of God:12

At the very dawn of creation

your Spirit breathed on the waters,

making them the wellspring of all holiness.13

1219 The Church has seen in Noah's ark a prefiguring of salvation by Baptism, for by it "a few, that is, eight persons, were saved through water":14

The waters of the great flood

you made a sign of the waters of Baptism,

that make an end of sin and a new beginning of goodness.15

1220 If water springing up from the earth symbolizes life, the water of the sea is a symbol of death and so can represent the mystery of the cross. By this symbolism Baptism signifies communion with Christ's death.

1221 But above all, the crossing of the Red Sea, literally the liberation of Israel from the slavery of Egypt, announces the liberation wrought by Baptism:

You freed the children of Abraham from the slavery of Pharaoh,

bringing them dry-shod through the waters of the Red Sea,

to be an image of the people set free in Baptism.16

1222 Finally, Baptism is prefigured in the crossing of the Jordan River by which the People of God received the gift of the land promised to Abraham's descendants, an image of eternal life. the promise of this blessed inheritance is fulfilled in the New Covenant.

Christ's Baptism

1223 All the Old Covenant prefigurations find their fulfillment in Christ Jesus. He begins his public life after having himself baptized by St. John the Baptist in the Jordan.17 After his resurrection Christ gives this mission to his apostles: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you."18

1224 Our Lord voluntarily submitted himself to the baptism of St. John, intended for sinners, in order to "fulfill all righteousness."19 Jesus' gesture is a manifestation of his self-emptying.20 The Spirit who had hovered over the waters of the first creation descended then on the Christ as a prelude of the new creation, and the Father revealed Jesus as his "beloved Son."21

1225 In his Passover Christ opened to all men the fountain of Baptism. He had already spoken of his Passion, which he was about to suffer in Jerusalem, as a "Baptism" with which he had to be baptized.22The blood and water that flowed from the pierced side of the crucified Jesus are types of Baptism and the Eucharist, the sacraments of new life.23 From then on, it is possible "to be born of water and the Spirit"24 in order to enter the Kingdom of God.

See where you are baptized, see where Baptism comes from, if not from the cross of Christ, from his death. There is the whole mystery: he died for you. In him you are redeemed, in him you are saved.25

Baptism in the Church

1226 From the very day of Pentecost the Church has celebrated and administered holy Baptism. Indeed St. Peter declares to the crowd astounded by his preaching: "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit."26 The apostles and their collaborators offer Baptism to anyone who believed in Jesus: Jews, the God-fearing, pagans.27 Always, Baptism is seen as connected with faith: "Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household," St. Paul declared to his jailer in Philippi. and the narrative continues, the jailer "was baptized at once, with all his family."28

1227 According to the Apostle Paul, the believer enters through Baptism into communion with Christ's death, is buried with him, and rises with him:

Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.29

The baptized have "put on Christ."30 Through the Holy Spirit, Baptism is a bath that purifies, justifies, and sanctifies.31

1228 Hence Baptism is a bath of water in which the "imperishable seed" of the Word of God produces its life-giving effect.32 St. Augustine says of Baptism: "The word is brought to the material element, and it becomes a sacrament."33

三、如何舉行聖洗聖事慶典?

基督徒的入門

1229. 自宗徒時代起,人們就須經過入門過程,才可以成為基督徒。這過程包含幾個不同的階段,所需的時間可長可短;但常應包括下述要素:聖言的宣講與接受福音,從而皈依,宣認信仰,接受洗禮,獲受聖神的傾注和領聖體。

1230. 基督徒入門方式在不同時代,按照不同情況,具有很多不同方式。在教會最初的世紀裡,基督徒入門方式已有很大的發展,它有漫長的慕道期慕道期 (望教期)和一連串的準備儀式,透過這些禮儀,標誌出慕道者培育過程中的不同階段,最後是舉行基督徒入門聖事的慶典。

1231 .在嬰孩洗禮已成為慣常方式的地方,這聖事的舉行,以非常簡略的方式,綜合基督徒入門式的各準備階段而一次完成。然而,嬰孩洗禮,按其性質而言,要求接受聖洗後的慕道期。這不只關係到在洗禮後需要給予教理講授,而且洗禮的恩寵在那人成長的過程中,也需要發展。這正是教理講教理講授授的適當時期。
要素,只要這些要素能夠適合於基督徒的禮儀」。

1232.在梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議上,拉丁教會恢復了「分為若干階段的成人慕道期」。我們能在《成人入門禮典成人入門禮典》(1972)中找到有關的禮節。此外,大公會議也准許「在傳教區,除了沿用基督徒傳統所提供的入門禮要素外,也可以採用各民族習用的入門要素,只要這些要素能夠適合於基督徒的禮儀。

