卷二基督奧跡的慶典-禮儀/Why the liturgy

天主教教理
卷二基督奧跡的慶典

為甚麼有禮儀?

1066. 在信經裡,教會明認聖三的奧跡和聖三對所有受造物的「慈愛計劃」:天父為了世界的得救和祂聖名的光榮,派遣祂的愛子和聖神,來完成「祂旨意的奧秘」。這就是基督的奧跡, 這奧跡依照一個計劃,在歷史中啟示和實現。這計劃是天主上智的「安排」,聖保祿稱之為「奧秘的計劃」,而教父的傳統則稱之為「降生聖言的工程」或「救恩計劃」。

1067. 「這救贖人類和圓滿地光榮天主的工程,曾藉天主在舊約子民中所行的奇妙工程預告出來,由主基督予以完成;尤其是以祂的逾越奧跡,即祂光榮的苦難、從死者中復活、光榮升天,來完成這工程,如此,『祂以聖死摧毀了我們的死亡,並以復活恢復了我們的生命』。事實上,基督安眠於十字架上時,從祂的肋旁湧流出整個教會這奇妙聖事」。因此,教會在禮儀中慶祝的核心是逾越奧跡;基督藉此奧跡,完成了救贖我們的工程。

1068.教會在禮儀中宣布和慶祝的就是基督的奧跡,為使信友能在世界上見証這奧跡,並依此生活:
事實上,藉著禮儀,尤其在感恩聖祭中,「我們得救的工程得以實現」,因此,禮儀最能促使信友在他們的生活中表達並昭示基督的奧跡,和真教會的純正本質。
「禮儀禮儀」」一詞何義一詞何義?

1069. 「禮儀」一詞,原意是「公共的工作」,「代表人民和為人民所做的服務」。在基督徒的傳統上,「禮儀」意指天主的子民參與 「天主的工程」。我們的救主、大司祭基督,透過禮儀,在祂的教會內,偕同教會並藉著教會,繼續救贖我們的工程。

1070. 在新約中,「禮儀」一詞不但用來表示敬神之禮的舉行,也意指福音的宣布和愛德的實踐。所有例子都顯示出禮儀與事奉天主和服務人群有關。在舉行禮儀慶典時,教會是僕人,肖似她的主 ── 唯一的「禮儀執行者」(Leiturgos),分享祂司祭(敬禮)、先知(宣布)與王者(愛德服務) 的職務:

因此,理應視禮儀為耶穌基督司祭職務的執行。在禮儀中,藉著有形可見的標記, 且按每一標記專有的方式,表示並實現人的聖化; 同時,在禮儀中,也是耶穌基督的奧體,包括元首及其肢體,實行完整的公開敬禮。所以,一切禮儀慶典,由於是基督司祭及其身體 ── 教會的工程,當然是最卓越的神聖行動,教會的任何其他行動,都不能以同樣的等級和名義跟禮儀的效能相比。

禮儀是生命的泉源

1071. 禮儀是基督的工程,也是其教會的行動。禮儀實現並顯示,教會是天主和人類經由基督而共融的有形標記。禮儀促使信友投身教會團體的新生活,並要求信友「有意識地、主動地和有實效地參與」。

1072. 「禮儀並不涵蓋教會的全部行動」:在禮儀之前,先該有福音宣講、信德和皈依,禮儀才能在信友生活中結出果實:在聖神內度新生活,承擔教會的使命,並為教會的合一服

祈禱與禮儀

1073. 禮儀又是參與基督在聖神內向天父的祈禱。所有基督徒的祈禱,都可在禮儀中找到它的泉源和終向。藉著禮儀,人的內心扎根並建基於天父在祂愛子內「愛我們的大愛」(弗 2:4)。 這是同一的「天主奇妙工程」,在任何時代,在聖神內(弗 6:18),藉著祈禱,得以活現和深入人心。

教理講授與禮儀

1074. 「禮儀是教會行動所趨向的頂峰,同時也是教會一切力量的泉源」。因此,禮儀是天主子民傳授教理最卓越的場合。「教理講授在本質上跟整個禮儀與聖事行動緊密連繫,因為基督耶穌在聖事裡,尤其在聖體聖事中,以全部的力量和行動,改造人類」。

1075. 禮儀的教理講授,目的是引導人進入基督的奧跡(mystagogy,釋奧), 從可見的到不可見的,從表示的象徵到被表示的實體,從「聖事」到「奧跡」。這樣的教理講授該是本地和區域性的教理工作。本教理書乃給整個教會應用,在其不同的禮節與文化中,展示整個教會有關禮儀的基本和共通的道理:第一部分解釋「禮儀就是奧跡,就是慶典」;第二部分 介紹七件聖事和聖儀。

PART TWO:

THE CELEBRATION OF THE CHRISTIAN MYSTERY

Why the liturgy?

1066 In the Symbol of the faith the Church confesses the mystery of the Holy Trinity and of the plan of God's "good pleasure" for all creation: the Father accomplishes the "mystery of his will" by giving his beloved Son and his Holy Spirit for the salvation of the world and for the glory of his name.1

Such is the mystery of Christ, revealed and fulfilled in history according to the wisely ordered plan that St. Paul calls the "plan of the mystery"2 and the patristic tradition will call the "economy of the Word incarnate" or the "economy of salvation."

1067 "The wonderful works of God among the people of the Old Testament were but a prelude to the work of Christ the Lord in redeeming mankind and giving perfect glory to God. He accomplished this work principally by the Paschal mystery of his blessed Passion, Resurrection from the dead, and glorious Ascension, whereby 'dying he destroyed our death, rising he restored our life.' For it was from the side of Christ as he slept the sleep of death upon the cross that there came forth 'the wondrous sacrament of the whole Church."'3

For this reason, the Church celebrates in the liturgy above all the Paschal mystery by which Christ accomplished the work of our salvation.

1068 It is this mystery of Christ that the Church proclaims and celebrates in her liturgy so that the faithful may live from it and bear witness to it in the world:

For it is in the liturgy, especially in the divine sacrifice of the Eucharist, that "the work of our redemption is accomplished," and it is through the liturgy especially that the faithful are enabled to express in their lives and manifest to others the mystery of Christ and the real nature of the true Church.4

What does the word liturgy mean?

1069 The word "liturgy" originally meant a "public work" or a "service in the name of/on behalf of the people." 
In Christian tradition it means the participation of the People of God in "the work of God."5 
Through the liturgy Christ, our redeemer and high priest, continues the work of our redemption in, with, and through his Church.

1070 In the New Testament the word "liturgy" refers not only to the celebration of divine worship but also to the proclamation of the Gospel and to active charity.6 In all of these situations it is a question of the service of God and neighbor. 
In a liturgical celebration the Church is servant in the image of her Lord, the one "leitourgos";7 she shares in Christ's priesthood (worship), which is both prophetic (proclamation) and kingly (service of charity):

The liturgy then is rightly seen as an exercise of the priestly office of Jesus Christ. 
It involves the presentation of man's sanctification under the guise of signs perceptible by the senses and its accomplishment in ways appropriate to each of these signs. 
In it full public worship is performed by the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ, that is, by the Head and his members. 
From this it follows that every liturgical celebration, because it is an action of Christ the priest and of his Body which is the Church, is a sacred action surpassing all others. 
No other action of the Church can equal its efficacy by the same title and to the same degree.8

Liturgy as source of life

1071 As the work of Christ liturgy is also an action of his Church. It makes the Church present and manifests her as the visible sign of the communion in Christ between God and men. It engages the faithful in the new life of the community and involves the "conscious, active, and fruitful participation" of everyone.9

1072 "The sacred liturgy does not exhaust the entire activity of the Church":10 it must be preceded by evangelization, faith, and conversion. It can then produce its fruits in the lives of the faithful: new life in the Spirit, involvement in the mission of the Church, and service to her unity.

Prayer and liturgy

1073 The liturgy is also a participation in Christ's own prayer addressed to the Father in the Holy Spirit. In the liturgy, all Christian prayer finds its source and goal. Through the liturgy the inner man is rooted and grounded in "the great love with which [the Father] loved us" in his beloved Son.11 It is the same "marvelous work of God" that is lived and internalized by all prayer, "at all times in the Spirit."12

Catechesis and liturgy

1074 "The liturgy is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed; it is also the font from which all her power flows."13 
It is therefore the privileged place for catechizing the People of God. 
"Catechesis is intrinsically linked with the whole of liturgical and sacramental activity, for it is in the sacraments, especially in the Eucharist, that Christ Jesus works in fullness for the transformation of men."14

1075 Liturgical catechesis aims to initiate people into the mystery of Christ (It is "mystagogy." ) by proceeding from the visible to the invisible, from the sign to the thing signified, from the "sacraments" to the "mysteries." 
Such catechesis is to be presented by local and regional catechisms. 
This Catechism, which aims to serve the whole Church in all the diversity of her rites and cultures,15 will present what is fundamental and common to the whole Church in the liturgy as mystery and as celebration, and then the seven sacraments and the sacramentals.

  
 

第一部分 聖事性救恩計劃

1076. 五旬節那天,聖神的降臨使教會呈現於世界面前。聖神的恩賜開創了「分施奧跡」的新時期:教會的時期。在這時期裡,基督藉著祂教會的禮儀,彰顯、臨現和通傳祂救恩的工程,「直到祂再來」(格前 11:26)。在這教會的時期,基督一直以適合這新時期的嶄新方式,在教會內並偕同教會生活和行動。祂藉著聖事而行動;這就是東方和西方傳統共稱的「聖事性救恩計劃」;即在教會「聖事」禮儀的慶典中,通傳(或分施) 基督逾越奧跡的果實。

因此,我們首先要闡明「聖事的分施」之意義 (第一章)。這樣,更能清楚顯示禮儀慶典的性質及其外觀的要點 (第二章)。

第一章教會時期的逾越奧跡

第一條

禮儀 ──── 天主聖三的工程


一、禮儀的根源和終向 ──── 天父

1077. 「願我們的主耶穌基督的天主和父受讚美!祂在天上,在基督內,以各種屬神的祝福,降福了我們,因為祂於創世以前,在基督內已簡選了我們,為使我們在祂面前,成為聖潔無瑕的;又由於愛,按照自己旨意的決定,預定了我們藉著耶穌基督獲得義子的名分,而歸於祂,為頌揚祂恩寵的光榮,這恩寵是祂在自己的愛子內賜予我們的」(弗 1:3-6)。

1078. 降福 (blessing)一詞,用於天主時,是指天主賦予生命的行動,而天父就是生命的根源,祂的降福既是言語也是恩賜 (bene-dictio, eu-logia,說好話);用於人類時,是表示人在感恩中向其造物主的欽崇和交付,稱為「頌揚」或「讚頌」。

1079. 從時間的開始至終結,天主的整個工程都是降福。受默感的作者,藉頌揚世界初創的禮儀詩歌,以至天上耶路撒冷的讚美詩,宣布救恩的計劃是天主一個極豐厚的降福。

1080. 自起初,天主就降福所有生物,尤其是男人和女人。雖然人的罪使大地受到「詛咒」,但天主與諾厄和所有生物所訂的盟約,卻恢復這個令大地充滿生機的降福。人類的歷史原先邁向死亡,然而,自亞巴郎開始,天主的降福卻貫穿人類的歷史,為使人類再回到生命及其根源:由於亞巴郎──「信者之父」藉信德承受了降福,救恩的歷史就開始了。

1081. 天主的降福透過一些驚人的救恩事件顯露出來: 依撒格的誕生;離開埃及(逾越和出谷);恩許賜予福地;選立達味;天主臨在聖殿裡;充軍的淨化以及「卑微的遺民」的回歸。法律書、先知書和聖詠交織出選民的禮儀,以紀念天主的降福,同時透過讚頌和感恩,回應天主的降福。

1082. 在教會的禮儀中,天主的降福圓滿地顯示出來並通傳給人:天父受到稱頌和欽崇,因為祂是創造和救恩的一切祝福的根源和終向;祂藉著那為我們降生、死亡和復活的聖言,使我們洋溢祂所賜的福澤;並藉祂(基督)在我們心中傾注那滿載一切恩賜的恩賜:聖神。

1083. 因此,我們了解基督徒禮儀的雙重幅度,就是天父無條件賜給我們「屬神的福澤」,和我們對祂作出信德和愛的回應。一方面,教會為了天父「那不可言喻的恩賜」(格後 9:15),聯合她的主,在「聖神的推動下」 (路 10:21),以欽崇、讚美和感恩來頌謝天父。另一方面,在天主的計劃圓滿地完成之前,教會將不斷向天父呈上「祂恩賜的獻禮」,懇求祂派遣聖神降臨到這些禮品上,降臨於教會、信徒以及全世界,使天主賜與的這些恩惠,藉著結合於司祭基督的死亡和復活,並藉著聖神的德能,結出生命的果實,以「頌揚祂(天父)恩寵的光榮」(弗 1:6)。

 SECTION ONE

THE SACRAMENTAL ECONOMY

1076 The Church was made manifest to the world on the day of Pentecost by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.1 The gift of the Spirit ushers in a new era in the "dispensation of the mystery" the age of the Church, during which Christ manifests, makes present, and communicates his work of salvation

through the liturgy of his Church, "until he comes."2 In this age of the Church Christ now lives and acts in and with his Church, in a new way appropriate to this new age. He acts through the sacraments in what the common Tradition of the East and the West calls "the sacramental economy"; this is the communication (or "dispensation") of the fruits of Christ's Paschal mystery in the celebration of the Church's "sacramental" liturgy.

It is therefore important first to explain this "sacramental dispensation" (chapter one). the nature and essential features of liturgical celebration will then appear more clearly (chapter two).

Article 1

THE LITURGY - WORK OF THE HOLY TRINITY

I. The Father-Source and Goal of the Liturgy

1077 "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before him. He destined us before him in love to be his sons through Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will, to the praise of his glorious grace which he freely bestowed on us in the Beloved."3

1078 Blessing is a divine and life-giving action, the source of which is the Father; his blessing is both word and gift.4 When applied to man, the word "blessing" means adoration and surrender to his Creator in thanksgiving.

1079 From the beginning until the end of time the whole of God's work is a blessing. From the liturgical poem of the first creation to the canticles of the heavenly Jerusalem, the inspired authors proclaim the plan of salvation as one vast divine blessing.

1080 From the very beginning God blessed all living beings, especially man and woman. the covenant with Noah and with all living things renewed this blessing of fruitfulness despite man's sin which had brought a curse on the ground. But with Abraham, the divine blessing entered into human history which was moving toward death, to redirect it toward life, toward its source. By the faith of "the father of all believers," who embraced the blessing, the history of salvation is inaugurated.

