卷二基督奧跡的慶典-病人傅油/THE ANOINTING OF THE SICK

第五條

病人傅油

 

 

 

1499. 「司鐸為病人祈禱和傅油時,是整個教會將病人託付給曾受苦、並受享光榮的主基督,求祂撫慰、救助病人;而且她更勸導病人藉著甘願參與基督的苦難和死亡,也獻出一分力量,為使天主子民受益」。

一、病人傅油在救恩史中的基礎

人類生命中的疾病
1500.疾病和痛苦往往是人生命所面臨最嚴重的問題。人在生病時,將體驗到他的無能、限度和終極。一切疾病都能使我們隱約地看到死亡。

1501. 疾病能使人陷入焦慮不安,甚至有時對天主感到失望和怨忿,但他也能藉此反省自我。疾病也可使人更趨成熟,幫助他辨別並追求生命中最重要的事物。疾病時常激發人追尋天主並歸向天主。

在天主前的病人

1502 . 舊約中的人,是面對天主,度其病痛的生活,是在天主面前傾吐其對疾病的哀怨,也是向祂、生與死的主宰,懇求治癒疾病成為皈依的途徑,而天主的寬恕是治癒的開始。以色列經驗到,疾病是以一種神秘的方式與罪過、邪惡相連,然而,按照天主的法律,對天主的忠誠能使人恢復生命:「我是醫治你的上主」 (出 15:26)。先知悟出痛苦也有為他人贖罪的價值。最後,依撒意亞宣布天主要給熙雍預定一個時間,那時祂將赦免一切過錯並治好一切疾病。

基督 ──── 醫生

1503. 基督憐憫病人,並多次治好各種殘疾的人,這些都是清晰的標記,顯示「天主眷顧了祂的百姓」(路 7:16)以及天國臨近了。耶穌不但具有治病的權能,也有赦罪的權能:祂來治癒整個人,包括靈魂和肉身;祂是病人所需要的醫生。祂非常憐愛所有受苦的人,甚至與他們認同:「我患病,你們看顧了我」(瑪 25:36)。祂對病人優先的厚愛,在每個時代,都不斷地喚起基督徒,特別關注所有在肉身或靈魂上受苦的人。主的這種關愛是促使我們不懈地努力安慰病人的力量來源。

1504. 耶穌常要求病人要有信德。祂利用標記來醫治人:唾沫和覆手,泥土和水洗,病人設法前來觸摸祂,「因為有一種能力從祂身上出來,治好眾人」(路 6:19)。如此,基督繼續透過聖事「觸摸」我們,為醫治我們。

1505. 基督看見那麼多的痛苦而大受感動,不但讓病人觸摸祂,並親自承擔他們的苦痛:「祂承受我們的脆弱;擔荷了我們的疾病」(瑪 8:17)。然而,祂沒有治好所有的病人。祂治癒病人是天國來臨的標記。這些治病事件宣告一種最徹底的治癒:即藉著基督的逾越,戰勝罪惡和死亡。基督在十字架上,背負了所有罪過的重擔,並除去了「世罪」(若 1:29),而疾病只是世罪的後果之一。基督藉著十字架上的苦難和死亡,賦予痛苦新的意義:從此,痛苦可使我們肖似祂並結合於祂為救贖世人所受的苦難。

「你們要治癒病人你們要治癒病人…………」

1506. 基督邀請門徒背負自己的十字架跟隨祂。門徒由於跟隨基督,對疾病和病人有了新的看法。耶穌要門徒參與祂的貧窮、且為人服務的生活。祂讓門徒參與祂憐憫、治癒的職務:「他們就出去宣講,使人悔改,並驅逐了許多魔鬼,且給許多病人傅油,治好了他們」(谷 6:12-13)。

1507. 復活的主重複此派遣 (「因我的名……按手在病人身上,可使人痊癒」谷谷 18),並藉著教會以呼求祂的名所實行的標記予以肯定。這些標記以一種特殊的方式,顯示耶穌確是「拯救人類的天主」