1233 .總之,今天在所有拉丁禮和東方禮的教會中,基督徒成人入門都是由進入慕道期開始,一直到達它的最高峰:在同一慶典中,接受聖洗、堅振和感恩(聖體)三件聖事。在東方教會的禮儀中,基督徒嬰孩入門禮以聖洗開始,隨即接受堅振和感恩 (聖體)聖事;在羅馬禮的教會中,嬰孩在受洗後要接受幾年的教理講授,才以堅振和感恩(聖體)聖事完成基督徒入門過程的最高峰。

慶典的釋義(釋奧)

1234. 聖洗聖事的含意和恩寵,都藉它慶典的儀式清楚顯示出來。信友隨著慶典的行動和話語,專心參與,便會逐漸進入並獲得這聖事在每個新受洗的人身上所意指及實現的豐富[恩寵]。

1235. 在慶典開始時劃十字聖號,是以基督的印號,印在領受者身上,為顯示出他將是屬於基督的,並表示基督藉十字架為我們贏得的救贖恩寵。

1236. 宣讀天主聖言, 是以啟示的真理,光照候洗者和會眾, 並激發信德的回應,這信德是與聖洗不可分割的。的確,聖洗特別是「信德的聖事」,因為它是進入信仰生活大門的聖事。

1237. 洗禮既然象徵使人從罪惡並從引誘人犯罪的魔鬼手中獲得解放,因此,主禮者向候洗者行一次(或多次)的驅魔禮,然後給候洗者傅抹候洗聖油或覆手,候洗者也明確表示棄絕魔鬼。如此作好準備,候洗者可以宣認教會的信仰,然後將透過聖洗「託付」給教會。

1238. 主禮藉呼求聖神禱詞,來祝聖洗禮用水(或在施洗時,或在逾越節守夜禮)。教會呼求天主,藉祂的聖子,使聖神的德能降臨在這水上,好使接受洗禮的人,能「由水和聖神而生」(若 3:5)。

1239. 之後,就是聖事的必要儀式:就本義而言,洗禮透過與基督的逾越奧跡結合,象徵並實現受洗者死於罪惡,進入至聖聖三的生命。洗禮以意味深長的方式──三次浸入水中──來完成。但自古以來,教會也可在候洗者頭上三次倒水來施洗。

1240.在拉丁教會中,施洗者向候洗者注水三次,同時說:「(名字),我因父、及子、及聖神之名,給你付洗。」而東方禮的方式是:候洗者轉向東方,司鐸說:「天主的僕人,(名字),因父、及子、及聖神之名受洗。」每當呼號聖三每位的名字時,把受洗者沒入水中,並扶起。

1241. 傅聖化聖油。這油加上香料,由主教祝聖,象徵賦予新受洗者天恩聖神。新受洗者已成為基督徒,就是說:受聖神「傅油」的,與基督結成一體,受傅成為司祭、先知和君王。

1242.在東方教會的禮儀中, 洗禮後的傅油禮就是傅油(堅振)聖事。在羅馬禮中,洗禮後的傅油則是預告第二次的傅油:將由主教以聖化聖油所施行的傅油禮,即堅振聖事,此聖事可以說是為「堅定」並完成洗禮的傅油。

1243. 白衣,象徵受洗者已「穿上基督」(迦 3:27),與基督一起復活了。燭光 ── 從復活蠟燭上引燃的,表示基督光照了新受洗者。在基督內,受過洗的人已成為「世界的光」(瑪 5:14)。

現在,新受洗者在唯一的聖子內,成為天主的子女。他就有資格以天主子女的名義祈禱說:我們的天父。

1244. 初領聖體。新教友成為天主的子女,穿上了婚禮的禮服,被邀參與「羔羊的婚宴」,領受新生命的食糧──基督的體血。東方教會對保持基督徒入門聖事的完整合一,常有著活潑強烈的意願,因而讓所有新受洗的人,甚至包括嬰孩,接受堅振及領聖體。這使人想起主的話:「讓小孩子到我跟前來,不要阻止他們」(谷 10:14)。拉丁教會則只允許那些已到達懂得運用理智年齡的人領聖體,但為表示聖洗聖事指向感恩(聖體)聖事,故攜同新受洗的嬰孩走到祭台前,以主禱文(天主經)祈禱:「我們的天父」。

1245.隆重的祝福禮結束聖洗慶典。在為初生嬰孩施洗時,母親祝福禮佔有特殊的位置。

 III. How is the Sacrament of Baptism Celebrated?

Christian Initiation

1229 From the time of the apostles, becoming a Christian has been accomplished by a journey and initiation in several stages. This journey can be covered rapidly or slowly, but certain essential elements will always have to be present: proclamation of the Word, acceptance of the Gospel entailing conversion, profession of faith, Baptism itself, the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and admission to Eucharistic communion.