1081 The divine blessings were made manifest in astonishing and saving events: the birth of Isaac, the escape from Egypt (Passover and Exodus), the gift of the promised land, the election of David, the presence of God in the Temple, the purifying exile, and return of a "small remnant." the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, interwoven in the liturgy of the Chosen People, recall these divine blessings and at the same time respond to them with blessings of praise and thanksgiving.

1082 In the Church's liturgy the divine blessing is fully revealed and communicated. the Father is acknowledged and adored as the source and the end of all the blessings of creation and salvation. In his Word who became incarnate, died, and rose for us, he fills us with his blessings. Through his Word, he pours into our hearts the Gift that contains all gifts, the Holy Spirit.

1083 The dual dimension of the Christian liturgy as a response of faith and love to the spiritual blessings the Father bestows on us is thus evident. On the one hand, the Church, united with her Lord and "in the Holy Spirit,"5 blesses the Father "for his inexpressible gift6 in her adoration, praise, and thanksgiving. On the other hand, until the consummation of God's plan, the Church never ceases to present to the Father the offering of his own gifts and to beg him to send the Holy Spirit upon that offering, upon herself, upon the faithful, and upon the whole world, so that through communion in the death and resurrection of Christ the Priest, and by the power of the Spirit, these divine blessings will bring forth the fruits of life "to the praise of his glorious grace."7

 

二、禮儀中的基督工程

受光榮的基督……

1084. 基督「坐在聖父的右邊」,把聖神傾注在祂的身體──教會之內。於是,基督透過自己建立的聖事,通傳祂的恩寵。聖事是人可以感覺到的標記(言語和行動),是我們現實人性所能觸及的。聖事憑基督的行動和聖神的德能,有效地實現其標記所表達的恩寵。

1085. 基督在教會的禮儀裡主要是表明和實現祂的逾越奧跡。耶穌在世的時候,藉著祂的教導和行動,宣講和預告祂的逾越奧跡。當祂的時辰一到,祂經歷了一件在歷史中永存不朽、獨一無二的事件:祂「一次而永遠地」(羅 6:10;希 7:27; 9:12)死亡、被埋葬、從死者中復活、升天,並坐在天父的右邊。這是千真萬確的事件,在我們的歷史中發生了,至今仍是那樣無與倫比的:其他所有的歷史事件,一經發生,隨即消逝,淹沒在過去的歲月裡。但是,基督的逾越奧跡不會停留在過去的歷史中,因為祂已藉著自己的死亡摧毀了死亡,於是,基督本身的一切──祂為全人類所做和所受的苦──都分享了天主的永恆,超越萬世,臨現人間。十字架和復活的事件長存不朽,並吸引眾人歸向生命。

……從宗徒的教會起……

1086. 「猶如基督為父所派遣, 同樣祂又派遣了宗徒們,使他們充滿聖神,不僅要他們向一切受造物宣講福音, 宣布天主聖子以其死亡與復活,從撒旦權下, 並從死亡中,把我們解救出來,移置在天父的國內;並且要他們以全部禮儀生活的核心 ── 祭獻與聖事,來實現他們所宣講的救世工程」。

1087. 因此,復活的基督賜給宗徒們聖神,把祂的聖化權能賦予他們:他們成為基督的聖事標記。藉同一聖神的德能,他們把這權能授予他們的繼承人。這「宗徒繼承」建構教會的整個禮儀生活;宗徒繼承本身是聖事性的,通過聖秩聖事得以傳遞。

……臨在世上的禮儀中……

1088. 「為完成此大業」──分施或通傳祂的救恩工程,「基督常與祂的教會同在,尤其臨在於禮儀行動中。如此,祂臨在彌撒聖祭中,臨在司祭身上,『祂曾在十字架上永遠地奉獻了自己,而今祂仍藉著司祭的職務親作奉獻』;而祂在感恩祭餅酒形下的臨在,更達至極點。祂又以其德能臨在聖事內,因而無論是誰付洗,實為基督親自付洗。祂臨在自己的言語中,因而在教會內恭讀聖經,實為基督親自發言。最後,教會祈禱及歌頌時,祂也臨在其間,正如祂所許諾的:『哪裡有兩個或三個人,因我的名字聚在一起,我就在他們中間』(瑪 18:20)」。

1089. 「基督為完成光榮天主和聖化人類的偉大工程,無時不與教會結合,因為教會是基督至愛的淨配,呼喚祂為自己的主,並通過祂向永生之父呈奉敬禮」。

……參與天上的禮儀

1090. 「在人間的禮儀中,我們預嘗並參與那在天上聖城耶路撒冷所舉行的禮儀,我們以朝聖者的身分向那裡邁進,那裡有基督坐於天主的右邊,作為聖所及真會幕的臣僕;我們偕同天朝全體軍旅,向上主歡唱光榮的讚歌;我們尊敬並紀念所有聖人,希望加入他們的行列;我們也期待我們的救主耶穌基督 ── 我們的生命出現,那時,我們將同祂一起出現在光榮之中」。

 II. Christ's Work in the Liturgy

Christ glorified . . .

1084 "Seated at the right hand of the Father" and pouring out the Holy Spirit on his Body which is the Church, Christ now acts through the sacraments he instituted to communicate his grace. the sacraments are perceptible signs (words and actions) accessible to our human nature. By the action of Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit they make present efficaciously the grace that they signify.

1085 In the liturgy of the Church, it is principally his own Paschal mystery that Christ signifies and makes present. During his earthly life Jesus announced his Paschal mystery by his teaching and anticipated it by his actions. When his Hour comes, he lives out the unique event of history which does not pass away: Jesus dies, is buried, rises from the dead, and is seated at the right hand of the Father "once for all."8 His Paschal mystery is a real event that occurred in our history, but it is unique: all other historical events happen once, and then they pass away, swallowed up in the past. the Paschal mystery of Christ, by contrast, cannot remain only in the past, because by his death he destroyed death, and all that Christ is - all that he did and suffered for all men - participates in the divine eternity, and so transcends all times while being made present in them all. the event of the Cross and Resurrection abides and draws everything toward life.

. . . from the time of the Church of the Apostles . . .

1086 "Accordingly, just as Christ was sent by the Father so also he sent the apostles, filled with the Holy Spirit. This he did so that they might preach the Gospel to every creature and proclaim that the Son of God by his death and resurrection had freed us from the power of Satan and from death and brought us into the Kingdom of his Father. But he also willed that the work of salvation which they preached should be set in train through the sacrifice and sacraments, around which the entire liturgical life revolves."9

1087 Thus the risen Christ, by giving the Holy Spirit to the apostles, entrusted to them his power of sanctifying:10 they became sacramental signs of Christ. By the power of the same Holy Spirit they entrusted this power to their successors. This

"apostolic succession" structures the whole liturgical life of the Church and is itself sacramental, handed on by the sacrament of Holy Orders.

. . . is present in the earthly liturgy . . .

1088 "To accomplish so great a work" - the dispensation or communication of his work of salvation - "Christ is always present in his Church, especially in her liturgical celebrations. He is present in the Sacrifice of the Mass not only in the person of his minister, 'the same now offering, through the ministry of priests, who formerly offered himself on the cross,' but especially in the Eucharistic species. By his power he is present in the sacraments so that when anybody baptizes, it is really Christ himself who baptizes. He is present in his word since it is he himself who speaks when the holy Scriptures are read in the Church. Lastly, he is present when the Church prays and sings, for he has promised 'where two or three are gathered together in my name there am I in the midst of them."'11

1089 "Christ, indeed, always associates the Church with himself in this great work in which God is perfectly glorified and men are sanctified. the Church is his beloved Bride who calls to her Lord and through him offers worship to the eternal Father."12

. . . which participates in the liturgy of heaven

1090 "In the earthly liturgy we share in a foretaste of that heavenly liturgy which is celebrated in the Holy City of Jerusalem toward which we journey as pilgrims, where Christ is sitting at the right hand of God, Minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle. With all the warriors of the heavenly army we sing a hymn of glory to the Lord; venerating the memory of the saints, we hope for some part and fellowship with them; we eagerly await the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, until he, our life, shall appear and we too will appear with him in glory."13

 

三、禮儀中的聖神和教會

1091. 在禮儀中,聖神是天主子民信德的導師,「天主的傑作」── 新約聖事 ── 的工匠。聖神在教會中的願望和行動,就是使我們活出復活基督的生命。聖神激勵我們作出信德的回應,當祂在我們身上遇到這信德的回應時,便會實現一種真實的天人合作。藉此,禮儀成為聖神和教會的共同行動。

1092. 聖神在透過聖事分施基督奧跡時,猶如在救恩史的其他時期一樣,以同樣的方式行動:祂準備教會與主相遇;祂使會眾以信德紀念基督,並把基督彰顯給他們;祂以其轉化的德能,使基督的奧跡臨在並實現;最後,共融的聖神把教會與基督的生命和使命結合為一。

聖神準備教會接納基督

1093. 聖神在聖事的救恩計劃中完成舊約的預象。既然「在以色列民族的歷史和舊約中,已經奇妙地妥善準備了」基督的教會那麼,教會的禮儀保存了舊約中的一些敬禮的要素,作為其完整和不可取代的部分:

──主要是宣讀舊約;
──以聖詠祈禱;

── 特別是紀念一些救恩事件及預象,這些事件和預象已在基督奧跡中得以圓滿實現(許諾與盟約、出谷與逾越、王國與聖殿、充軍與還鄉)。

1094. 有關主的逾越教理講授是依據這個新舊約的彼此協調而建構的,其後的宗徒和教父也依據此講授教理。這教理講授揭露了一直隱藏在舊約文字之下的基督奧跡。它被稱為預象法 (typological)的教理講授,因為它以預象 (figures, types)作出發點, 顯示基督的「新」。這些預象以第一個盟約的事實、言語和象徵,宣告了基督。在真理之神指導下,以基督為起點,回頭再讀舊約,這些預象的真貌就得到揭曉。正如洪水和諾厄方舟預示藉聖洗帶來的救恩,雲柱、過紅海亦然;擊石出水是預示基督的屬神恩賜 5;同樣,在曠野降下的瑪納則預示聖體聖事 ──「天上來的真正食糧」(若 6:32)。

1095. 因此,教會「今日」在她的禮儀中,尤其在將臨期、四旬期以及最隆重的逾越節之夜,重讀和重活這些救恩史中的偉大事跡。但這要求教理講授幫助信友開放自己,好能「心領神會」救恩計劃,按照教會禮儀所展示的並要我們把它活出來的那樣。

1096. 猶太禮儀與基督徒禮儀猶太禮儀與基督徒禮儀。如果我們對猶太人至今仍宣認和實踐的信仰和宗教生活,有較深刻的認識,當有助於更深入了解基督徒禮儀的某些層面。對猶太人和基督徒來說 聖經是禮儀中不可或缺的部分: 宣讀天主的聖言,回應聖言,讚頌祈禱和為生者死者代禱,懇求天主的憐憫。聖道禮儀專有的結構,乃源自猶太人的祈禱。時辰頌禱禮以及其他禮儀禱詞和經文,都與猶太人的祈禱文有相似之處,甚至最受我們敬重的祈禱文,包括「我們的天父」(主禱文),也是如此。同樣,感恩經也受到猶太傳統模式啟發。猶太禮儀和基督徒禮儀的相互關係,以及內容上的差異,尤見於禮儀年中的大慶節,如逾越節。基督徒和猶太人都慶祝逾越節:猶太人所慶祝的,是歷史上的逾越節,這為他們來說,仍要朝向未來邁進的;為基督徒來說,這逾越節已在基督的死亡和復活中完成了,但仍在不斷期待著它最終的圓滿。

1097. 在新約的禮儀中, 所有的禮儀行動,尤其是感恩祭和聖事慶典,都是基督與教會的相遇。舉行禮儀慶典的會眾在「聖神的共融」中得以團結合一,因為聖神把天主的子女團聚在獨一無二的基督奧體內。禮儀超越人類親屬、種族、文化以及社會的關係。

1098. 會眾應當準備自己與主相遇,成為「準備妥善的子民」。這種心靈上的準備,是聖神與會眾,尤其與主禮者之間的共同行動。聖神的恩寵是要振興人的信德、心靈的皈依,以及對天父旨意的順從。這些準備都是先決條件,為能接受禮儀慶典本身所帶來的其他恩寵,以及禮儀慶典所預定以後產生之新「生命」的效果。

聖神使會眾紀念基督的奧跡

1099. 聖神和教會在禮儀中共同行動,以顯示基督和祂的救恩工程。禮儀是救恩奧跡的紀念,主要在感恩祭中,並以類似的方式存在於其他聖事中。聖神是教會活潑生動的「記憶力」。

1100.天主聖言。聖神賦以所宣布的聖言生命,首先是使參與禮儀的會眾,「紀念」救恩事件的意義。

在舉行禮儀時,聖經是極其重要的。因為所宣讀並藉講道所解釋的經文,以及誦唱的聖詠,都是從聖經而來; 經文、祈禱和禮儀詩歌,也是由聖經所啟發和潛移默化而來;還有動作與象徵,都是從聖經中取得意義。

1101. 聖神依照宣讀者和聆聽者的心靈準備,恩賜他們心領神會天主聖言。聖神透過那些構成禮儀慶典的言語、行動和象徵, 使信友和主禮者與基督 ──天父的聖言和肖象──建立活生生的關係,為使他們能把在慶典中所聆聽、默觀和所做的一切,在自己的生活裡實踐。

1102. 「救世的聖言,滋養基督徒心中的信德; 信德,使基督徒團體誕生並成長」。 宣讀天主聖言並不止於教導,它邀請人作出信德的回應,就是首肯與獻身,好能進入天主與祂子民的盟約。再者,聖神賦予團體信德的恩寵,並使之堅強和成長。參與禮儀的會眾,首先是在信德中的共融。

1103. 紀念 (Anamnesis)。禮儀慶典常常涉及天主在歷史中救恩性的干預。「這啟示的計劃,藉彼此內在緊密聯繫的行動和言語形成……。言語則宣布工程,並闡明其中所含的奧跡」。在舉行聖道禮儀時,聖神使會眾「想起」基督為我們所做的一切。按照禮儀行動的本質以及各教會的禮儀傳統,每次舉行禮儀慶典都會透過長短不同的「紀念禱詞」(Anamnesis),來「紀念」天主的奇妙化工。 聖神就這樣喚醒教會的記憶,從而激發感恩和讚頌(「光榮頌」Doxology)。