1508. 聖神賜給某些人有治病的特殊神恩, 以顯示復活之主恩寵的力量。 不過即使是最懇切的祈禱,也不常會治癒一切疾病。因此,聖保祿從主那裡學習到,「我的恩寵為你足夠了,因為我的德能在軟弱中才全顯出來」(格後 12:9);因為忍受痛苦意指:「我在我的肉身上,為基督的身體──教會,補充基督的苦難所欠缺的」(哥 1:24)。

1509. 「你們要治好病人!」(瑪 10:8)教會從主手中領受了這任務。她透過照顧病人、陪伴病人、為病人代禱,努力實踐此項任務。教會相信基督是靈魂和肉身的醫生;祂的臨在能給予生命。這種臨在特別活躍在聖事中,並且以極獨特的方式臨在於感恩(聖體)聖事;此聖事是賜人永生的食糧,聖保祿也曾暗示過聖體與肉身健康的關係。

1510. 宗徒時代的教會在當時已有一個為幫助病人的專用儀式,由聖雅各伯說明:「你們中間有患病的嗎?他該請教會的長老們來;他們該為他祈禱,因主的名給他傅油:出於信德的祈禱,必救那病人,主必使他起來;並且如果他犯了罪,也必得蒙赦免」(雅 5:14-15)。聖傳從這儀式中認出它是教會的七件聖事之一。

病人的聖事
1511.教會相信並宣認七件聖事中,有一件特別用來堅強、安慰那些忍受病苦的人,就是病人傅油:
此病人傅油是由我們的主基督建立的,作為真正新約的聖事之一;這在馬爾谷福音中,固已間接提及,而主的弟兄雅各伯宗徒,就把它介紹給信友們並予以公布。

1512 .在禮儀傳統中──包括東方禮和西方禮──得到証明,自古就有用祝福過的油施行病人傅油。歷經多個世紀的演變,病人傅油逐漸只為臨終者了。因此它獲得「終傅」的名稱。雖然有這樣的轉變,禮儀從沒有忘記為病人祈求上主,如果康復有益於他的得救,就賜他康復。

1513.〈病人傅油禮儀〉宗座憲令於 1972年 11月 30日頒布, 按梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議的規定,羅馬禮從此以後遵守以下禮規:

病人傅油聖事是給那些病重的人施行的,施行者在病人的前額和雙手上,傅抹祝福過的油(橄欖油或其他植物油),同時以下列經文祈禱一次:「藉此神聖傅油,願無限仁慈的主,以聖神的恩寵助佑你,祂既赦免你的罪過,願祂拯救你,使你重新振作起來」。

二、誰領受和誰施行這聖事?

病重情況……
1514.病人傅油「並不只是臨終者的聖事。 所以,凡信友因疾病或衰老、開始有死亡的危險,便確實到了領受此聖事的適當時刻」。

1515. 病人領過傅油,痊癒後如再次陷入重病,可再次領受這聖事。在同一疾病中,如病情再度惡化,也可再領受這聖事。病人在施行有危險的手術之前,宜領受病人傅油。同樣,可為身體顯然漸趨衰弱的年長者傅油。

「便要請教會的長老來」

1516. 唯有司祭(主教和司鐸)是病人傅油的施行人。牧者有義務向信徒教導這聖事的益處。信友宜鼓勵病人請司祭來,為領受此聖事。病人應在牧者和整個教會團體的幫助下作好準備,領受聖事。要邀請教會團體陪伴病人,特別要以祈禱和弟兄姊妹般的殷勤照料病人。

Article 5

THE ANOINTING OF THE SICK

1499 "By the sacred anointing of the sick and the prayer of the priests the whole Church commends those who are ill to the suffering and glorified Lord, that he may raise them up and save them. and indeed she exhorts them to contribute to the good of the People of God by freely uniting themselves to the Passion and death of Christ."97

I. Its Foundations in the Economy of Salvation

Illness in human life

1500 Illness and suffering have always been among the gravest problems confronted in human life. In illness, man experiences his powerlessness, his limitations, and his finitude. Every illness can make us glimpse death.

1501 Illness can lead to anguish, self-absorption, sometimes even despair and revolt against God. It can also make a person more mature, helping him discern in his life what is not essential so that he can turn toward that which is. Very often illness provokes a search for God and a return to him.