1230 This initiation has varied greatly through the centuries according to circumstances. In the first centuries of the Church, Christian initiation saw considerable development. A long period of catechumenate included a series of preparatory rites, which were liturgical landmarks along the path of catechumenal preparation and culminated in the celebration of the sacraments of Christian initiation.

1231 Where infant Baptism has become the form in which this sacrament is usually celebrated, it has become a single act encapsulating the preparatory stages of Christian initiation in a very abridged way. By its very nature infant Baptism requires a post-baptismal catechumenate. Not only is there a need for instruction after Baptism, but also for the necessary flowering of baptismal grace in personal growth. the catechism has its proper place here.

1232 The second Vatican Council restored for the Latin Church "the catechumenate for adults, comprising several distinct steps."34 The rites for these stages are to be found in the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA).35 The Council also gives permission that: "In mission countries, in addition to what is furnished by the Christian tradition, those elements of initiation rites may be admitted which are already in use among some peoples insofar as they can be adapted to the Christian ritual."36

1233 Today in all the rites, Latin and Eastern, the Christian initiation of adults begins with their entry into the catechumenate and reaches its culmination in a single celebration of the three sacraments of initiation: Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist.37 In the Eastern rites the Christian initiation of infants also begins with Baptism followed immediately by Confirmation and the Eucharist, while in the Roman rite it is followed by years of catechesis before being completed later by Confirmation and the Eucharist, the summit of their Christian initiation.38

The mystagogy of the celebration

1234 The meaning and grace of the sacrament of Baptism are clearly seen in the rites of its celebration. By following the gestures and words of this celebration with attentive participation, the faithful are initiated into the riches this sacrament signifies and actually brings about in each newly baptized person.

1235 The sign of the cross, on the threshold of the celebration, marks with the imprint of Christ the one who is going to belong to him and signifies the grace of the redemption Christ won for us by his cross.

1236 The proclamation of the Word of God enlightens the candidates and the assembly with the revealed truth and elicits the response of faith, which is inseparable from Baptism. Indeed Baptism is "the sacrament of faith" in a particular way, since it is the sacramental entry into the life of faith.

1237 Since Baptism signifies liberation from sin and from its instigator the devil, one or more exorcisms are pronounced over the candidate. the celebrant then anoints him with the oil of catechumens, or lays his hands on him, and he explicitly renounces Satan. Thus prepared, he is able to confess the faith of the Church, to which he will be "entrusted" by Baptism.39

1238 The baptismal water is consecrated by a prayer of epiclesis (either at this moment or at the Easter Vigil). the Church asks God that through his Son the power of the Holy Spirit may be sent upon the water, so that those who will be baptized in it may be "born of water and the Spirit."40

1239 The essential rite of the sacrament follows: Baptism properly speaking. It signifies and actually brings about death to sin and entry into the life of the Most Holy Trinity through configuration to the Paschal mystery of Christ. Baptism is performed in the most expressive way by triple immersion in the baptismal water. However, from ancient times it has also been able to be conferred by pouring the water three times over the candidate's head.

1240 In the Latin Church this triple infusion is accompanied by the minister's words: "N., I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." In the Eastern liturgies the catechumen turns toward the East and the priest says: "The servant of God, N., is baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." At the invocation of each person of the Most Holy Trinity, the priest immerses the candidate in the water and raises him up again.

1241 The anointing with sacred chrism, perfumed oil consecrated by the bishop, signifies the gift of the Holy Spirit to the newly baptized, who has become a Christian, that is, one "anointed" by the Holy Spirit, incorporated into Christ who is anointed priest, prophet, and king.41

1242 In the liturgy of the Eastern Churches, the post-baptismal anointing is the sacrament of Chrismation (Confirmation). In the Roman liturgy the post-baptismal anointing announces a second anointing with sacred chrism to be conferred later by the bishop Confirmation, which will as it were "confirm" and complete the baptismal anointing.

1243 The white garment symbolizes that the person baptized has "put on Christ,"42 has risen with Christ. the candle, lit from the Easter candle, signifies that Christ has enlightened the neophyte. In him the baptized are "the light of the world."43 
The newly baptized is now, in the only Son, a child of God entitled to say the prayer of the children of God: "Our Father."

1244 First Holy Communion. Having become a child of God clothed with the wedding garment, the neophyte is admitted "to the marriage supper of the Lamb"44 and receives the food of the new life, the body and blood of Christ. the Eastern Churches maintain a lively awareness of the unity of Christian initiation by giving Holy Communion to all the newly baptized and confirmed, even little children, recalling the Lord's words: "Let the children come to me, do not hinder them."45 The Latin Church, which reserves admission to Holy Communion to those who have attained the age of reason, expresses the orientation of Baptism to the Eucharist by having the newly baptized child brought to the altar for the praying of the Our Father.