聖神實現基督奧跡

1104. 基督徒禮儀不但紀念所有拯救我們的事件,並且把它們實現和臨現於此時此地。我們慶祝基督的逾越奧跡,不是重複這奧跡,重複的是慶典。聖神傾注在每個慶典中,實現這獨一無二的奧跡。

1105. 呼求聖神禱詞 (Epiclesis):司鐸藉此禱詞呼求聖父派遣聖化者聖神,使奉獻的禮品成為基督的體血,並使領受基督體血的信徒,自身也成為獻給天主的活祭品。

1106.「呼求聖神禱詞」連同「紀念禱詞」,是每次舉行聖事慶典,尤其是感恩祭的中心:

聖若望•達瑪森,《論正統信仰》:你會問:麪餅如何成為基督的身體,而酒又如何成為基督的寶血呢?那麼,我對你說:是聖神介入並完成這事件,這是超越一切言語和思想的。……你只要明白這是聖神的工程就夠了,正如主曾藉聖神,經由祂並在祂內,從童貞聖母那裡,取得了肉軀一樣。

1107. 在禮儀中,聖神轉化的德能促進天國的來臨和救恩奧跡的圓滿完成。在等待及希望之中,聖神使我們確實預嘗到天主聖三的圓滿共融。天父應允教會呼求聖神的祈禱而派遣聖神;聖神把生命賦予所有接納祂的人,並從現在起,為他們立下獲得嗣業的「保証」。

聖神的共融

1108. 聖神在所有禮儀行動中的使命,就是使團體與基督合而為一,以形成祂的身體。聖神好比天父的葡萄樹的汁液,使枝條結出果實。聖神與教會之間的密切合作,在禮儀中確實地實現。祂──共融之神──圓滿無缺地居住在教會之內。因此,教會是與天主共融的偉大聖事,把分散各地的天主子女重新團聚一起。聖神在禮儀中所結出的果實,就是與天主聖三的共融,和信友之間的弟兄共融,二者密不可分。

1109. 「呼求聖神禱詞」,也是祈求天主使會眾與基督奧跡的共融達到圓滿的效果。「主耶穌基督的恩寵,和天主的慈愛,以及聖神的共融」(格後 13:13)應常常存留在我們當中,並且在感恩祭以外結果實。因此,教會祈求聖父派遣聖神,使信徒藉著靈性上的轉化,肖似基督,藉著促進教會的合一,並透過見証及愛德服務分擔教會的使命,如此以生活作為獻給天主的活祭品。

 

 III. The Holy Spirit and the Church in the Liturgy

1091 In the liturgy the Holy Spirit is teacher of the faith of the People of God and artisan of "God's masterpieces," the sacraments of the New Covenant. the desire and work of the Spirit in the heart of the Church is that we may live from the life of the risen Christ. When the Spirit encounters in us the response of faith which he has aroused in us, he brings about genuine cooperation. Through it, the liturgy becomes the common work of the Holy Spirit and the Church.

1092 In this sacramental dispensation of Christ's mystery the Holy Spirit acts in the same way as at other times in the economy of salvation: he prepares the Church to encounter her Lord; he recalls and makes Christ manifest to the faith of the assembly. By his transforming power, he makes the mystery of Christ present here and now. Finally the Spirit of communion unites the Church to the life and mission of Christ. 
The Holy Spirit prepares for the reception of Christ

1093 In the sacramental economy the Holy Spirit fulfills what was prefigured in the Old Covenant. Since Christ's Church was "prepared in marvellous fashion in the history of the people of Israel and in the Old Covenant,"14 The Church's liturgy has retained certain elements of the worship of the Old Covenant as integral and irreplaceable, adopting them as her own: 
-notably, reading the Old Testament; 
-praying the Psalms; 
-above all, recalling the saving events and significant realities which have found their fulfillment in the mystery of Christ (promise and covenant, Exodus and Passover, kingdom and temple, exile and return).

1094 It is on this harmony of the two Testaments that the Paschal catechesis of the Lord is built,15 and then, that of the Apostles and the Fathers of the Church. This catechesis unveils what lay hidden under the letter of the Old Testament: the mystery of Christ. It is called "typological" because it reveals the newness of Christ on the basis of the "figures" (types) which announce him in the deeds, words, and symbols of the first covenant. By this re-reading in the Spirit of Truth, starting from Christ, the figures are unveiled.16 Thus the flood and Noah's ark prefigured salvation by Baptism,17 as did the cloud and the crossing of the Red Sea. Water from the rock was the figure of the spiritual gifts of Christ, and manna in the desert prefigured the Eucharist, "the true bread from heaven."18

1095 For this reason the Church, especially during Advent and Lent and above all at the Easter Vigil, re-reads and re-lives the great events of salvation history in the "today" of her liturgy. But this also demands that catechesis help the faithful to open themselves to this spiritual understanding of the economy of salvation as the Church's liturgy reveals it and enables us to live it.

1096 Jewish liturgy and Christian liturgy. A better knowledge of the Jewish people's faith and religious life as professed and lived even now can help our better understanding of certain aspects of Christian liturgy. For both Jews and Christians Sacred Scripture is an essential part of their respective liturgies: in the proclamation of the Word of God, the response to this word, prayer of praise and intercession for the living and the dead, invocation of God's mercy. In its characteristic structure the Liturgy of the Word originates in Jewish prayer. the Liturgy of the Hours and other liturgical texts and formularies, as well as those of our most venerable prayers, including the Lord's Prayer, have parallels in Jewish prayer. the Eucharistic Prayers also draw their inspiration from the Jewish tradition. the relationship between Jewish liturgy and Christian liturgy, but also their differences in content, are particularly evident in the great feasts of the liturgical year, such as Passover. Christians and Jews both celebrate the Passover. For Jews, it is the Passover of history, tending toward the future; for Christians, it is the Passover fulfilled in the death and Resurrection of Christ, though always in expectation of its definitive consummation.

1097 In the liturgy of the New Covenant every liturgical action, especially the celebration of the Eucharist and the sacraments, is an encounter between Christ and the Church. the liturgical assembly derives its unity from the "communion of the Holy Spirit" who gathers the children of God into the one Body of Christ. This assembly transcends racial, cultural, social - indeed, all human affinities.

1098 The assembly should prepare itself to encounter its Lord and to become "a people well disposed." the preparation of hearts is the joint work of the Holy Spirit and the assembly, especially of its ministers. the grace of the Holy Spirit seeks to awaken faith, conversion of heart, and adherence to the Father's will. These dispositions are the precondition both for the reception of other graces conferred in the celebration itself and the fruits of new life which the celebration is intended to produce afterward.

The Holy Spirit recalls the mystery of Christ

1099 The Spirit and the Church cooperate to manifest Christ and his work of salvation in the liturgy. Primarily in the Eucharist, and by analogy in the other sacraments, the liturgy is the memorial of the mystery of salvation. the Holy Spirit is the Church's living memory.19

1100 The Word of God. the Holy Spirit first recalls the meaning of the salvation event to the liturgical assembly by giving life to the Word of God, which is proclaimed so that it may be received and lived:

In the celebration of the liturgy, Sacred Scripture is extremely important. From it come the lessons that are read and explained in the homily and the psalms that are sung. It is from the Scriptures that the prayers, collects, and hymns draw their inspiration and their force, and that actions and signs derive their meaning.20

1101 The Holy Spirit gives a spiritual understanding of the Word of God to those who read or hear it, according to the dispositions of their hearts. By means of the words, actions, and symbols that form the structure of a celebration, the Spirit puts both the faithful and the ministers into a living relationship with Christ, the Word and Image of the Father, so that they can live out the meaning of what they hear, contemplate, and do in the celebration.

1102 "By the saving word of God, faith . . . is nourished in the hearts of believers. By this faith then the congregation of the faithful begins and grows."21 The proclamation does not stop with a teaching; it elicits the response of faith as consent and commitment, directed at the covenant between God and his people. Once again it is the Holy Spirit who gives the grace of faith, strengthens it and makes it grow in the community. the liturgical assembly is first of all a communion in faith.

1103 Anamnesis. the liturgical celebration always refers to God's saving interventions in history. "The economy of Revelation is realized by deeds and words which are intrinsically bound up with each other.... (The) words for their part proclaim the works and bring to light the mystery they contain."22 In the Liturgy of the Word the Holy Spirit "recalls" to the assembly all that Christ has done for us. In keeping with the nature of liturgical actions and the ritual traditions of the churches, the celebration "makes a remembrance" of the marvelous works of God in an anamnesis which may be more or less developed. the Holy Spirit who thus awakens the memory of the Church then inspires thanksgiving and praise (doxology).

The Holy Spirit makes present the mystery of Christ

1104 Christian liturgy not only recalls the events that saved us but actualizes them, makes them present. the Paschal mystery of Christ is celebrated, not repeated. It is the celebrations that are repeated, and in each celebration there is an outpouring of the Holy Spirit that makes the unique mystery present.

1105 The Epiclesis ("invocation upon") is the intercession in which the priest begs the Father to send the Holy Spirit, the Sanctifier, so that the offerings may become the body and blood of Christ and that the faithful by receiving them, may themselves become a living offering to God.23

1106 Together with the anamnesis, the epiclesis is at the heart of each sacramental celebration, most especially of the Eucharist:

You ask how the bread becomes the Body of Christ, and the wine . . . the Blood of Christ I shall tell you: the Holy Spirit comes upon them and accomplishes what surpasses every word and thought . . . Let it be enough for you to understand that it is by the Holy Spirit, just as it was of the Holy Virgin and by the Holy Spirit that the Lord, through and in himself, took flesh.24

1107 The Holy Spirit's transforming power in the liturgy hastens the coming of the kingdom and the consummation of the mystery of salvation. While we wait in hope he causes us really to anticipate the fullness of communion with the Holy Trinity. Sent by the Father who hears the epiclesis of the Church, the Spirit gives life to those who accept him and is, even now, the "guarantee" of their inheritance.25

The communion of the Holy Spirit

1108 In every liturgical action the Holy Spirit is sent in order to bring us into communion with Christ and so to form his Body. the Holy Spirit is like the sap of the Father's vine which bears fruit on its branches.26 The most intimate cooperation of the Holy Spirit and the Church is achieved in the liturgy. the Spirit who is the Spirit of communion, abides indefectibly in the Church. For this reason the Church is the great sacrament of divine communion which gathers God's scattered children together. Communion with the Holy Trinity and fraternal communion are inseparably the fruit of the Spirit in the liturgy.27

1109 The epiclesis is also a prayer for the full effect of the assembly's communion with the mystery of Christ. "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit"28have to remain with us always and bear fruit beyond the Eucharistic celebration. the Church therefore asks the Father to send the Holy Spirit to make the lives of the faithful a living sacrifice to God by their spiritual transformation into the image of Christ, by concern for the Church's unity, and by taking part in her mission through the witness and service of charity.

 撮要

1110. 在教會的禮儀中,天主聖父受到讚頌和欽崇,因為祂是一切創造和救恩祝福的根源。祂在愛子內降福我們,賜給我們聖神,好使我們成為祂的義子。

1111. 基督在禮儀中的行動是聖事性的,因為祂救恩的奧跡藉著聖神的德能,臨現在禮儀中;又因為祂的身體,亦即教會,如同聖事(標記和工具)一樣,聖神在她內分施救恩的奧跡;且因為旅途中的教會通過其禮儀行動,已在此世以預嘗的方式參與天上的禮儀。

1112. 聖神在教會禮儀中的使命,就是準備會眾與基督相遇;使會眾以信德紀念基督,並把基督彰顯給他們;使基督的救世工程,藉著轉化的德能臨在和實現;並使此共融之恩,在教會內結出美果。

 

 IN BRIEF

1110 In the liturgy of the Church, God the Father is blessed and adored as the source of all the blessings of creation and salvation with which he has blessed us in his Son, in order to give us the Spirit of filial adoption.

1111 Christ's work in the liturgy is sacramental: because his mystery of salvation is made present there by the power of his Holy Spirit; because his Body, which is the Church, is like a sacrament (sign and instrument) in which the Holy Spirit dispenses the mystery of salvation; and because through her liturgical actions the pilgrim Church already participates, as by a foretaste, in the heavenly liturgy.

1112 The mission of the Holy Spirit in the liturgy of the Church is to prepare the assembly to encounter Christ; to recall and manifest Christ to the faith of the assembly; to make the saving work of Christ present and active by his transforming power; and to make the gift of communion bear fruit in the Church.

 第二條

教會聖事中的逾越奧跡

 

1113. 教會的整個禮儀生活以感恩祭和聖事為核心。在教會內有七件聖事:聖洗、堅振(或傅油)、感恩(聖體)、懺悔、病人傅油、聖秩及婚姻。本節將從信理的角度說明教會七件聖事的共同點。至於有關舉行聖事慶典的共同要素,將在下一章說明。每件聖事的獨特之處,則在第二部分闡明。

一、基督的聖事

1114.我們「依從聖經的訓導,宗徒的傳統以及……教父們一致的想法」,宣認「新約的聖事,皆是我們的主耶穌基督建立的」。

1115. 不論是耶穌在世的隱居生活或公開傳教,祂的所言所行都具有救援的力量,因為它們已提前了祂逾越奧跡的力量。這些言行宣告並準備,祂在完成一切時所要賜給教會的救援。基督生平的每個奧跡,皆構成基督現在藉著祂教會的僕人,在聖事中所分施的一切的基礎,因為「在我們救主身上有形可見的一切,都已通傳到祂的奧跡中」。

1116. 是從基督一直活著及賦予生命的身體上「湧流出來的力量」,也是聖神在基督奧體──教會──內的行動;聖事確是天主在新而永久的盟約中的「傑作」。

 Article 2

THE PASCHAL MYSTERY IN THE CHURCH'S SACRAMENTS

1113 The whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments.29 There are seven sacraments in the Church: Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.30 This article will discuss what is common to the Church's seven sacraments from a doctrinal point of view. What is common to them in terms of their celebration will be presented in the second chapter, and what is distinctive about each will be the topic of the Section Two.

I. The Sacraments of Christ

1114 "Adhering to the teaching of the Holy Scriptures, to the apostolic traditions, and to the consensus . . . of the Fathers," we profess that "the sacraments of the new law were . . . all instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord."31

1115 Jesus' words and actions during his hidden life and public ministry were already salvific, for they anticipated the power of his Paschal mystery. They announced and prepared what he was going to give the Church when all was accomplished. the mysteries of Christ's life are the foundations of what he would henceforth dispense in the sacraments, through the ministers of his Church, for "what was visible in our Savior has passed over into his mysteries."32

1116 Sacraments are "powers that comes forth" from the Body of Christ,33 which is ever-living and life-giving. They are actions of the Holy Spirit at work in his Body, the Church. They are "the masterworks of God" in the new and everlasting covenant.