The sick person before God

1502 The man of the Old Testament lives his sickness in the presence of God. It is before God that he laments his illness, and it is of God, Master of life and death, that he implores healing.98 Illness becomes a way to conversion; God's forgiveness initiates the healing.99 It is the experience of Israel that illness is mysteriously linked to sin and evil, and that faithfulness to God according to his law restores life: "For I am the Lord, your healer."100 The prophet intuits that suffering can also have a redemptive meaning for the sins of others.101 Finally Isaiah announces that God will usher in a time for Zion when he will pardon every offense and heal every illness.102

Christ the physician

1503 Christ's compassion toward the sick and his many healings of every kind of infirmity are a resplendent sign that "God has visited his people"103 and that the Kingdom of God is close at hand. Jesus has the power not only to heal, but also to forgive sins;104 he has come to heal the whole man, soul and body; he is the physician the sick have need of.105 His compassion toward all who suffer goes so far that he identifies himself with them: "I was sick and you visited me."106 His preferential love for the sick has not ceased through the centuries to draw the very special attention of Christians toward all those who suffer in body and soul. It is the source of tireless efforts to comfort them.

1504 Often Jesus asks the sick to believe.107 He makes use of signs to heal: spittle and the laying on of hands,108 mud and washing.109 The sick try to touch him, "for power came forth from him and healed them all."110 and so in the sacraments Christ continues to "touch" us in order to heal us.

1505 Moved by so much suffering Christ not only allows himself to be touched by the sick, but he makes their miseries his own: "He took our infirmities and bore our diseases."111 But he did not heal all the sick. His healings were signs of the coming of the Kingdom of God. They announced a more radical healing: the victory over sin and death through his Passover. On the cross Christ took upon himself the whole weight of evil and took away the "sin of the world,"112 of which illness is only a consequence. By his passion and death on the cross Christ has given a new meaning to suffering: it can henceforth configure us to him and unite us with his redemptive Passion.

"Heal the sick . . ."

1506 Christ invites his disciples to follow him by taking up their cross in their turn.113 By following him they acquire a new outlook on illness and the sick. Jesus associates them with his own life of poverty and service. He makes them share in his ministry of compassion and healing: "So they went out and preached that men should repent. and they cast out many demons, and anointed with oil many that were sick and healed them."114

1507 The risen Lord renews this mission ("In my name . . . they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will recover."115) and confirms it through the signs that the Church performs by invoking his name.116 These signs demonstrate in a special way that Jesus is truly "God who saves."117

1508 The Holy Spirit gives to some a special charism of healing118 so as to make manifest the power of the grace of the risen Lord. But even the most intense prayers do not always obtain the healing of all illnesses. Thus St. Paul must learn from the Lord that "my grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness," and that the sufferings to be endured can mean that "in my flesh I complete what is lacking in Christ's afflictions for the sake of his Body, that is, the Church."119

1509 "Heal the sick!"120 The Church has received this charge from the Lord and strives to carry it out by taking care of the sick as well as by accompanying them with her prayer of intercession. She believes in the life-giving presence of Christ, the physician of souls and bodies. This presence is particularly active through the sacraments, and in an altogether special way through the Eucharist, the bread that gives eternal life and that St. Paul suggests is connected with bodily health.121

1510 However, the apostolic Church has its own rite for the sick, attested to by St. James: "Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders [presbyters] of the Church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven."122 Tradition has recognized in this rite one of the seven sacraments.123

A sacrament of the sick

1511 The Church believes and confesses that among the seven sacraments there is one especially intended to strengthen those who are being tried by illness, the Anointing of the Sick:

This sacred anointing of the sick was instituted by Christ our Lord as a true and proper sacrament of the New Testament. It is alluded to indeed by Mark, but is recommended to the faithful and promulgated by James the apostle and brother of the Lord.124

1512 From ancient times in the liturgical traditions of both East and West, we have testimonies to the practice of anointings of the sick with blessed oil. Over the centuries the Anointing of the Sick was conferred more and more exclusively on those at the point of death. Because of this it received the name "Extreme Unction." Notwithstanding this evolution the liturgy has never failed to beg the Lord that the sick person may recover his health if it would be conducive to his salvation.125

1513 The Apostolic Constitution Sacram unctionem infirmorum,126 following upon the Second Vatican Council,127 established that henceforth, in the Roman Rite, the following be observed:

The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick is given to those who are seriously ill by anointing them on the forehead and hands with duly blessed oil - pressed from olives or from other plants - saying, only once: "Through this holy anointing may the Lord in his love and mercy help you with the grace of the Holy Spirit. May the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up."128

II. Who Receives and Who Administers This Sacrament?

In case of grave illness . . .