1245 The solemn blessing concludes the celebration of Baptism. At the Baptism of newborns the blessing of the mother occupies a special place.


 

四、誰可受洗誰可受洗?

1246.「唯有未接受過洗禮的人,才能接受洗禮」。
成人洗禮

1247. 由教會創始之初起,在福音新傳的地方,成人受洗是最正常的情況。準備成人受洗的慕道期,佔有重要的位置。基督徒的信仰與生活的入門過程,應當準備慕道者(學道者)接受天主在聖洗、堅振及感恩(聖體)聖事中賦予的恩賜。

1248. 慕道期或培育慕道者的目標,在於幫助慕道者回應天主主動的召喚,並融合於一個教會的團體,帶領他們走向成熟的皈依及信仰。這關係到「整個基督徒生活的訓練……藉此使門徒與其導師基督契合。因此慕道者應適當地學習進入救贖的奧跡並練習度福音生活,並應透過在各階段逐次舉行之神聖禮儀的引導,投入天主子民的信德、禮儀及愛德生活」。

1249. 慕道者「已和教會相連結,屬於基督的大家庭, 他們經常度著信、望、愛的生活」。 「慈母教會也以愛護關切之情,猶如懷抱自己的兒女一樣,去懷抱他們」。

嬰孩洗禮

1250. 嬰孩在誕生時已有墮落的人性,並被原罪所玷污,因此他們也需要在聖洗聖事中重生,好能由黑暗的權勢中獲得解放,被帶入天主子女的自由國度,因為全人類都蒙召進入這國度。嬰孩洗禮尤其顯示出天主無條件地施予的救贖恩寵。如果教會和父母不在嬰孩出生後盡快讓他接受洗禮,便剝削了嬰孩成為天主子女的無價恩寵。

1251.基督徒的父母體認到讓嬰孩受洗,正符合他們身為撫養者的職責,即養育天主所託付給他們的生命。
1252.為嬰孩施洗,是教會自古以來的傳統,自第二世紀起,已可明顯証實其存在。很可能在宗徒開始宣講福音的期間,當全「家」受洗時,也一併替嬰孩施洗。
信德與洗禮

1253. 洗禮是信德的聖事。然而,信德需要信徒的團體。每位信友只有在教會的信德內,才能夠相信天主。為接受洗禮所要求的信德,還不是完美和成熟的信德,只是一個開始,仍須繼續發展。慕道者或其代父母被問:「你向天主的教會求甚麼?」,他回答說:「信德!」。

1254. 所有受洗的人──無論是兒童或成人,受洗後,信德仍須在他們身上成長。因此,教會每年在逾越節之夜,重宣聖洗的誓願。受洗前的準備,只是帶領人到達新生命的門檻。洗禮則是基督內新生命的泉源,從它湧出整個基督徒的生命。

1255. 為使洗禮的恩寵得以發展,父母的幫助十分重要。代父代母也擔當同樣的角色;他們應具有堅定的信德,能夠並準備好協助新受洗者 ──不論是兒童或成人,走上基督徒生活的道路。他們的工作確實是教會的職責 (officium)。整個教會團體也應負起部分責任,去發展和保護 [受洗者]在洗禮時所接受的恩寵。

五、誰可施洗?

1256. 聖洗聖事的正權施行人是主教和司鐸,在拉丁教會內,也包括執事。在必要時,任何人,即使未受洗,只要他具備應有的意向,都可施洗。應有的意向,就是願意履行教會在施洗時所做的一切,並以天主聖三之名施洗。教會看出這可能性的理由,是因為天主願意普世的人都得救,而且為獲得救恩,洗禮是必需的。

 IV. Who can Receive Baptism?

1246 "Every person not yet baptized and only such a person is able to be baptized."46

The Baptism of adults

1247 Since the beginning of the Church, adult Baptism is the common practice where the proclamation of the Gospel is still new. the catechumenate (preparation for Baptism) therefore occupies an important place. This initiation into Christian faith and life should dispose the catechumen to receive the gift of God in Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist.