 

二、教會的聖事

1117. 聖神引導教會「進入一切真理」(若 16:13),因而教會作為天主奧跡的忠信管家,漸漸認出這個從基督所接受的寶藏,並確知如何「分施」,此寶藏就如教會準確地認出聖經的正典和信理一樣。如此,教會經過不同世代,在她眾多的禮儀慶典中,辨認出七個禮儀行動,按專有的神學名詞來說,它們就是主所建立的聖事。

1118. 聖事是「教會的」,有雙重意義:聖事是「憑教會」和「為教會」而存在的。聖事「憑教會」而存在,是因為教會本身是基督行動的聖事,亦即基督藉著派遣聖神在教會內行動。 聖事「為教會」而存在,是因為它們是「構成教會的聖事」;又因為聖事, 尤其感恩(聖體)聖事,把與天主共融的奧跡,就是把本身是「愛」、也是「三位一體」之天主的共融奧跡,顯示並通傳給人類。

1119. 由於教會聯同元首基督形成「一個獨一無二的奧妙位格」因此教會是作為一個「有機組織的司祭團體」在聖事中行動:通過聖洗和堅振,信友成為司祭的子民,有資格舉行禮儀;另一方面,「有些信友經由聖秩聖事的祝聖,因基督的名義,以天主的聖言和恩寵,牧養教會」。

1120. 晉秩職務 (ordained ministry),或稱「公務司祭職」, 是為聖洗的司祭職服務。公務司祭職保証在聖事中,是基督親自藉著聖神,為教會而行動。天父將救世的使命交託給祂降生成人的聖子,再由聖子將之交託給宗徒們,宗徒們又交託給其繼承人;他們領受耶穌的聖神,為了因祂的名義和身分而行動。因此,聖職人員是聖事性的連繫,使禮儀行動與宗徒們的言行連接起來,並通過宗徒與基督的言行連接起來:基督是聖事的根源和基礎。

1121. 聖洗、堅振和聖秩三件聖事,除了賦予聖事恩寵外,還賦予聖事的神印或「印號」,信友藉此分受基督的司祭職,並按照不同的身分與任務,成為教會的一分子。這令人肖似基督和教會的印號,由聖神所實現,是永不會磨滅的;這印號時常存留在信友內,成為他們領受恩寵的積極準備;它又是天主照顧的許諾和保証,且是欽崇天主和服務教會的召叫。為此,這三件聖事是不可重複領受的。

 II. The Sacraments of the Church

1117 As she has done for the canon of Sacred Scripture and for the doctrine of the faith, the Church, by the power of the Spirit who guides her "into all truth," has gradually recognized this treasure received from Christ and, as the faithful steward of God's mysteries, has determined its "dispensation."34 Thus the Church has discerned over the centuries that among liturgical celebrations there are seven that are, in the strict sense of the term, sacraments instituted by the Lord.

1118 The sacraments are "of the Church" in the double sense that they are "by her" and "for her." They are "by the Church," for she is the sacrament of Christ's action at work in her through the mission of the Holy Spirit. They are "for the Church" in the sense that "the sacraments make the Church,"35 since they manifest and communicate to men, above all in the Eucharist, the mystery of communion with the God who is love, One in three persons.

1119 Forming "as it were, one mystical person" with Christ the head, the Church acts in the sacraments as "an organically structured priestly community."36 Through Baptism and Confirmation the pRiestly people is enabled to celebrate the liturgy, while those of the faithful "who have received Holy Orders, are appointed to nourish the Church with the word and grace of God in the name of Christ."37

1120 The ordained ministry or ministerial priesthood is at the service of the baptismal priesthood.38 The ordained priesthood guarantees that it really is Christ who acts in the sacraments through the Holy Spirit for the Church. the saving mission entrusted by the Father to his incarnate Son was committed to the apostles and through them to their successors: they receive the Spirit of Jesus to act in his name and in his person.39 The ordained minister is the sacramental bond that ties the liturgical action to what the apostles said and did and, through them, to the words and actions of Christ, the source and foundation of the sacraments.

1121 The three sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders confer, in addition to grace, a sacramental character or "seal" by which the Christian shares in Christ's priesthood and is made a member of the Church according to different states and functions. This configuration to Christ and to the Church, brought about by the Spirit, is indelible,40 it remains for ever in the Christian as a positive disposition for grace, a promise and guarantee of divine protection, and as a vocation to divine worship and to the service of the Church. Therefore these sacraments can never be repeated.

 

三、信德的聖事

1122. 基督派遣了祂的宗徒,是要他們「因祂的名,向萬邦宣講悔改,以得罪之赦」(路 24:47)。「你們要去使萬民成為門徒,因父及子及聖神之名給他們授洗」(瑪 28:19)。付洗的使命及行聖事的使命,已蘊含在宣講福音的使命中,因為聖事須先以天主聖言和信德作準備;而信德就是對天主聖言的順服:

天主的子民,首先是藉生活的天主的聖言集合起來……,宣講聖言,為施行聖事是不可缺少的,因為聖事是信德的聖事,而信德是由聖言產生並滋養的。

1123. 聖事的目的是為聖化人類、建設基督的身體,最後也是為向天主呈奉敬禮;但聖事也是記號,有訓導的效用。聖事不僅預設已有信德,而且藉言語、物品來滋養、加強並表達信德,所以稱為信德的聖事。

1124. 教會的信德先於信友的信德;信友是應邀來加入教會的。當教會舉行聖事慶典時,就是宣認受自宗徒的信仰。因此有一句古老的格言說:「祈禱律就是信仰律」(lex orandi, lex credendi),或依照第五世紀普洛斯柏‧ 阿基桂丹的說法:「祈禱律制定信仰律」(legem credendilex statuat supplicandi);祈禱之律就是信仰之律,教會怎樣祈禱就怎樣相信。所以,禮儀是神聖的和活生生的聖傳之構成因素。

1125. 為此,任何聖事的儀式不可由施行人(minister)或團體按自己的喜好而改變或操縱;甚至教會的最高權力亦不得任意更改禮儀;只有在服從信仰並虔敬地尊重禮儀奧跡的情況中,始可作某些改變。

1126.此外,既然聖事表達和發展教會內信仰的共融,那麼,祈禱律 (lex orandi)就是為尋求恢復基督徒合一而作交談的一個必要準則。


 III. The Sacraments of Faith

1122 Christ sent his apostles so that "repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name to all nations."41 "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit."42 The mission to baptize, and so the sacramental mission, is implied in the mission to evangelize, because the sacrament is prepared for by the word of God and by the faith which is assent to this word:

The People of God is formed into one in the first place by the Word of the living God.... the preaching of the Word is required for the sacramental ministry itself, since the sacraments are sacraments of faith, drawing their origin and nourishment from the Word.43

1123 "The purpose of the sacraments is to sanctify men, to build up the Body of Christ and, finally, to give worship to God. Because they are signs they also instruct. They not only presuppose faith, but by words and objects they also nourish, strengthen, and express it. That is why they are called 'sacraments of faith."'44

1124 The Church's faith precedes the faith of the believer who is invited to adhere to it. When the Church celebrates the sacraments, she confesses the faith received from the apostles - whence the ancient saying: lex orandi, lex credendi (or: legem credendi lex statuat supplicandi according to Prosper of Aquitaine [5th cent.]).45 The law of prayer is the law of faith: the Church believes as she prays. Liturgy is a constitutive element of the holy and living Tradition.46

1125 For this reason no sacramental rite may be modified or manipulated at the will of the minister or the community. Even the supreme authority in the Church may not change the liturgy arbitrarily, but only in the obedience of faith and with religious respect for the mystery of the liturgy.

1126 Likewise, since the sacraments express and develop the communion of faith in the Church, the lex orandi is one of the essential criteria of the dialogue that seeks to restore the unity of Christians.47

 

四、救恩的聖事

1127. 在信德中相稱地舉行的聖事慶典,賦予聖事所表徵的恩寵聖事是有效的,因為基督在聖事中親自行動:是祂在付洗,是祂在聖事中行動,通傳聖事所表徵的恩寵。天父常聆聽祂聖子的教會的祈禱,教會在每件聖事的呼求聖神禱詞中, 表達她對聖神德能的信德。就如火會使接觸到的一切化為火焰,聖神也使順服於祂德能之下的一切,轉化為天主的生命。

1128. 這就是教會所肯定的意義:聖事因其本身而見效,事效性 (ex opere operato:依字面解釋,指由於行動已完成的事實),就是說,基於基督一次而永遠完成的救援工程而產生效果。由此可知,聖事「並非由於施行人或領受人的義德,而是由於天主的德能所實現」。當一件聖事慶典是按照教會的意向而舉行時,基督和祂聖神的德能在聖事中、透過聖事而行動,無需依靠施行人的個人聖德。可是,聖事的效果仍要視乎領受聖事者的準備情況。

1129. 對信者來說, 教會明確地指出, 新約的聖事為救恩是必需的。「聖事的恩寵」是由基督賦予的聖神的恩寵,且每件聖事有其專有恩寵。聖神治癒和轉化領受聖事者,使他們肖似天主子。聖事生活的果實,就是那使人成為嗣子的聖神,把信友與唯一聖子、救主活潑地結合為一,並使他們分享天主的生命。

五、永生的聖事

1130. 教會慶祝主的奧跡,直到「主再來」和「天主成為萬物中之萬有」的時日(格前 11:26; 15:28)。自宗徒時代起,禮儀就以聖神在教會內的嘆息說:「主,,請快來!」(Marana tha!格前 16:22)而邁向其終結。因此,聖事分享了耶穌的意願:「我渴望而又渴望,同你們吃逾越節晚餐,……非等到它在天主的國裡成全了,我絕不再吃」(路 22:15-16)。在基督的聖事中,教會已領受了她嗣業的保証,已經在分享永遠的生命,儘管仍在「期待所希望的幸福,和我們偉大的天主及救主耶穌基督光榮的顯現」(鐸 2:13)。「聖神和『新娘』都說:『主耶穌!來罷……來罷。』」(默 22:17,20)。

聖多瑪斯將聖事標記的不同幅度綜合如下:「聖事是紀念性的標記,紀念過往,亦即基督的苦難;是指示性的標記,指出基督苦難在我們身上產生的效果,就是恩寵;是預示性的標記,因為它預先宣告即將來臨的榮耀」。

 IV. The Sacraments of Salvation

1127 Celebrated worthily in faith, the sacraments confer the grace that they signify.48 They are efficacious because in them Christ himself is at work: it is he who baptizes, he who acts in his sacraments in order to communicate the grace that each sacrament signifies. the Father always hears the prayer of his Son's Church which, in the epiclesis of each sacrament, expresses her faith in the power of the Spirit. As fire transforms into itself everything it touches, so the Holy Spirit transforms into the divine life whatever is subjected to his power.

1128 This is the meaning of the Church's affirmation49 that the sacraments act ex opere operato (literally: "by the very fact of the action's being performed"), i.e., by virtue of the saving work of Christ, accomplished once for all. It follows that "the sacrament is not wrought by the righteousness of either the celebrant or the recipient, but by the power of God."50 From the moment that a sacrament is celebrated in accordance with the intention of the Church, the power of Christ and his Spirit acts in and through it, independently of the personal holiness of the minister. Nevertheless, the fruits of the sacraments also depend on the disposition of the one who receives them.

1129 The Church affirms that for believers the sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for salvation.51 "Sacramental grace" is the grace of the Holy Spirit, given by Christ and proper to each sacrament. the Spirit heals and transforms those who receive him by conforming them to the Son of God. the fruit of the sacramental life is that the Spirit of adoption makes the faithful partakers in the divine nature52 by uniting them in a living union with the only Son, the Savior.

V. The Sacraments of Eternal Life

1130 The Church celebrates the mystery of her Lord "until he comes," when God will be "everything to everyone."53 Since the apostolic age the liturgy has been drawn toward its goal by the Spirit's groaning in the Church: Marana tha!54 The liturgy thus shares in Jesus' desire: "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you . . . until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God."55 In the sacraments of Christ the Church already receives the guarantee of her inheritance and even now shares in everlasting life, while "awaiting our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Christ Jesus."56 The "Spirit and the Bride say, 'Come . . . Come, Lord Jesus!"'57

St. Thomas sums up the various aspects of sacramental signs: "Therefore a sacrament is a sign that commemorates what precedes it - Christ's Passion; demonstrates what is accomplished in us through Christ's Passion - grace; and prefigures what that Passion pledges to us - future glory."58

 

撮要

1131. 聖事是產生恩寵的有效標記,由基督建立並交託給教會。透過聖事,天主的生命分施在我們身上。舉行聖事時之有形儀式,象徵並實現每件聖事專有的恩寵。聖事會在那些準備妥當的領受者身上,產生效果。

1132.教會作為一個司祭團體,舉行聖事慶典;這團體是由聖洗的司祭職及聖職人員的司祭職共同組成。
1133.聖神以天主聖言和信德為聖事慶典作準備,這信德使人妥善地準備心靈領受天主聖言。為此,聖事強化並表達信仰。

1134. 聖事生活的效果既是個人的,又是教會的。為個人的效果,是使每位信友在基督耶穌內為天主而生活;為教會的效果,則是在愛德上和在見証使命上的成長。

 IN BRIEF

1131 The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. the visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions.

1132 The Church celebrates the sacraments as a priestly community structured by the baptismal priesthood and the priesthood of ordained ministers.

1133 The Holy Spirit prepares the faithful for the sacraments by the Word of God and the faith which welcomes that word in well-disposed hearts. Thus the sacraments strengthen faith and express it.

1134 The fruit of sacramental life is both personal and ecclesial. For every one of the faithful an the one hand, this fruit is life for God in Christ Jesus; for the Church, on the other, it is an increase in charity and in her mission of witness.

 

第二章逾越奧跡的聖事慶典

1135. 禮儀的教理講授首先是了解聖事性的救恩計劃 (第一章)。在這光照下,聖事性救恩計劃的慶典才能顯示出其新意。因此,本章的內容是論述教會的聖事慶典的舉行。我們將通過不同的禮儀傳統,探究七件聖事慶典的共通點;至於七件聖事各有各的特點,將在後面論述。這有關聖事慶典的基本教理,將回答信徒對這課題所提出的主要問題:

──誰舉行禮儀慶典?
──如何舉行禮儀慶典?
──何時舉行禮儀慶典?
──何處舉行禮儀慶典? 第一條

教會的禮儀慶典
一、誰舉行禮儀慶典?