1514 The Anointing of the Sick "is not a sacrament for those only who are at the point of death. Hence, as soon as anyone of the faithful begins to be in danger of death from sickness or old age, the fitting time for him to receive this sacrament has certainly already arrived."129

1515 If a sick person who received this anointing recovers his health, he can in the case of another grave illness receive this sacrament again. If during the same illness the person's condition becomes more serious, the sacrament may be repeated. It is fitting to receive the Anointing of the Sick just prior to a serious operation. the same holds for the elderly whose frailty becomes more pronounced.

" . . . let him call for the presbyters of the Church"

1516 Only priests (bishops and presbyters) are ministers of the Anointing of the Sick.130 It is the duty of pastors to instruct the faithful on the benefits of this sacrament. the faithful should encourage the sick to call for a priest to receive this sacrament. the sick should prepare themselves to receive it with good dispositions, assisted by their pastor and the whole ecclesial community, which is invited to surround the sick in a special way through their prayers and fraternal attention.

 

三、如何舉行這聖事慶典?

1517. 如所有聖事一樣,病人傅油是團體的禮儀慶典,可在家裡、醫院或聖堂舉行,可單獨為一位、或同時為一群病弱人士施行。病人傅油聖事很適宜在感恩祭──主逾越的紀念──當中舉行。在某些情況下,如果合適,舉行這聖事慶典前,可先舉行懺悔聖事,而在傅油禮後領受感恩(聖體)聖事。由於此聖事是基督逾越的聖事,它常應是塵世旅途中最後領受的聖事,即是「越過」此世到達永生之路途上的「行糧」(臨終聖體)。

1518. 聖言與聖事是一個不可分開的整體。慶典開始時,首先是懺悔罪過,隨後就是聖道禮儀。基督的話語、宗徒的見証,喚醒病人和團體的信德,祈求主賜予聖神的力量。

1519. 此聖事慶典主要包括以下部分:「教會的長老們」(雅 5:14)在靜默中給病人覆手;在教會的信德中為病人祈禱──這是此聖事專有的呼求聖神禱詞;並用祝福過的油(如可能的話,是由主教祝福的)傅抹病人。

這些禮儀行動指出此聖事賦予病人的是何種恩寵。

四、這聖事慶典的效果

1520. 聖神的一項特別恩賜。這聖事的首要恩寵,就是安慰、平安和鼓勵的恩寵,為克服重病或年老體弱時所面對的種種困難。這恩寵是聖神的恩賜;聖神重振病人對天主的信心和信德,並堅強他抵抗凶惡的誘惑、失望的誘惑和死亡的恐懼。主藉聖神的力量給予病人這種助佑,帶領他的靈魂獲得治癒;而且如果天主願意的話,也使他的身體痊癒。再者,「如果他犯了罪,也必得蒙赦免」(雅 5:15)。

1521. 結合於基督的苦難。透過這聖事的恩寵,病人領受了力量和神恩,與基督的苦難更緊密結合:在某種意義下,他蒙受祝聖,而肖似救主的救世苦難並結出果實。痛苦是原罪的後果,現在獲得一種新的意義:痛苦成為參與耶穌救世工程[的一種方式]。

1522. 教會的恩寵。領受這聖事的病人「藉著甘願參與基督的苦難和死亡,也獻出一分力量,為使天主子民受益」。教會慶祝這聖事時,在諸聖相通中為病人的裨益代禱。病人自己則透過這聖事的恩寵,為聖化教會並為了全人類的益處而作出貢獻;教會為了人類而受苦,並藉著基督,奉獻自己給天主父。