1248 The catechumenate, or formation of catechumens, aims at bringing their conversion and faith to maturity, in response to the divine initiative and in union with an ecclesial community. the catechumenate is to be "a formation in the whole Christian life . . . during which the disciples will be joined to Christ their teacher. the catechumens should be properly initiated into the mystery of salvation and the practice of the evangelical virtues, and they should be introduced into the life of faith, liturgy, and charity of the People of God by successive sacred rites."47

1249 Catechumens "are already joined to the Church, they are already of the household of Christ, and are quite frequently already living a life of faith, hope, and charity."48 "With love and solicitude mother Church already embraces them as her own."49

The Baptism of infants

1250 Born with a fallen human nature and tainted by original sin, children also have need of the new birth in Baptism to be freed from the power of darkness and brought into the realm of the freedom of the children of God, to which all men are called.50 The sheer gratuitousness of the grace of salvation is particularly manifest in infant Baptism. the Church and the parents would deny a child the priceless grace of becoming a child of God were they not to confer Baptism shortly after birth.51

1251 Christian parents will recognize that this practice also accords with their role as nurturers of the life that God has entrusted to them.52

1252 The practice of infant Baptism is an immemorial tradition of the Church. There is explicit testimony to this practice from the second century on, and it is quite possible that, from the beginning of the apostolic preaching, when whole "households" received baptism, infants may also have been baptized.53

Faith and Baptism

1253 Baptism is the sacrament of faith.54 But faith needs the community of believers. It is only within the faith of the Church that each of the faithful can believe. the faith required for Baptism is not a perfect and mature faith, but a beginning that is called to develop. the catechumen or the godparent is asked: "What do you ask of God's Church?" the response is: "Faith!"

1254 For all the baptized, children or adults, faith must grow after Baptism. For this reason the Church celebrates each year at the Easter Vigil the renewal of baptismal promises. Preparation for Baptism leads only to the threshold of new life. Baptism is the source of that new life in Christ from which the entire Christian life springs forth.

1255 For the grace of Baptism to unfold, the parents' help is important. So too is the role of the godfather and godmother, who must be firm believers, able and ready to help the newly baptized - child or adult on the road of Christian life.55 Their task is a truly ecclesial function (officium).56 The whole ecclesial community bears some responsibility for the development and safeguarding of the grace given at Baptism.

V. Who can Baptize?

1256 The ordinary ministers of Baptism are the bishop and priest and, in the Latin Church, also the deacon.57 In case of necessity, any person, even someone not baptized, can baptize, if he has the required intention. the intention required is to will to do what the Church does when she baptizes, and to apply the Trinitarian baptismal formula. the Church finds the reason for this possibility in the universal saving will of God and the necessity of Baptism for salvation.58

 

六、聖洗的必要性

1257. 主親自肯定,人為獲得救恩,聖洗是必要的。祂也命令門徒向萬民宣講福音並為他們授洗。為那些已經聆聽到福音而可能要求聖洗聖事的人來說,為獲得救恩,洗禮是必要的。除了聖洗以外,教會不知道還有什麼方法可確保人們能進入永恆的福樂;因此,小心翼翼,唯恐忽略主所託付的使命,讓所有能夠受洗的人都「由水和聖神重生」。天主把救恩與聖洗聖事緊密相連,但祂自己卻不受祂的聖事所束縛

1258. 教會歷來確信那些為了信仰而致命的人,雖然沒有接受水洗,而是透過他們為基督而死、並與基督同死,而受洗的。這是血洗,如同願洗 一樣,雖然沒有聖事形式,卻結出聖洗的果實。

1259.慕道者在受洗前去世,只要他死前明顯表示過受洗的渴望,連同他的悔罪和愛德,雖未及受洗,也肯定得救。

1260. 「由於基督是為所有的人而死的,而人最終的召叫,實際上又只有一個,就是天主的召喚。因此,我們必須說,聖神給眾人提供參加逾越奧跡的可能性,但其方式只有天主知道」。凡是不認識基督福音和祂教會的人,只要按照他們所曉得的,尋求真理並承行天主的旨意,都能得救。我們可以假設,這樣的人,如果知道洗禮是必要的,他們一定會明確地渴望洗禮

1261. 至於還未受洗而夭折的兒童,教會只好把他們託付給天主的仁慈,一如在他們的葬禮中所表達的那樣。事實上,天主的仁慈是那麼偉大,祂願意所有的人得救,而且耶穌這麼喜愛孩子,祂曾說:「讓小孩子到我跟前來,不要阻止他們。(谷 10:14)」因此,我們有理由希望這些未受洗而死去的兒童,也有得救的途徑。不過,教會仍迫切地再三要求:不可阻擋兒童藉著聖洗的恩賜,來到基督跟前。

 VI. The Necessity of Baptism

1257 The Lord himself affirms that Baptism is necessary for salvation.59 He also commands his disciples to proclaim the Gospel to all nations and to baptize them.60 Baptism is necessary for salvation for those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament.61 The Church does not know of any means other than Baptism that assures entry into eternal beatitude; this is why she takes care not to neglect the mission she has received from the Lord to see that all who can be baptized are "reborn of water and the Spirit." God has bound salvation to the sacrament of Baptism, but he himself is not bound by his sacraments.

1258 The Church has always held the firm conviction that those who suffer death for the sake of the faith without having received Baptism are baptized by their death for and with Christ. This Baptism of blood, like the desire for Baptism, brings about the fruits of Baptism without being a sacrament.