1136. 禮儀是「整個基督」(Christus totus)的「行動」。凡現在舉行禮儀慶典者,已跨越此世的標記,參與天上禮儀。那天上的禮儀慶典完全是共融和慶祝 (feast)。

天上禮儀慶典的舉行者

1137. 在教會禮儀中恭讀的聖若望默示錄, 啟示我們 「在天上安置了一個寶座,有一位坐在那寶座上」(默 4:2)的「上主天主」(依 6:1)。然後是那「曾被宰殺而現今站著」的羔羊(默 5:6): 就是被釘十字架、死而復活的基督,祂是真正聖殿的唯一大司祭,「同時是奉獻者,又是被奉獻的;是賦予者,又是被賦予的」4。最後,「那生命的河流,由天主和羔羊的寶座那裡湧出」(默 22:1),這是聖神最美麗的象徵之一。

1138. 「總歸」於基督的萬有,參與讚頌天主的職務,也參與天主計劃的完成:他們是天上的掌權者,所有的受造物(四個活物),新舊約的僕人 (二十四位長老),天主的新子民(十四萬四千人)尤其是「為了天主的聖言而被殺」的殉道者(默 6:9-11),天主聖母(女人);羔羊的淨配 4,最後是「一大夥群眾,沒有人能夠數清,是來自各邦國、各支派、各民族、各語言的」(默 7:9)。

1139.當我們在聖事中慶祝救恩的奧跡時,聖神和教會使我們所參與的,就是這永恆的禮儀。
聖事禮儀慶典的舉行者

1140. 聖事慶典的舉行者是整個團體,即基督的身體聯合其元首。「禮儀行動並非私人行動,而是教會的慶典,教會則是『合一的聖事』,就是在主教的領導下,集合並組織起來的神聖子民。所以,禮儀行動屬於教會全體,顯示教會全體,並涉及教會全體;但教會每一個成員,按其身分、職務及具體參與的不同,其在禮儀中的行動也不同」。因此,「禮儀本身的性質,是要有信友在場主動參與的團體慶典,該盡可能強調團體的慶祝,這要比個人或近乎私下舉行更為優先」。

1141.舉行慶典的會眾,是受過洗禮者的團體,他們「藉著重生及聖神的傅油,被祝聖為屬神的聖殿及神聖的司祭,為能奉獻屬神的祭品」。這「普通司祭職」是屬於基督唯一大司祭的職務,由基督的全部肢體所分享。

慈母教會切願引導所有信友,完整地、有意識地、主動地參與禮儀慶典,因為這是禮儀本質的要求,也是基督信眾藉聖洗而獲得的權利和義務,他們是「特選的種族、王家的司祭、聖潔的國民、屬於主的民族(伯前 2:9)」。

1142. 但是,「每個肢體都有不同的作用」(羅 12:4)。有些成員蒙天主的召叫,在教會內並藉著教會,為團體作特殊的服務。這些僕人藉聖秩聖事被簡選和祝聖;聖神亦透過聖秩聖事,使他們有資格以基督元首的身分,為教會全體成員服務。聖職人員猶如基督司祭的「聖相」 (icon)。由於教會聖事是在感恩祭中得以圓滿實現,那麼,主教的職務也是在主持感恩祭時最為明顯;與主教的職務相通的司鐸職務和執事職務也是如此。

1143. 此外,為使信友普通司祭職能充分發揮其不同的服務功能,還有其他特教按禮儀傳統和牧民需要而制定的。「輔祭員、讀經員、釋經員以及歌詠團的成員,都是在履行真正的禮儀職務」。

1144. 因此,在聖事慶典中,全體會眾都是「禮儀執行者」(leitourgos),各人按自己的職務行事,但都在「聖神的合一」之中,而聖神在眾人內工作。「在禮儀慶典中,無論是聖職人員或信友,每人按照儀式的性質和禮儀的原則,完成屬於自己的職務,只作自己的一分 ,且要作得齊全」。

 CHAPTER TWO

THE SACRAMENTAL CELEBRATION OF THE PASCHAL MYSTERY

1135 The catechesis of the liturgy entails first of all an understanding of the sacramental economy (Chapter One). In this light, the innovation of its celebration is revealed. This chapter will therefore treat of the celebration of the sacraments of the Church. It will consider that which, through the diversity of liturgical traditions, is common to the celebration of the seven sacraments. What is proper to each will be treated later. This fundamental catechesis on the sacramental celebrations responds to the first questions posed by the faithful regarding this subject: 
- Who celebrates the liturgy? 
- How is the liturgy celebrated? 
- When is the liturgy celebrated? 
- Where is the liturgy celebrated?

Article 1

CELEBRATING THE CHURCH'S LITURGY

I. Who Celebrates?

1136 Liturgy is an "action" of the whole Christ (Christus totus). Those who even now celebrate it without signs are already in the heavenly liturgy, where celebration is wholly communion and feast

The celebrants of the heavenly liturgy

1137 The book of Revelation of St. John, read in the Church's liturgy, first reveals to us, "A throne stood in heaven, with one seated on the throne": "the Lord God."1 It then shows the Lamb, "standing, as though it had been slain": Christ crucified and risen, the one high priest of the true sanctuary, the same one "who offers and is offered, who gives and is given."2 Finally it presents "the river of the water of life . . . flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb," one of most beautiful symbols of the Holy Spirit.3

1138 "Recapitulated in Christ," these are the ones who take part in the service of the praise of God and the fulfillment of his plan: the heavenly powers, all creation (the four living beings), the servants of the Old and New Covenants (the twenty-four elders), the new People of God (the one hundred and forty-four thousand),4 especially the martyrs "slain for the word of God," and the all-holy Mother of God (the Woman), the Bride of the Lamb,5 and finally "a great multitude which no one could number, from every nation, from all tribes, and peoples and tongues."6

1139 It is in this eternal liturgy that the Spirit and the Church enable us to participate whenever we celebrate the mystery of salvation in the sacraments.

The celebrants of the sacramental liturgy

1140 It is the whole community, the Body of Christ united with its Head, that celebrates. "Liturgical services are not private functions but are celebrations of the Church which is 'the sacrament of unity,' namely, the holy people united and organized under the authority of the bishops. Therefore, liturgical services pertain to the whole Body of the Church. They manifest it, and have effects upon it. But they touch individual members of the Church in different ways, depending on their orders, their role in the liturgical services, and their actual participation in them."7 For this reason, "rites which are meant to be celebrated in common, with the faithful present and actively participating, should as far as possible be celebrated in that way rather than by an individual and quasi-privately."8

1141 The celebrating assembly is the community of the baptized who, "by regeneration and the anointing of the Holy Spirit, are consecrated to be a spiritual house and a holy priesthood, that . . . they may offer spiritual sacrifices."9 This "common priesthood" is that of Christ the sole priest, in which all his members participate:10

Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that full, conscious, and active participation in liturgical celebrations which is demanded by the very nature of the liturgy, and to which the Christian people, "a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people," have a right and an obligation by reason of their Baptism.11

1142 But "the members do not all have the same function."12 Certain members are called by God, in and through the Church, to a special service of the community. These servants are chosen and consecrated by the sacrament of Holy Orders, by which the Holy Spirit enables them to act in the person of Christ the head, for the service of all the members of the Church.13 The ordained minister is, as it were, an "icon" of Christ the priest. Since it is in the Eucharist that the sacrament of the Church is made fully visible, it is in his presiding at the Eucharist that the bishop's ministry is most evident, as well as, in communion with him, the ministry of priests and deacons.

1143 For the purpose of assisting the work of the common priesthood of the faithful, other particular ministries also exist, not consecrated by the sacrament of Holy Orders; their functions are determined by the bishops, in accord with liturgical traditions and pastoral needs. "Servers, readers, commentators, and members of the choir also exercise a genuine liturgical function."14

1144 In the celebration of the sacraments it is thus the whole assembly that is leitourgos, each according to his function, but in the "unity of the Spirit" who acts in all. "In liturgical celebrations each person, minister or layman, who has an office to perform, should carry out all and only those parts which pertain to his office by the nature of the rite and the norms of the liturgy."15

 

 

二、如何舉行禮儀慶典?

標記與象徵

1145. 聖事慶典是由標記和象徵交織而成。按照天主有關救恩的神性教育法,標記和象徵的涵義植根於創造工程和人類文化,在舊約事件中明確地指示出來,並在基督本人及其工程中得到圓滿的啟示。

1146. 人類世界的標記。標記和象徵在人類生活中佔有重要的位置。人既是肉身的和精神的存有,所以人要透過物質的標記與象徵,來表達和洞悉精神的事物。人也是社群的存有,所以需要標記和象徵,如語言、姿勢、行動等,來與他人溝通。人與天主的關係也是一樣。

1147. 天主通過可見的受造物向人說話。物質的宇宙呈現於人的理智前,為使人能從中看到造物主的跡象。光明和黑夜,風和火,水和土,樹木和果子都在講述天主,同時象徵祂的偉大和親切。

1148. 作為受造物,這些有形可見的事物,能用來表達天主聖化人類的行動,以及人類欽崇天主的行動。同樣,透過人類社會生活的標記和象徵,如:洗滌和傅油、共食一餅、共飲一爵,也能表達天主的臨在和聖化行動,及人類對造物主的感恩之情。

1149. 在人類的各大宗教中,往往見到他們的宗教儀式具有發人深省的宇宙和象徵幅度。教會禮儀需要、採納並聖化受造物和人類文化的成分,使它們享有恩寵標記、在耶穌基督內新創造的尊貴。

1150. 盟約的標記。選民由天主接受了獨特的標記和象徵,來標誌他們的禮儀生活:這些標記和象徵不再只是宇宙季節循環的節期和社會活動的慶典,而是盟約的標記;是天主為祂子民完成的偉大工程的象徵。這些舊約禮儀的標記,計有:割損禮、君王和司祭的傅油和祝聖禮、覆手禮、祭獻,尤其是逾越節。教會視這些標記為新約聖事的預象。

1151.基督所用的標記。主耶穌在講道時,時常利用受造界的標記來使人認識天國的奧跡。祂用物質的標記或象徵的姿勢,來醫治病人或說明祂的的意義 3,因為祂自己就是這些標記的意義。

1152. 聖事的標記。自聖神降臨以後,聖神通過祂教會的聖事標記進行祂的聖化工程。教會的聖事不但沒有廢除宇宙和社會生活中多采多姿的標記和象徵,反而加以淨化和融合。此外,教會的聖事滿全舊約的預象 (figures; types),表達並實現基督所實行的救恩工程,預示和提前體現天上的光榮。

言語和行動

1153. 聖事慶典是天主子女在基督和聖神之內跟天父相遇。這相遇一如透過言語和行動的交談。即使象徵性的行動本身已是一種語言,但仍需要天主的聖言和信德的回應來配合這些行動,使之充滿生命,好使天國的種子能在良好的土地裡結出果實。禮儀行動標示出天主聖言所表達的:即同時表示天主無條件的邀請,和祂子民信德的回應。

1154. 聖道禮儀是聖事慶典中不可缺少的部分。為培育信友的信德,我們應重視天主聖言的標記:記載聖言的經書(讀經集或福音書);對聖言的敬禮 (福音書遊行、上香、伴以燭光);宣讀聖言的地方(讀經台);清晰地宣讀聖言,讓人清楚聆聽和領會;聖職人員的講道,這是宣讀聖言的延續;會眾對聖言的回應(歡呼、 聖詠默想、禱文、信仰宣示……)。

1155. 正如標記與訓導是緊密相連、不可分開的,同樣,禮儀中的言語與行動也緊密相連、不可分開,以實現它們所表徵的一切。 聖神不但激發信德,給人智力來明瞭天主聖言,並且透過聖事實現聖言所宣講的天主的「奇妙工程」:聖神使父由祂愛子所完成的工程重現,並通傳給人。

歌詠與音樂

1156. 「普世教會的音樂傳統是無價之寶,超越其他的藝術,而配合言語的聖歌,更是隆重禮儀的必需或組成要素」。受默感而創作的聖詠,常以樂器伴奏來詠唱,已經是與舊約的禮儀慶典密不可分。教會延續並發展這個傳統:「你們要以聖詠、詩詞及屬神的歌曲,互相對談,在你們心中歌頌讚美主」(弗 5:19)。「歌詠者做的是雙重的祈禱」。

1157. 歌詠和音樂,「若越能與禮儀行動密切地結合」,便越能發揮其作為標記的功能和意義。在採用歌詠和音樂時,要根據以下三個主要準則:表達祈禱的優美,使會眾同心合意地參與禮儀,以及發揮慶典的隆重特質。如此,歌詠和音樂,與禮儀中的言語和行動,都具有同一目的:光榮天主和聖化信友。

聖奧思定,《懺悔錄》:傾聽你們的讚美詩,聆聽你們的歌唱,優美的音律,嬝嬝迴旋在你們的聖堂!我喜極而泣,感動莫名!琴音在我耳中盪漾,真理湧入我的心房,虔誠的浪潮在我胸懷澎湃,我熱淚盈眶,湧流到面頰上,但卻深深感到美好與安詳。

1158. 天主子民舉行禮儀慶典時,各種標記(歌詠、音樂、言語和行動)和諧地運用,若越能以當地固有的豐富文化來表達,就越能表達其意義,收到更豐富的效果。因此,「本土化的宗教歌曲,亦應小心推行,以便在熱心善工內,甚至在禮儀行動中,根據教會的準則,讓信友能夠引吭高歌」。但是,「聖歌的詞句必須符合教會的道理,而且最好取材於聖經及禮儀資料」。

聖像

1159. 聖像──禮儀用的聖相 (icon),所描繪的主要是基督。聖像無法描繪那無形無象、深不可知的天主;但天主子降生成人,開創了圖象的新「救恩計劃」:

聖若望•達瑪森,《有關聖像的演講》:昔日,[人們]絕對無法藉著圖象來描繪沒有形體的天主。但是現在,祂取了肉軀,使人看得見,而且與人一起生活,我就能夠依照可見的天主而描繪出祂的「圖象」。……藉著他所顯露的面容,我們就能瞻仰主的光榮。

1160.基督徒的聖相學,是把聖經藉著言語所傳達的福音訊息,透過圖象描寫出來。圖象與言語互相闡明:

為了簡短地表達我們信德的宣認,我們完整地保存教會傳授給我們的所有文字、或非文字的傳統。其中一個傳統就是以圖象作為表達的形式。這傳統因堅信天主聖言降生成人是真實無妄的,故其圖象的表達與福音事跡的宣講配合。這是有用和可取的,因為那些互相闡明的事情,無疑地反映彼此的意義。

1161. 禮儀慶典中的一切標記均與基督有關:天主聖母及其他聖人的聖像也是如此。聖人的聖像表示基督在眾聖者身上受到光榮,並顯示出「眾多如雲的証人」(希 12:1)。他們繼續參與世界的救贖,而我們也與他們團結合一,尤其在聖事慶典當中。通過聖人的聖相,我們的信仰得到啟迪,深信依照「天主肖象」被造的人,最終會轉化成為具有「天主的模樣」的人,甚至連天使們,也要總歸於基督:

我們隨從天主啟示的道理,經神聖教長的訓導,以及公教會的聖傳,也深知聖神寓居在這傳統裡,我們以堅定正確的態度欽定神可敬的聖相,正如那珍貴並賦予生命的十字架的聖相,不管是劃像或是碎石鑲嵌,或由其他任何材料製成的,都須安放在天主的聖堂內,不管是在祭器或祭衣上,或懸掛在牆壁上,或裝配在鏡框裡;更不管它們被安放在室內,或通道上;同樣,對我們的主、天主、救世主、耶穌基督的圖象,和我們的至潔天主聖母、天使、諸聖和義人的圖象,亦該如此。

1162. 「聖像的美麗和色彩激發我的祈禱。對我的眼睛來說,這是賞心樂事,正如原野的景緻,激發我的內心光榮天主」。瞻仰聖相,與默想天主聖言和詠唱禮儀讚美詩連結一起,促成慶典標記的和諧,使所慶祝的奧跡銘記於心,然後在信友的新生活裡表達出來。


 II. How is the Liturgy Celebrated?

Signs and symbols

1145 A sacramental celebration is woven from signs and symbols. In keeping with the divine pedagogy of salvation, their meaning is rooted in the work of creation and in human culture, specified by the events of the Old Covenant and fully revealed in the person and work of Christ.