1523. 為步入人生旅途的最後階段作準備。如果病人傅油是施給那些忍受嚴重病苦和衰弱的人的聖事,那麼,就更有充分理由施給那些將近「離世的人」。因此,這聖事也曾被稱為終傅聖事 (sacramentum exeuntium)。病人傅油聖事使我們完成從受洗就已開始的與基督同死同復活的人生旅程。病人傅油聖事,使基督徒整個生命中所接受過的各項傅油得以完成:聖洗的傅油是我們獲得永生的印証;堅振的傅油則堅強我們,好能在生命中奮鬥;這最後的傅油就給我們塵世生命作最後的裝備,好像堅固的堡壘,在我們進入父家前,面對最後搏鬥時,保護我們。

 III. How is This Sacrament Celebrated?

1517 Like all the sacraments the Anointing of the Sick is a liturgical and communal celebration,131 whether it takes place in the family home, a hospital or church, for a single sick person or a whole group of sick persons. It is very fitting to celebrate it within the Eucharist, the memorial of the Lord's Passover. If circumstances suggest it, the celebration of the sacrament can be preceded by the sacrament of Penance and followed by the sacrament of the Eucharist. As the sacrament of Christ's Passover the Eucharist should always be the last sacrament of the earthly journey, the "viaticum" for "passing over" to eternal life.

1518 Word and sacrament form an indivisible whole. the Liturgy of the Word, preceded by an act of repentance, opens the celebration. the words of Christ, the witness of the apostles, awaken the faith of the sick person and of the community to ask the Lord for the strength of his Spirit.

1519 The celebration of the sacrament includes the following principal elements: the "priests of the Church"132 - in silence - lay hands on the sick; they pray over them in the faith of the Church133 - this is the epiclesis proper to this sacrament; they then anoint them with oil blessed, if possible, by the bishop. 
These liturgical actions indicate what grace this sacrament confers upon the sick.

IV. The Effects of the Celebration of This Sacrament

1520 A particular gift of the Holy Spirit. the first grace of this sacrament is one of strengthening, peace and courage to overcome the difficulties that go with the condition of serious illness or the frailty of old age. This grace is a gift of the Holy Spirit, who renews trust and faith in God and strengthens against the temptations of the evil one, the temptation to discouragement and anguish in the face of death.134This assistance from the Lord by the power of his Spirit is meant to lead the sick person to healing of the soul, but also of the body if such is God's will.135 Furthermore, "if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven."136

1521 Union with the passion of Christ. By the grace of this sacrament the sick person receives the strength and the gift of uniting himself more closely to Christ's Passion: in a certain way he is consecrated to bear fruit by configuration to the Savior's redemptive Passion. Suffering, a consequence of original sin, acquires a new meaning; it becomes a participation in the saving work of Jesus.

1522 An ecclesial grace. the sick who receive this sacrament, "by freely uniting themselves to the passion and death of Christ," "contribute to the good of the People of God."137 By celebrating this sacrament the Church, in the communion of saints, intercedes for the benefit of the sick person, and he, for his part, though the grace of this sacrament, contributes to the sanctification of the Church and to the good of all men for whom the Church suffers and offers herself through Christ to God the Father.

1523 A preparation for the final journey. If the sacrament of anointing of the sick is given to all who suffer from serious illness and infirmity, even more rightly is it given to those at the point of departing this life; so it is also called sacramentum exeuntium (the sacrament of those departing).138 The Anointing of the Sick completes our conformity to the death and Resurrection of Christ, just as Baptism began it. It completes the holy anointings that mark the whole Christian life: that of Baptism which sealed the new life in us, and that of Confirmation which strengthened us for the combat of this life. This last anointing fortifies the end of our earthly life like a solid rampart for the final struggles before entering the Father's house.139

五、臨終聖體(天路行糧):基督徒最後的聖事

1524. 除病人傅油外,教會也給予那些即將離世的人感恩(聖體)聖事,作為天路行糧 (臨終聖體)。在回歸天父的這一刻所領受的基督聖體聖血,含有特別的意義和重要性。按照主的話:「誰吃我的肉,並喝我的血,必得永生,在末日,我且要叫他復活」(若 6:54),基督的聖體聖血是永生的根源和復活的德能。在此,感恩(聖體)聖事──基督死亡和復活的聖事──是「由死亡通往生命」、「從現世邁向天父」的聖事。