1259 For catechumens who die before their Baptism, their explicit desire to receive it, together with repentance for their sins, and charity, assures them the salvation that they were not able to receive through the sacrament.

1260 "Since Christ died for all, and since all men are in fact called to one and the same destiny, which is divine, we must hold that the Holy Spirit offers to all the possibility of being made partakers, in a way known to God, of the Paschal mystery."62 Every man who is ignorant of the Gospel of Christ and of his Church, but seeks the truth and does the will of God in accordance with his understanding of it, can be saved. It may be supposed that such persons would have desired Baptism explicitly if they had known its necessity.

1261 As regards children who have died without Baptism, the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God, as she does in her funeral rites for them. Indeed, the great mercy of God who desires that all men should be saved, and Jesus' tenderness toward children which caused him to say: "Let the children come to me, do not hinder them,"63 allow us to hope that there is a way of salvation for children who have died without Baptism. All the more urgent is the Church's call not to prevent little children coming to Christ through the gift of holy Baptism.

 

七、聖洗的恩寵

1262. 聖洗的各種效果,透過聖事有形可見的儀式表達出來。沒入水中的行動象徵死亡和淨化,也象徵重生和更新。所以,聖洗的兩個主要功效,就是滌除罪惡和在聖神內重生。

為赦免罪惡

1263. 藉著聖洗,一切罪惡,包括原罪和本罪,甚至應受的罪罰,都獲得赦免。事實上,在重生的人身上,沒有甚麼會阻止他們進入天主之國,無論是亞當的罪、本罪、或罪的後果(其中最嚴重的是與天主分離)。

1264. 在受過洗的人身上,仍留有某些罪惡的現世後果,例如痛苦、疾病、死亡,以及由生命所遺傳的軟弱,如性格的弱點等,還有犯罪的傾向;就是聖傳所謂的私慾偏情,或隱喻地說是「罪惡的溫床」(fomes peccati):「我們要與私慾偏情搏鬥;為那些不順從、反而以基督耶穌的聖寵竭力反抗的人,私慾偏情是不能加害他們的」。事實上,「競賽者如果按規矩競賽,將得到花冠」。
「新的受造物」

1265. 聖洗不但滌除所有的罪惡,而且使新受洗者成為「新受造物」(格後 5:17)、天主的義子,也就是「成為有分於天主的性體的人」(伯後 1:4),成為基督的肢體,並與祂同為繼承人(羅 8:17),聖神的宮殿。

1266.天主聖三賜予領洗的人聖化的恩寵,即成義的恩寵:
──藉著三超德,使他能相信天主,寄望於天主並愛慕天主;
──藉著聖神的恩賜,使他能依從聖神的推動而生活和行動;
──藉著倫理的德行,使他能在善中成長。
這樣,基督徒整個有機的超性生命,都植根於聖洗之中。
結合於教會────基督基督的身體

1267. 聖洗聖事使我們成為基督身體的肢體。「從那時起……我們彼此不是同一個身體的肢體嗎?」(弗 4:25)聖洗使我們與教會結合成一體。從聖洗池中誕生了唯一的新約天主子民,它超越所有國家、文化、種族和性別,自然的或人為的限制:「我們眾人都因一個聖神受了洗,成為一個身體」(格前 12:13)。

1268. 受過洗的人都成了「活石」,為「建成一座屬神的殿宇,成為聖潔的司祭」(伯前 2:5)。由於洗禮,他們分受基督的司祭職,也分受祂先知和王者的使命。他們是「特選的種族、王家的司祭、聖潔的國民、屬於主的民族,為宣揚那由黑暗中召叫他們,進入祂奇妙之光者的榮耀」(伯前 2:9)。聖洗使信友分享普通司祭職

1269. 受過洗的人成了教會的肢體;他不再屬於自己(格前 6:19),而是屬於為我們死而復活的那一位。從那時起,他已蒙召在教會的共融裡互相順從,彼此服事,還應「信服並聽從」教會的領袖(希 13:17),以敬愛之情看待他們。正如聖洗帶來責任和義務,同樣,受過洗的人在教會懷中也享有權利:領受聖事,接受天主聖言的滋養,並獲得教會靈性上的支持和幫助。

1270.「受過洗的人重生成為天主的兒女,應該在人前宣示他們透過教會,由天主所接受的信仰」,並參與天主子民的使徒和傳教活動。
基督徒合一的聖事性聯繫

1271. 聖洗建立了所有基督徒之間共融的基礎,包括那些還未完全與天主教會共融的基督徒:「事實上,他們既信奉基督,並有效地接受了聖洗,便與天主教會建立某程度的共融,縱使不很完善。……藉在聖洗內接受的信仰而成義的人,與基督結成一體,因而應當享有基督徒的名義,天主教徒理應承認他們為主內的弟兄」。「因此,聖洗在所有藉洗禮而重生的人中間,建立了合一的聖事性聯繫」。