1146 Signs of the human world. In human life, signs and symbols occupy an important place. As a being at once body and spirit, man expresses and perceives spiritual realities through physical signs and symbols. As a social being, man needs signs and symbols to communicate with others, through language, gestures, and actions. the same holds true for his relationship with God.

1147 God speaks to man through the visible creation. the material cosmos is so presented to man's intelligence that he can read there traces of its Creator.16 Light and darkness, wind and fire, water and earth, the tree and its fruit speak of God and symbolize both his greatness and his nearness.

1148 Inasmuch as they are creatures, these perceptible realities can become means of expressing the action of God who sanctifies men, and the action of men who offer worship to God. the same is true of signs and symbols taken from the social life of man: washing and anointing, breaking bread and sharing the cup can express the sanctifying presence of God and man's gratitude toward his Creator.

1149 The great religions of mankind witness, often impressively, to this cosmic and symbolic meaning of religious rites. the liturgy of the Church presupposes, integrates and sanctifies elements from creation and human culture, conferring on them the dignity of signs of grace, of the new creation in Jesus Christ.

1150 Signs of the covenant. the Chosen People received from God distinctive signs and symbols that marked its liturgical life. These are no longer solely celebrations of cosmic cycles and social gestures, but signs of the covenant, symbols of God's mighty deeds for his people. Among these liturgical signs from the Old Covenant are circumcision, anointing and consecration of kings and priests, laying on of hands, sacrifices, and above all the Passover. the Church sees in these signs a prefiguring of the sacraments of the New Covenant.

1151 Signs taken up by Christ. In his preaching the Lord Jesus often makes use of the signs of creation to make known the mysteries of the Kingdom of God.17 He performs healings and illustrates his preaching with physical signs or symbolic gestures.18 He gives new meaning to the deeds and signs of the Old Covenant, above all to the Exodus and the Passover,19 for he himself is the meaning of all these signs.

1152 Sacramental signs. Since Pentecost, it is through the sacramental signs of his Church that the Holy Spirit carries on the work of sanctification. the sacraments of the Church do not abolish but purify and integrate all the richness of the signs and symbols of the cosmos and of social life. Further, they fulfill the types and figures of the Old Covenant, signify and make actively present the salvation wrought by Christ, and prefigure and anticipate the glory of heaven. Words and actions

1153 A sacramental celebration is a meeting of God's children with their Father, in Christ and the Holy Spirit; this meeting takes the form of a dialogue, through actions and words. Admittedly, the symbolic actions are already a language, but the Word of God and the response of faith have to accompany and give life to them, so that the seed of the Kingdom can bear its fruit in good soil. the liturgical actions signify what the Word of God expresses: both his free initiative and his people's response of faith.

1154 The liturgy of the Word is an integral part of sacramental celebrations. To nourish the faith of believers, the signs which accompany the Word of God should be emphasized: the book of the Word (a lectionary or a book of the Gospels), its veneration (procession, incense, candles), the place of its proclamation (lectern or ambo), its audible and intelligible reading, the minister's homily which extends its proclamation, and the responses of the assembly (acclamations, meditation psalms, litanies, and profession of faith).

1155 The liturgical word and action are inseparable both insofar as they are signs and instruction and insofar as they accomplish what they signify. When the Holy Spirit awakens faith, he not only gives an understanding of the Word of God, but through the sacraments also makes present the "wonders" of God which it proclaims. the Spirit makes present and communicates the Father's work, fulfilled by the beloved Son.

Singing and music

1156 "The musical tradition of the universal Church is a treasure of inestimable value, greater even than that of any other art. the main reason for this pre-eminence is that, as a combination of sacred music and words, it forms a necessary or integral part of solemn liturgy."20 The composition and singing of inspired psalms, often accompanied by musical instruments, were already closely linked to the liturgical celebrations of the Old Covenant. the Church continues and develops this tradition: "Address . . . one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody to the Lord with all your heart." "He who sings prays twice."21

1157 Song and music fulfill their function as signs in a manner all the more significant when they are "more closely connected . . . with the liturgical action,"22 according to three principal criteria: beauty expressive of prayer, the unanimous participation of the assembly at the designated moments, and the solemn character of the celebration. In this way they participate in the purpose of the liturgical words and actions: the glory of God and the sanctification of the faithful:23

How I wept, deeply moved by your hymns, songs, and the voices that echoed through your Church! What emotion I experienced in them! Those sounds flowed into my ears distilling the truth in my heart. A feeling of devotion surged within me, and tears streamed down my face - tears that did me good.24

1158 The harmony of signs (song, music, words, and actions) is all the more expressive and fruitful when expressed in the cultural richness of the People of God who celebrate.25 Hence "religious singing by the faithful is to be intelligently fostered so that in devotions and sacred exercises as well as in liturgical services," in conformity with the Church's norms, "the voices of the faithful may be heard." But "the texts intended to be sung must always be in conformity with Catholic doctrine. Indeed they should be drawn chiefly from the Sacred Scripture and from liturgical sources."26

Holy images

1159 The sacred image, the liturgical icon, principally represents Christ. It cannot represent the invisible and incomprehensible God, but the incarnation of the Son of God has ushered in a new "economy" of images:

Previously God, who has neither a body nor a face, absolutely could not be represented by an image. But now that he has made himself visible in the flesh and has lived with men, I can make an image of what I have seen of God . . . and contemplate the glory of the Lord, his face unveiled.27

1160 Christian iconography expresses in images the same Gospel message that Scripture communicates by words. Image and word illuminate each other:

We declare that we preserve intact all the written and unwritten traditions of the Church which have been entrusted to us. One of these traditions consists in the production of representational artwork, which accords with the history of the preaching of the Gospel. For it confirms that the incarnation of the Word of God was real and not imaginary, and to our benefit as well, for realities that illustrate each other undoubtedly reflect each other's meaning.28

1161 All the signs in the liturgical celebrations are related to Christ: as are sacred images of the holy Mother of God and of the saints as well. They truly signify Christ, who is glorified in them. They make manifest the "cloud of witnesses"29 who continue to participate in the salvation of the world and to whom we are united, above all in sacramental celebrations. Through their icons, it is man "in the image of God," finally transfigured "into his likeness,"30 who is revealed to our faith. So too are the angels, who also are recapitulated in Christ:

Following the divinely inspired teaching of our holy Fathers and the tradition of the Catholic Church (for we know that this tradition comes from the Holy Spirit who dwells in her) we rightly define with full certainty and correctness that, like the figure of the precious and life-giving cross, venerable and holy images of our Lord and God and Savior, Jesus Christ, our inviolate Lady, the holy Mother of God, and the venerated angels, all the saints and the just, whether painted or made of mosaic or another suitable material, are to be exhibited in the holy churches of God, on sacred vessels and vestments, walls and panels, in houses and on streets.31

1162 "The beauty of the images moves me to contemplation, as a meadow delights the eyes and subtly infuses the soul with the glory of God."32 Similarly, the contemplation of sacred icons, united with meditation on the Word of God and the singing of liturgical hymns, enters into the harmony of the signs of celebration so that the mystery celebrated is imprinted in the heart's memory and is then expressed in the new life of the faithful.

 

 

三、何時舉行禮儀慶典?

禮儀時令

1163. 「慈母教會自信有責任,在每年規定一些日子,以神聖的紀念,慶祝其天上淨配的救世大業。在每週稱為『主日』的那一天,紀念主的復活;並且每年一次,以最隆重的逾越慶典,連同主的榮福苦難,紀念祂的復活。教會在一年的週期內,展示基督的整個奧跡。……教會如此紀念救贖的奧跡,給信友揭示主的德能與功績的富饒,並使奧跡能以某種方式,時常活現臨在,使信友親身接觸,充滿救贖的恩寵」。

1164. 自梅瑟法律以來,天主的子民已經知道以逾越節開始,在規定的慶節紀念救主天主所行的奇跡異事,為此而感謝祂,以此作為永遠的紀念,並且教育後代子孫的行為要與此相符合。在教會的時期裡,亦即處於基督已一次而永遠所完成的逾越,和這逾越在天主國裡得到圓滿完成的時期裡,教會在固定的日子所舉行的禮儀慶典,都帶著基督奧跡的新意。

1165. 當教會慶祝基督的奧跡時,以「今天」一詞來標示她的祈禱,此詞迴響著主所教導她的祈禱和聖神的召喚。「今天」是屬於生活的天主的;人蒙召進入的這個「今天」,就是耶穌逾越的「時辰」;祂貫串並支撐著整個歷史:

聖依玻理,《論逾越》:生命在萬物中開展,一切都光明燦爛;祂是黎明的黎明,瀰漫整個宇宙,祂閃亮在「曉星」之先,在眾星之前,不死不滅、無際無涯,偉大的基督照耀萬物,光芒勝過太陽。祂為信仰祂的我們建立光明的日子,恆久而永不熄滅的光明:奧妙的逾越節

主的日子

1166. 「教會按照宗徒傳統,自基督復活的那天開始,在每個第八日慶祝逾越奧跡,這天理當地稱為主的日子,或『主日』」基督復活的那天,同時是「一週的第一天」,紀念創造天地的第一天;又是「第八天」,基督在這一天度過其偉大安息日的「安息」後,就開創了「主所安排的」那一天,那「沒有黑夜的日子」。「主的聖餐」是這個日子的中心,因為整個信友團體藉此與復活的主相遇;祂邀請信友參與祂的盛筵:

聖熱羅尼莫,《復活主日講道》:主的日子,復活的日子,基督徒的日子,是我們的日子。它稱為主的日子,因為主就在這一天,凱旋地升到父的身邊。如果其他民族稱這日子為太陽的日子,我們也樂意承認:因為今天世界之光升起,今天正義的太陽出現,它的光芒帶來了救恩。

1167.主日是禮儀聚會最卓越的日子。在這一天,信友團聚一起,「聽取天主的聖言,參與感恩祭,藉此紀念主耶穌的受難、復活和受享光榮,以獲得那充滿生命的希望』(伯前 1:3)」

范傑,《安提約基雅的敘利亞日課》第六冊 ,夏季 193B:啊!基督,當我們默想祢在這神聖復活的主日所完成的奇跡異事,我們就說:主日這一天當受讚美, 因為在這一天,開始了創世的工程……世界的救贖……人類的更新……。在這一天,天上人間一同歡躍,整個宇宙都充滿光明。主日這一天當受讚美,因為在這一天,樂園之門大開,亞當和所有被流放的人,都能無恐無懼地進入其內。

禮儀年度

1168. 復活的新時期,從逾越節三日慶典開始,一如始自光明的泉源,以它的光輝充滿了整個禮儀年度。由此泉源[三日慶典]的前後延伸出來的整年,都逐漸藉著禮儀而改變面貌。這的確是「上主恩慈之年」。 救恩計劃正在時間中進行,但自從這計劃在耶穌的逾越及聖神的降臨中完成後,歷史的終結便「以預嘗的方式」提前了,天主的國也進入了我們的時代裡。

1169. 因此,逾越節不只是眾多慶節中的一個:它更是「慶節中的慶節」、「慶典中的慶典」,正如感恩(聖體)聖事是「聖事中的聖事」(大聖事) 一樣。聖亞大納修稱逾越節為「大主日」;東方教會稱聖週為「大星期」。基督在復活奧跡中毀滅了死亡,以祂的強大能力滲透我們的舊時代,直到一切都完全順服於祂。

1170. 尼西亞大公會議 (325年)上,所有教會都同意在春分之後、首次月圓(尼散月十四日)後的主日,慶祝基督徒的逾越節。後來在 1582年,西方改革曆法(新曆稱為「額我略年曆」,此名取自教宗額我略十三世),此後,東西方教會的逾越節便相差好幾天。目前,西方教會和東方教會正尋求協議,好能重新選定一個共同的日子來慶祝主的復 

1171. 禮儀年度展開唯一逾越奧跡的不同層面;此情形尤其在環繞著降生奧跡的一組慶節中(天使報喜節、聖誕節、主顯節)顯示出來。這一組慶節紀念我們救恩的開端,並給我們通傳逾越奧跡的初果。

禮儀年中的聖人慶節

1172. 「在每年的週期中慶祝基督的奧跡時,聖教會以特殊的孝愛,敬禮天主之母榮福瑪利亞,因為她和她兒子的救世大業,有其不可分割的關係。教會在瑪利亞身上,仰慕並稱揚救贖的最卓越成果,就像在一幅完美的圖象上,欣然瞻仰教會自己所期望達成的完美境界」。