1525. 同樣,正如聖洗、堅振和感恩(聖體)聖事組成一個整體,稱為「基督徒入門聖事」,我們可以說,當基督徒的生命臨近終結時,懺悔聖事、病人傅油聖事和感恩(聖體)聖事──天路行糧(臨終聖體)──組成「準備前往天鄉的聖事」,或「完成現世旅途的聖事」。

撮要

1526. 「你們中間有患病的嗎?他該請教會的長老們來;讓他們為他祈禱,因主的名給他傅油:出於信德的祈禱,必救那病人,主必使他起來;並且如果他犯了罪,也必得蒙赦免」(雅 5:14-15)。

1527.病人傅油聖事的目的,是賦予特別的恩寵給重病或因年老而受病苦考驗的基督徒。
1528.在信徒因疾病或年老而開始處於死亡危險的時候,肯定就是領受傅油的適當時刻。
1529.當基督徒病重的時候,他就可以領受傅油聖事。縱使他領過這聖事,只要病情惡化,也可再領。
1530.只有司祭(司鐸和主教)可以施行病人傅油聖事,他們所採用的油須由主教祝聖,或在必要時,由主禮司鐸祝聖。

1531. 舉行傅油聖事的必要儀式是:主禮司祭(司鐸或主教)在病人的前額和雙手(羅馬禮) 或身體其他部分(東方禮)傅抹聖油,同時以禮儀禱詞,求使病人獲得這聖事的特別恩寵。

1532.病人傅油聖事的特別恩寵具有以下的效果:
──病人為自己以及整個教會的益處,與基督的苦難結合;
──帶來安慰、平安和勇氣,好能以基督徒的精神,忍受因疾病和年老而引致的痛苦;
──如病人未能藉懺悔聖事而蒙赦免的話,他的罪過可因此得寬赦;
──如果有助於其靈魂的得救,可恢復病人的健康;

──準備逾越過此世,進到永生。 

V. Viaticum, the Last Sacrament of the Christian

1524 In addition to the Anointing of the Sick, the Church offers those who are about to leave this life the Eucharist as viaticum. Communion in the body and blood of Christ, received at this moment of "passing over" to the Father, has a particular significance and importance. It is the seed of eternal life and the power of resurrection, according to the words of the Lord: "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day."140 The sacrament of Christ once dead and now risen, the Eucharist is here the sacrament of passing over from death to life, from this world to the Father.141

1525 Thus, just as the sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist form a unity called "the sacraments of Christian initiation," so too it can be said that Penance, the Anointing of the Sick and the Eucharist as viaticum constitute at the end of Christian life "the sacraments that prepare for our heavenly homeland" or the sacraments that complete the earthly pilgrimage.

IN BRIEF

1526 "Is any among you sick? Let him call for the presbyters of the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven" ( Jas 5:14-15).

1527 The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick has as its purpose the conferral of a special grace on the Christian experiencing the difficulties inherent in the condition of grave illness or old age.

1528 The proper time for receiving this holy anointing has certainly arrived when the believer begins to be in danger of death because of illness or old age.

1529 Each time a Christian falls seriously ill, he may receive the Anointing of the Sick, and also when, after he has received it, the illness worsens.

1530 Only priests (presbyters and bishops) can give the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick, using oil blessed by the bishop, or if necessary by the celebrating presbyter himself.

1531 The celebration of the Anointing of the Sick consists essentially in the anointing of the forehead and hands of the sick person (in the Roman Rite) or of other parts of the body (in the Eastern rite), the anointing being accompanied by the liturgical prayer of the celebrant asking for the special grace of this sacrament.

1532 The special grace of the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick has as its effects: 
- the uniting of the sick person to the passion of Christ, for his own good and that of the whole Church; 
- the strengthening, peace, and courage to endure in a Christian manner the sufferings of illness or old age; 
- the forgiveness of sins, if the sick person was not able to obtain it through the sacrament of Penance; 
- the restoration of health, if it is conducive to the salvation of his soul; 
- the preparation for passing over to eternal life.

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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