不可磨滅的神印

1272. 受過洗的人,因聖洗而與基督結成一體,肖似基督。聖洗為基督徒蓋上不可磨滅的靈性印記(神印),表示他隸屬於基督。雖然罪惡能阻礙聖洗結出救恩的果實,但任何罪惡都不能拭去這印記。人只可受洗一次,不能重複受洗。

1273. 信友藉聖洗與教會合成一體,接受聖事的印號,這印號祝聖他們去履行基督徒的宗教敬禮。聖洗的神印賦予基督徒能力和義務,使他們活潑地參與教會的神聖禮儀來事奉天主,並且藉聖潔的生活和愛德行動的見証,履行由聖洗而有的司祭職。

1274. 主的印號 (Dominicus character)是聖神為我們蓋上的印號,「以待得救的日子」(弗 4:30)。「事實上,聖洗是永生的印號」。如信友能「保存這印號」到底,即忠於聖洗的要求,就能「帶著信德的印號」,懷著受洗時的信德離開此世,在復活的希望中,期待著享見天主的幸福:這就是信德的完成。

 

 VII. The Grace of Baptism

1262 The different effects of Baptism are signified by the perceptible elements of the sacramental rite. Immersion in water symbolizes not only death and purification, but also regeneration and renewal. Thus the two principal effects are purification from sins and new birth in the Holy Spirit.64

For the forgiveness of sins . . .

1263 By Baptism all sins are forgiven, original sin and all personal sins, as well as all punishment for sin.65 In those who have been reborn nothing remains that would impede their entry into the Kingdom of God, neither Adam's sin, nor personal sin, nor the consequences of sin, the gravest of which is separation from God.

1264 Yet certain temporal consequences of sin remain in the baptized, such as suffering, illness, death, and such frailties inherent in life as weaknesses of character, and so on, as well as an inclination to sin that Tradition calls concupiscence, or metaphorically, "the tinder for sin" (fomes peccati); since concupiscence "is left for us to wrestle with, it cannot harm those who do not consent but manfully resist it by the grace of Jesus Christ."66 Indeed, "an athlete is not crowned unless he competes according to the rules."67

"A new creature"

1265 Baptism not only purifies from all sins, but also makes the neophyte "a new creature," an adopted son of God, who has become a "partaker of the divine nature,"68 member of Christ and coheir with him,69 and a temple of the Holy Spirit.70

1266 The Most Holy Trinity gives the baptized sanctifying grace, the grace of justification: 
- enabling them to believe in God, to hope in him, and to love him through the theological virtues; 
- giving them the power to live and act under the prompting of the Holy Spirit through the gifts of the Holy Spirit; 
- allowing them to grow in goodness through the moral virtues. 
Thus the whole organism of the Christian's supernatural life has its roots in Baptism.

Incorporated into the Church, the Body of Christ

1267 Baptism makes us members of the Body of Christ: "Therefore . . . we are members one of another."71 Baptism incorporates us into the Church. From the baptismal fonts is born the one People of God of the New Covenant, which transcends all the natural or human limits of nations, cultures, races, and sexes: "For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body."72

1268 The baptized have become "living stones" to be "built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood."73 By Baptism they share in the priesthood of Christ, in his prophetic and royal mission. They are "a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, that [they] may declare the wonderful deeds of him who called [them] out of darkness into his marvelous light."74 Baptism gives a share in the common priesthood of all believers.

1269 Having become a member of the Church, the person baptized belongs no longer to himself, but to him who died and rose for us.75 From now on, he is called to be subject to others, to serve them in the communion of the Church, and to "obey and submit" to the Church's leaders,76 holding them in respect and affection.77 Just as Baptism is the source of responsibilities and duties, the baptized person also enjoys rights within the Church: to receive the sacraments, to be nourished with the Word of God and to be sustained by the other spiritual helps of the Church.78

1270 "Reborn as sons of God, [the baptized] must profess before men the faith they have received from God through the Church" and participate in the apostolic and missionary activity of the People of God.79

The sacramental bond of the unity of Christians

1271 Baptism constitutes the foundation of communion among all Christians, including those who are not yet in full communion with the Catholic Church: "For men who believe in Christ and have been properly baptized are put in some, though imperfect, communion with the Catholic Church. Justified by faith in Baptism, [they] are incorporated into Christ; they therefore have a right to be called Christians, and with good reason are accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church."80 "Baptism therefore constitutes the sacramental bond of unity existing among all who through it are reborn."81

An indelible spiritual mark . . .