1173. 教會在每年的週期中紀念殉道者及其他聖人時,就是在他們身上「宣揚逾越奧跡」;他們「曾與基督同受苦難、同享光榮。教會向信友表揚殉道者和聖人的芳表典範,以吸引眾人,通過基督,歸向天父,並藉殉道者和聖人的功績,求得天主的恩惠」。

時辰頌禱禮 (日課)

1174. 我們在感恩祭中,尤其在主日的聚會中,慶祝基督的奧跡 ──祂的降生和逾越。這奧跡亦透過時辰頌禱禮,即舉行「神聖日課」的慶典,貫串並聖化每日的不同時辰。時辰頌禱禮是按照宗徒要「不斷祈禱」(得前 5:17;弗 6:18)的勸告而編成的,「其目的是使日夜全部過程, 藉著讚美天主而聖化」。這是「教會的公共祈禱」3,信徒(聖職人員、修會會士和教友)藉此履行他們在領洗時所接受的王者司祭職。「時辰頌禱禮是『以教會核准的方式』舉行的,實在是新娘對新郎的傾訴心聲,也是基督偕同祂的奧體,向天父的禱告」。

1175. 時辰頌禱禮的目的是作為全體天主子民的祈禱。在時辰頌禱禮中,基督自己「藉著祂的教會,繼續執行祂的司祭任務」;各人按照自己在教會的身分及其生活狀況來參與: 獻身於牧職的司鐸, 他們蒙召專務祈禱並服務聖言;修會會士以他們度奉獻生活的特恩 3;全體信徒各按所能,勉力而為:「牧者們應設法使主要的時辰,尤其是晚禱,在主日及較隆重的慶節,在聖堂內以團體方式舉行。敦勸平信徒,或是與司鐸一起,或是信友彼此集合在一起,甚或個人,也舉行時辰頌禱禮」。

1176.舉行時辰頌禱禮時,不但需要心口合一地祈禱,還應「對禮儀及聖經,尤其對聖詠,具有更豐富的認識」。

1177. 時辰頌禱禮的讚美詩及禱文,將聖詠整合在教會時期裡,以此表達所慶祝的時辰、禮儀節期或節日的象徵意義。再者,每個時辰所宣讀的天主聖言(連同「短對答詠」),及在某些時辰所誦讀的教父和靈修導師的作品,更深入地顯示出所慶祝的奧跡的意義,幫助「祈禱者」領會聖詠並準備在靜默中祈禱。誦讀聖言(lectio divina),即「誦讀並默想天主聖言、使之轉化為祈禱」的行動,就這樣扎根在禮儀慶典中。

1178.時辰頌禱禮作為感恩祭的延續,並不排除其他敬禮,反而要求天主子民以補充的方式去踐行不同的敬禮,尤其是對聖體聖事的朝拜和敬禮。

 III. When is the Liturgy Celebrated?

Liturgical seasons

1163 "Holy Mother Church believes that she should celebrate the saving work of her divine Spouse in a sacred commemoration on certain days throughout the course of the year. Once each week, on the day which she has called the Lord's Day, she keeps the memory of the Lord's resurrection. She also celebrates it once every year, together with his blessed Passion, at Easter, that most solemn of all feasts. In the course of the year, moreover, she unfolds the whole mystery of Christ .... Thus recalling the mysteries of the redemption, she opens up to the faithful the riches of her Lord's powers and merits, so that these are in some way made present in every age; the faithful lay hold of them and are filled with saving grace."33

1164 From the time of the Mosaic law, the People of God have observed fixed feasts, beginning with Passover, to commemorate the astonishing actions of the Savior God, to give him thanks for them, to perpetuate their remembrance, and to teach new generations to conform their conduct to them. In the age of the Church, between the Passover of Christ already accomplished once for all, and its consummation in the kingdom of God, the liturgy celebrated on fixed days bears the imprint of the newness of the mystery of Christ.

1165 When the Church celebrates the mystery of Christ, there is a word that marks her prayer: "Today!" - a word echoing the prayer her Lord taught her and the call of the Holy Spirit.34 This "today" of the living God which man is called to enter is "the hour" of Jesus' Passover, which reaches across and underlies all history:

Life extends over all beings and fills them with unlimited light; the Orient of orients pervades the universe, and he who was "before the daystar" and before the heavenly bodies, immortal and vast, the great Christ, shines over all beings more brightly than the sun. Therefore a day of long, eternal light is ushered in for us who believe in him, a day which is never blotted out: the mystical Passover.35

The Lord's day

1166 "By a tradition handed down from the apostles which took its origin from the very day of Christ's Resurrection, the Church celebrates the Paschal mystery every seventh day, which day is appropriately called the Lord's Day or Sunday."36 The day of Christ's Resurrection is both the first day of the week, the memorial of the first day of creation, and the "eighth day," on which Christ after his "rest" on the great sabbath inaugurates the "day that the Lord has made," the "day that knows no evening."37 The Lord's Supper is its center, for there the whole community of the faithful encounters the risen Lord who invites them to his banquet:38

The Lord's day, the day of Resurrection, the day of Christians, is our day. It is called the Lord's day because on it the Lord rose victorious to the Father. If pagans call it the "day of the sun," we willingly agree, for today the light of the world is raised, today is revealed the sun of justice with healing in his rays.39

1167 Sunday is the pre-eminent day for the liturgical assembly, when the faithful gather "to listen to the word of God and take part in the Eucharist, thus calling to mind the Passion, Resurrection, and glory of the Lord Jesus, and giving thanks to God who 'has begotten them again, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead' unto a living hope":40

When we ponder, O Christ, the marvels accomplished on this day, the Sunday of your holy resurrection, we say: "Blessed is Sunday, for on it began creation . . . the world's salvation ... the renewal of the human race .... On Sunday heaven and earth rejoiced and the whole universe was filled with light. Blessed is Sunday, for on it were opened the gates of paradise so that Adam and all the exiles might enter it without fear.41

The liturgical year

1168 Beginning with the Easter Triduum as its source of light, the new age of the Resurrection fills the whole liturgical year with its brilliance. Gradually, on either side of this source, the year is transfigured by the liturgy. It really is a "year of the Lord's favor."42 The economy of salvation is at work within the framework of time, but since its fulfillment in the Passover of Jesus and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, the culmination of history is anticipated "as a foretaste," and the kingdom of God enters into our time.

1169 Therefore Easter is not simply one feast among others, but the "Feast of feasts," the "Solemnity of solemnities," just as the Eucharist is the "Sacrament of sacraments" (the Great Sacrament). St. Athanasius calls Easter "the Great Sunday"43 and the Eastern Churches call Holy Week "the Great Week." the mystery of the Resurrection, in which Christ crushed death, permeates with its powerful energy our old time, until all is subjected to him.

1170 At the Council of Nicaea in 325, all the Churches agreed that Easter, the Christian Passover, should be celebrated on the Sunday following the first full moon (14 Nisan) after the vernal equinox. the reform of the Western calendar, called "Gregorian" after Pope Gregory XIII (1582), caused a discrepancy of several days with the Eastern calendar. Today, the Western and Eastern Churches are seeking an agreement in order once again to celebrate the day of the Lord's Resurrection on a common date.

1171 In the liturgical year the various aspects of the one Paschal mystery unfold. This is also the case with the cycle of feasts surrounding the mystery of the incarnation (Annunciation, Christmas, Epiphany). They commemorate the beginning of our salvation and communicate to us the first fruits of the Paschal mystery.

The sanctoral in the liturgical year

1172 "In celebrating this annual cycle of the mysteries of Christ, Holy Church honors the Blessed Mary, Mother of God, with a special love. She is inseparably linked with the saving work of her Son. In her the Church admires and exalts the most excellent fruit of redemption and joyfully contemplates, as in a faultless image, that which she herself desires and hopes wholly to be."44

1173 When the Church keeps the memorials of martyrs and other saints during the annual cycle, she proclaims the Paschal mystery in those "who have suffered and have been glorified with Christ. She proposes them to the faithful as examples who draw all men to the Father through Christ, and through their merits she begs for God's favors."45

The Liturgy of the Hours

1174 The mystery of Christ, his Incarnation and Passover, which we celebrate in the Eucharist especially at the Sunday assembly, permeates and transfigures the time of each day, through the celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours, "the divine office."46 This celebration, faithful to the apostolic exhortations to "pray constantly," is "so devised that the whole course of the day and night is made holy by the praise of God."47 In this "public prayer of the Church,"48 The faithful (clergy, religious, and lay people) exercise the royal priesthood of the baptized. Celebrated in "the form approved" by the Church, the Liturgy of the Hours "is truly the voice of the Bride herself addressed to her Bridegroom. It is the very prayer which Christ himself together with his Body addresses to the Father.49

1175 The Liturgy of the Hours is intended to become the prayer of the whole People of God. In it Christ himself "continues his priestly work through his Church."50 His members participate according to their own place in the Church and the circumstances of their lives: priests devoted to the pastoral ministry, because they are called to remain diligent in prayer and the service of the word; religious, by the charism of their consecrated lives; all the faithful as much as possible: "Pastors of souls should see to it that the principal hours, especially Vespers, are celebrated in common in church on Sundays and on the more solemn feasts. the laity, too, are encouraged to recite the divine office, either with the priests, or among themselves, or even individually."51

1176 The celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours demands not only harmonizing the voice with the praying heart, but also a deeper "understanding of the liturgy and of the Bible, especially of the Psalms."52

1177 The hymns and litanies of the Liturgy of the Hours integrate the prayer of the psalms into the age of the Church, expressing the symbolism of the time of day, the liturgical season, or the feast being celebrated. Moreover, the reading from the Word of God at each Hour (with the subsequent responses or troparia) and readings from the Fathers and spiritual masters at certain Hours, reveal more deeply the meaning of the mystery being celebrated, assist in understanding the psalms, and prepare for silent prayer. the lectio divina, where the Word of God is so read and meditated that it becomes prayer, is thus rooted in the liturgical celebration.

1178 The Liturgy of the Hours, which is like an extension of the Eucharistic celebration, does not exclude but rather in a complementary way calls forth the various devotions of the People of God, especially adoration and worship of the Blessed Sacrament.

四、何處舉行禮儀慶典?

1179. 新約「以心神和真理」(若 4:24)的敬禮,並不局限於特定的地方。整個大地都是神聖的,並已託付給人類子孫。最重要的是,當信徒聚集在同一地方時,他們就是聚在一起的「活石」,為建築「一座屬神的殿宇」(伯前 2:4-5)。基督復活的身體是屬神的殿宇,從祂那裡湧出生命活水的泉源。通過聖神與基督結合成一體,「我們就是生活的天主的聖殿」(格後 6:16)。

1180. 當宗教自由的實踐不受限制時,基督徒興建專為崇敬天主的殿堂。這些有形可見的聖堂不單是集會的場所,而且標誌和顯示在這地方生活的教會,它是天主與在基督內和好及團結的人們之共同居所。

1181.「舉行感恩祭和供奉聖體的祈禱之所,也是信友聚會之所;在此,天主顯示基督在這地方的臨在和行動。

1182. 新約的祭台祭台是主的十字架,由那裡湧流出逾越奧跡的聖事。在作為聖堂中心的祭台上,十字架的祭獻藉著聖事的標記而臨在。祭台也是上主的餐桌;天主的子民應邀入席。在某些東方禮儀中,祭台亦是墳墓的象徵(基督真的死了,也真的復活了)。

1183. 聖體櫃聖體櫃應「予以最大的尊敬,放置在聖堂裡最顯貴的地方」。聖體櫃的尊貴、位置與安全,應有助信友朝拜那真實臨在聖體聖事內的主。

聖化聖油 (香膏 myron),由於傅用此油是「天恩聖神之印記」的聖事標記,所以傳統上,聖化聖油要恭敬地保存在聖所中妥善的地方。候洗者聖油和病人聖油也可保存在同一地方。

1184.主教座位座位 (cathedra)或司鐸的座位座位,「應表達他們主持聚會和帶領祈禱的職務」。
讀經台:「由於天主聖言是如此尊貴,因此讀經台應安置在聖堂中適宜的地方,有助於宣讀聖言;並且在舉行聖道禮儀時,使信友的注意力能自然轉向讀經台」。
1185.天主子民的團體由聖洗開始;因此,聖堂應有舉行聖洗聖洗聖洗慶典的地方(聖洗間),並有助信友紀念聖洗誓願的聖水池。
來自聖洗之生命的更新,要求懺悔懺悔懺悔。因此,聖堂應適合於表達懺悔和接受寬恕,為此目的,便需要有適宜的地方來接待懺悔者。
聖堂也應是邀請信友來靜思默禱的地方,以延續感恩祭的隆重祈禱,並使之深入內心。

1186. 最後,聖堂具有末世性的象徵意義。我們須跨越一道門檻,以進入天主的居所。這道門檻象徵人由那受罪惡傷害的世界,跨進新生命之世界的通道,每個人都蒙召進入此新世界。有形可見的聖堂象徵父的住處;天主子民正邁向父的住處,在那裡,天父「要拭去他們眼上的一切淚珠」(默 21:4)。因此,聖堂也是所有天主子女的居所,它為眾人大開歡迎之門。

撮要

1187. 禮儀是整個基督──包括頭和肢體──的工程。我們偉大的司祭,在天上的禮儀中,偕同榮福天主之母、宗徒、所有聖人和已經進入天國的廣大群眾,不斷地予以慶祝。

1188. 在禮儀慶典中,全體會眾都是「禮儀的執行者」,但每人各司其職。由聖洗而來的司祭職是整個基督身體的司祭職。但有些信徒領受了聖秩聖事,是為代表作為身體元首的基督。

1189. 禮儀慶典由標記和象徵所構成。 這些標記和象徵取材於受造界(光、水、火)、人的生活(洗滌、傅油、擘餅)以及救恩史(逾越節的儀式)。
1190.聖道禮儀是慶典中不可缺少的部分。慶典的意義就表達於所宣讀的天主聖言中,以及為回應聖言所做的信德承諾上。

1191. 歌詠與音樂跟禮儀行動緊密相連。要善用歌詠與音樂的準則是:表達出祈禱的優美,使信友團體同心合意地參與,以及發揮禮儀慶典的神聖特色。

1192. 在我們的聖堂和家中供奉的聖像,是為了激發並滋養我們對基督奧跡的信德。透過基督的聖像和那些描述祂救恩工程的聖像,我們所欽崇的是基督。通過榮福天主之母、天使和聖人的聖像,我們所尊敬的是其所代表的人物。

1193. 主日、「主的日子」,是舉行感恩祭的主要日子,因為這是基督復活的日子。這是舉行禮儀聚會最卓越的日子,這是基督徒家庭團聚的日子,這是歡樂、休假的日子。主日是「整個禮儀年的基礎與核心」。

1194.教會「在一年的週期內,展示基督的全部奧跡, 從降孕、誕生,直到升天,聖神降臨,以至期待著光榮的希望:主的再來」。

1195. 地上的教會在禮儀年中,安排一些日子來紀念諸位聖人,首先是天主聖母,然後是宗徒,殉道者和其他聖人,藉此表達教會與天上的禮儀聯合一致。教會光榮基督,因為祂在那已進入光榮的教會成員身上完成了祂的救贖。聖人的榜樣激勵教會在歸向天父的道路上邁進。

1196. 舉行時辰頌禱禮(日課)的信友,藉著聖詠祈禱、默想天主聖言、聖歌及讚美詩等,與我們的大司祭基督結合,如此與祂不斷地為普世所作的祈禱聯合一起,共同光榮天父,並為整個世界求得聖神的恩賜。

1197.基督是真正的天主聖殿、「天主光榮的居所」;透過天主的恩寵,基督徒自己也成為聖神的殿宇,建立教會的活石。

1198. 世上的教會需要場地,好讓信友團體聚集在一起:我們有形可見的聖堂,是聖地,是聖城──天上耶路撒冷──的預象。這天上的耶路撒冷,是我們在旅途中邁進的目標。

1199. 教會是在這些聖堂裡,舉行公共的敬禮,以光榮天主聖三,聆聽天主的聖言並謳歌讚頌,呈上自己的祈禱,奉獻基督的祭獻;祂藉聖事臨現在聚會當中。聖堂也是默想與個人祈禱的地方。

 IV. Where is the Liturgy Celebrated?

1179 The worship "in Spirit and in truth"53 of the New Covenant is not tied exclusively to any one place. the whole earth is sacred and entrusted to the children of men. What matters above all is that, when the faithful assemble in the same place, they are the "living stones," gathered to be "built into a spiritual house."54 For the Body of the risen Christ is the spiritual temple from which the source of living water springs forth: incorporated into Christ by the Holy Spirit, "we are the temple of the living God."55

1180 When the exercise of religious liberty is not thwarted,56 Christians construct buildings for divine worship. These visible churches are not simply gathering places but signify and make visible the Church living in this place, the dwelling of God with men reconciled and united in Christ.

1181 A church, "a house of prayer in which the Eucharist is celebrated and reserved, where the faithful assemble, and where is worshipped the presence of the Son of God our Savior, offered for us on the sacrificial altar for the help and consolation of the faithful - this house ought to be in good taste and a worthy place for prayer and sacred ceremonial."57 In this "house of God" the truth and the harmony of the signs that make it up should show Christ to be present and active in this place.58

1182 The altar of the New Covenant is the Lord's Cross,59 from which the sacraments of the Paschal mystery flow. On the altar, which is the center of the church, the sacrifice of the Cross is made present under sacramental signs. the altar is also the table of the Lord, to which the People of God are invited.60 In certain Eastern liturgies, the altar is also the symbol of the tomb (Christ truly died and is truly risen).

1183 The tabernacle is to be situated "in churches in a most worthy place with the greatest honor."61 The dignity, placing, and security of the Eucharistic tabernacle should foster adoration before the Lord really present in the Blessed Sacrament of the altar.62 
The sacred chrism (myron), used in anointings as the sacramental sign of the seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit, is traditionally reserved and venerated in a secure place in the sanctuary. the oil of catechumens and the oil of the sick may also be placed there.

1184 The chair (cathedra) of the bishop or the priest "should express his office of presiding over the assembly and of directing prayer."63 
The lectern (ambo): "The dignity of the Word of God requires the church to have a suitable place for announcing his message so that the attention of the people may be easily directed to that place during the liturgy of the Word."64

1185 The gathering of the People of God begins with Baptism; a church must have a place for the celebration of Baptism (baptistry) and for fostering remembrance of the baptismal promises (holy water font). 
The renewal of the baptismal life requires penance. A church, then, must lend itself to the expression of repentance and the reception of forgiveness, which requires an appropriate place to receive penitents. 
A church must also be a space that invites us to the recollection and silent prayer that extend and internalize the great prayer of the Eucharist.

1186 Finally, the church has an eschatological significance. To enter into the house of God, we must cross a threshold, which symbolizes passing from the world wounded by sin to the world of the new Life to which all men are called. the visible church is a symbol of the Father's house toward which the People of God is journeying and where the Father "will wipe every tear from their eyes."65 Also for this reason, the Church is the house of all God's children, open and welcoming.

IN BRIEF

1187 The liturgy is the work of the whole Christ, head and body. Our high priest celebrates it unceasingly in the heavenly liturgy, with the holy Mother of God, the apostles, all the saints, and the multitude of those who have already entered the kingdom.

1188 In a liturgical celebration, the whole assembly is leitourgos, each member according to his own function. the baptismal priesthood is that of the whole Body of Christ. But some of the faithful are ordained through the sacrament of Holy Orders to represent Christ as head of the Body.

1189 The liturgical celebration involves signs and symbols relating to creation (candles, water, fire), human life (washing, anointing, breaking bread) and the history of salvation (the rites of the Passover). Integrated into the world of faith and taken up by the power of the Holy Spirit, these cosmic elements, human rituals, and gestures of remembrance of God become bearers of the saving and sanctifying action of Christ.

1190 The Liturgy of the Word is an integral part of the celebration. the meaning of the celebration is expressed by the Word of God which is proclaimed and by the response of faith to it.

1191 Song and music are closely connected with the liturgical action. the criteria for their proper use are the beauty expressive of prayer, the unanimous participation of the assembly, and the sacred character of the celebration.

1192 Sacred images in our churches and homes are intended to awaken and nourish our faith in the mystery of Christ. Through the icon of Christ and his works of salvation, it is he whom we adore. Through sacred images of the holy Mother of God, of the angels and of the saints, we venerate the persons represented.

1193 Sunday, the "Lord's Day," is the principal day for the celebration of the Eucharist because it is the day of the Resurrection. It is the pre-eminent day of the liturgical assembly, the day of the Christian family, and the day of joy and rest from work. Sunday is "the foundation and kernel of the whole liturgical year" (SC 106).

1194 The Church, "in the course of the year, . . . unfolds the whole mystery of Christ from his Incarnation and Nativity through his Ascension, to Pentecost and the expectation of the blessed hope of the coming of the Lord" (SC 102 # 2).

1195 By keeping the memorials of the saints - first of all the holy Mother of God, then the apostles, the martyrs, and other saints - on fixed days of the liturgical year, the Church on earth shows that she is united with the liturgy of heaven. She gives glory to Christ for having accomplished his salvation in his glorified members; their example encourages her on her way to the Father.

1196 The faithful who celebrate the Liturgy of the Hours are united to Christ our high priest, by the prayer of the Psalms, meditation on the Word of God, and canticles and blessings, in order to be joined with his unceasing and universal prayer that gives glory to the Father and implores the gift of the Holy Spirit on the whole world.

1197 Christ is the true temple of God, "the place where his glory dwells"; by the grace of God, Christians also become the temples of the Holy Spirit, living stones out of which the Church is built.

1198 In its earthly state the Church needs places where the community can gather together. Our visible churches, holy places, are images of the holy city, the heavenly Jerusalem, toward which we are making our way on pilgrimage.

1199 It is in these churches that the Church celebrates public worship to the glory of the Holy Trinity, hears the word of God and sings his praise, lifts up her prayer, and offers the sacrifice of Christ sacramentally present in the midst of the assembly. These churches are also places of recollection and personal prayer.

 

第二條唯一的奧跡與多元的禮儀

不同的禮儀傳統與教會的至公性

 

1200. 自耶路撒冷的初期教會團體,一直到主的再來,忠於宗徒信仰的天主的各教會,在各處慶祝同一的逾越奧跡。禮儀中所慶祝的奧跡是唯一的,但慶祝的形式卻是多元的。

1201. 基督奧跡的豐饒是如此深不可測,任何禮儀傳統都無法予以完全表達。不同的禮儀傳統的萌生和發展歷史,見証了令人驚奇的互補性。當各教會在信仰和信德的聖事中共融,生活出這些禮儀傳統時,她們彼此充實,並在忠於整個教會的聖傳及共同使命之下,不斷成長。

1202. 由於教會本有的使命,產生了多元的禮儀傳統。地域和文化相同的各個教會,共同透過具有特殊文化風格的表達方式,慶祝基督的奧跡;也就是在「信德寶庫」(弟後 1:14)的傳統上、禮儀的象徵上、弟兄共融的組織上、對奧跡的神學理解上、及多元的聖德模式上,都有不同的表達方式。由於教會被派遣到各種民族及文化中,並扎根於其中,所以, 基督──萬民的光和救贖,得以透過各地教會的禮儀生活,向當地的人民和文化顯示自己。教會是至公的,因此,她能將各文化中一切的真正豐饒予以淨化之後,並將之整合於她唯一的奧跡中。

1203. 教會目前應用的各禮儀傳統或儀式有拉丁禮(主要是羅馬的儀式,但亦有某些地方教會的儀式,如安博[米蘭]的儀式、或一些修會的儀式)以及拜占廷 (Byzantine)禮、亞歷山大 (Alexandrian)禮或科普替 (Coptic)禮、敘利亞 (Syriac)禮、亞美尼亞 (Armenian) 禮、瑪洛尼 (Maronite )禮和加色丁(Chaldean)禮。「神聖公會議,忠於傳統,鄭重聲明,慈母聖教會以同等的權利和地位,看待所有合法認可的禮儀,願其保存於後世,並能全面發展」。

禮儀與文化

1204. 禮儀慶典應配合不同民族的天賦和文化。為使基督的奧跡能「曉諭萬民,使他們服從信德」(羅 16:26),此奧跡應在所有文化裡宣布、慶祝和生活出來。如此,文化不但不會被消除,反而藉著基督得到救贖、變得更完美。千千萬萬的天主子女,偕同並藉著他們那已被基督提昇和聖化的文化,走到天父面前,並在同一的聖神內光榮祂。

1205. 「在禮儀中,尤其在聖事禮儀中,含有不能改變的成分,那是由天主所建立的,並由教會保管。然而,禮儀也含有可變的成分;教會有權,甚至有時也有義務加以改變,以適應最近接受福音的各民族文化」。

1206. 「禮儀的多元性能成為豐富的泉源,但也可能挑起緊張、彼此的誤會、甚至分裂。在這一方面,要清楚了解禮儀的多元性,不應損害教會的團結合一。禮儀的多元性只有在忠於共同的信仰,教會從基督所接受求心靈的皈依,且在必要時,要放棄一切有違大公信仰的積習」。

撮要

1207. 禮儀慶典勉力以教會所在地的人民的文化來表達,這是適當的做法;但不可屈就於文化之下。從另一角度看,禮儀本身也能產生並塑造文化。

1208.經合法承認的各種不同禮儀傳統或儀式,由於它們都標誌並通傳同一的基督奧跡,而顯示教會的大公性。

1209. 確保禮儀傳統「一體多元化」的準則,就是:忠於宗徒的聖傳,亦即在宗徒傳下來的信仰和聖事上共融,這共融是藉著宗徒繼承而得到闡明和保証的。

 Article 2

LITURGICAL DIVERSITY AND THE UNITY OF THE MYSTERY

Liturgical traditions and the catholicity of the Church

1200 From the first community of Jerusalem until the parousia, it is the same Paschal mystery that the Churches of God, faithful to the apostolic faith, celebrate in every place. the mystery celebrated in the liturgy is one, but the forms of its celebration are diverse.

1201 The mystery of Christ is so unfathomably rich that it cannot be exhausted by its expression in any single liturgical tradition. the history of the blossoming and development of these rites witnesses to a remarkable complementarity. When the Churches lived their respective liturgical traditions in the communion of the faith and the sacraments of the faith, they enriched one another and grew in fidelity to Tradition and to the common mission of the whole Church.66

1202 The diverse liturgical traditions have arisen by very reason of the Church's mission. Churches of the same geographical and cultural area came to celebrate the mystery of Christ through particular expressions characterized by the culture: in the tradition of the "deposit of faith,"67 in liturgical symbolism, in the organization of fraternal communion, in the theological understanding of the mysteries, and in various forms of holiness. Through the liturgical life of a local church, Christ, the light and salvation of all peoples, is made manifest to the particular people and culture to which that Church is sent and in which she is rooted. the Church is catholic, capable of integrating into her unity, while purifying them, all the authentic riches of cultures.68

1203 The liturgical traditions or rites presently in use in the Church are the Latin (principally the Roman rite, but also the rites of certain local churches, such as the Ambrosian rite, or those of certain religious orders) and the Byzantine, Alexandrian or Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Maronite and Chaldean rites. In "faithful obedience to tradition, the sacred Council declares that Holy Mother Church holds all lawfully recognized rites to be of equal right and dignity, and that she wishes to preserve them in the future and to foster them in every way."69

Liturgy and culture

1204 The celebration of the liturgy, therefore, should correspond to the genius and culture of the different peoples.70 In order that the mystery of Christ be "made known to all the nations . . . to bring about the obedience of faith,"71 it must be proclaimed, celebrated, and lived in all cultures in such a way that they themselves are not abolished by it, but redeemed and fulfilled:72 It is with and through their own human culture, assumed and transfigured by Christ, that the multitude of God's children has access to the Father, in order to glorify him in the one Spirit.

1205 "In the liturgy, above all that of the sacraments, there is an immutable part, a part that is divinely instituted and of which the Church is the guardian, and parts that can be changed, which the Church has the power and on occasion also the duty to adapt to the cultures of recently evangelized peoples."73

1206 "Liturgical diversity can be a source of enrichment, but it can also provoke tensions, mutual misunderstandings, and even schisms. In this matter it is clear that diversity must not damage unity. It must express only fidelity to the common faith, to the sacramental signs that the Church has received from Christ, and to hierarchical communion. Cultural adaptation also requires a conversion of heart and even, where necessary, a breaking with ancestral customs incompatible with the Catholic faith."74

IN BRIEF

1207 It is fitting that liturgical celebration tends to express itself in the culture of the people where the Church finds herself, though without being submissive to it. Moreover, the liturgy itself generates cultures and shapes them.

1208 The diverse liturgical traditions or rites, legitimately recognized, manifest the catholicity of the Church, because they signify and communicate the same mystery of Christ.

1209 The criterion that assures unity amid the diversity of liturgical traditions is fidelity to apostolic Tradition, i e., the communion in the faith and the sacraments received from the apostles, a communion that is both signified and guaranteed by apostolic succession.

 

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