1272 Incorporated into Christ by Baptism, the person baptized is configured to Christ. Baptism seals the Christian with the indelible spiritual mark (character) of his belonging to Christ. No sin can erase this mark, even if sin prevents Baptism from bearing the fruits of salvation.82 Given once for all, Baptism cannot be repeated.

1273 Incorporated into the Church by Baptism, the faithful have received the sacramental character that consecrates them for Christian religious worship.83 The baptismal seal enables and commits Christians to serve God by a vital participation in the holy liturgy of the Church and to exercise their baptismal priesthood by the witness of holy lives and practical charity.84

1274 The Holy Spirit has marked us with the seal of the Lord ("Dominicus character") "for the day of redemption."85 "Baptism indeed is the seal of eternal life."86 The faithful Christian who has "kept the seal" until the end, remaining faithful to the demands of his Baptism, will be able to depart this life "marked with the sign of faith,"87 with his baptismal faith, in expectation of the blessed vision of God - the consummation of faith - and in the hope of resurrection.

 撮要

1275. 基督徒的入門由三件聖事一起完成:聖洗聖事展開新的生命;堅振聖事堅強這生命;感恩(聖體)聖事以基督的體血來滋養門徒,為使他日益與基督同化。

1276.「你們要去使萬民成為門徒,因父及子及聖神之名給他們授洗,教訓他們遵守我所吩咐你們的一切!」(瑪 28:19-20)
1277.聖洗使人在基督內誕生,獲得新的生命。按照主的旨意,聖洗就如教會一樣,為得救恩是必要的,是聖洗引人進入教會。
1278.聖洗的必要儀式,是把候洗者沒入水中,或在他頭上注水,同時呼號聖三的名字,即因父、及子及聖神之名。

1279. 聖洗的效果,或聖洗的恩寵,是一個極豐富的事實,包括:原罪和一切本罪的赦免,經此誕生而獲得新的生命,成為天父的義子、基督的肢體和聖神的宮殿。基於同樣的事實,受過洗的人與教會──基督的身體──結成一體,並分享基督的司祭職。

1280.聖洗在人的靈魂印上不可磨滅的神印。這印號祝聖受過洗的人,去履行基督徒宗教敬禮。由於這神印,聖洗是不可重複接受的。

1281. 凡是為了信仰而致命的人,慕道者,或任何人──即使未認識教會,但受到恩寵的推動,誠心尋求天主,並努力承行祂旨意的人──雖然未及受洗,也可得救。

1282. 自古以來,就為嬰孩施洗,因為洗禮是天主的恩寵和禮物,不需要先有人的功績。嬰孩是在教會的信德內受洗。進入基督徒的生命,可獲得真正的自由。

1283.至於那些未受洗而夭折的嬰孩,教會的禮儀邀請我們信賴天主的仁慈,並為他們的得救而祈禱。

1284. 在必要時,任何人都可以施洗,只要他們有意向做教會所做的事,並須注水在候洗者頭上,同時說:「我因父、及子、及聖神之名,給你授洗。」
 IN BRIEF

1275 Christian initiation is accomplished by three sacraments together: Baptism which is the beginning of new life; Confirmation which is its strengthening; and the Eucharist which nourishes the disciple with Christ's Body and Blood for his transformation in Christ.

1276 "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you" ( Mt 28:19-20).

1277 Baptism is birth into the new life in Christ. In accordance with the Lord's will, it is necessary for salvation, as is the Church herself, which we enter by Baptism.

1278 The essential rite of Baptism consists in immersing the candidate in water or pouring water on his head, while pronouncing the invocation of the Most Holy Trinity: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

1279 The fruit of Baptism, or baptismal grace, is a rich reality that includes forgiveness of original sin and all personal sins, birth into the new life by which man becomes an adoptive son of the Father, a member of Christ and a temple of the Holy Spirit. By this very fact the person baptized is incorporated into the Church, the Body of Christ, and made a sharer in the priesthood of Christ.

1280 Baptism imprints on the soul an indelible spiritual sign, the character, which consecrates the baptized person for Christian worship. Because of the character Baptism cannot be repeated (cf. DS 1609 and DS 1624).

1281 Those who die for the faith, those who are catechumens, and all those who, without knowing of the Church but acting under the inspiration of grace, seek God sincerely and strive to fulfill his will, are saved even if they have not been baptized (cf. LG 16).

1282 Since the earliest times, Baptism has been administered to children, for it is a grace and a gift of God that does not presuppose any human merit; children are baptized in the faith of the Church. Entry into Christian life gives access to true freedom.

1283 With respect to children who have died without Baptism, the liturgy of the Church invites us to trust in God's mercy and to pray for their salvation.

1284 In case of necessity, any person can baptize provided that he have the intention of doing that which the Church does and provided that he pours water on the candidate's head while saying: "I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

   
   
   
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