卷二基督奧跡的慶典-治療的聖事/THE SACRAMENTS OF HEALING

天主教教理卷二
基督奧跡的慶典

第二部分
第二章治療的聖事

 

1420. 藉著基督徒入門聖事,人接受了基督的新生命。然而,我們是「在瓦器中」保存這生命的(格後 4:7)。目前,這生命仍是「與基督一同藏在天主內」(哥 3:3)。我們仍居住在「地上的寓所」(格後 5:1),容易受到痛苦、疾病和死亡的支配。這天主子女的新生命可能因罪惡被削弱,甚至因而喪失。

1421. 主耶穌基督是我們靈魂和肉身的醫生,祂赦免了癱子的罪,並恢復他身體的健康 1。耶穌願意祂的教會,藉著聖神的力量,也為教會本身的肢體,繼續祂醫治和救恩的工程。這就是兩件治療聖事──懺悔聖事和病人傅油聖事──的目的。

第四條

懺悔與和好的聖事

 

1422. 「誰去領受懺悔聖事,便能得到仁慈天主寬恕他得罪天主的罪過,同時與教會和好,因為他們的罪過損傷了教會,教會卻以仁愛、善表和祈禱,幫助他們悔改」。

一、怎樣稱這聖事?

1423.它稱為悔改 (皈依)聖事 (Sacrament of Conversion),因為它以聖事的方式實現了耶穌邀請人皈依的召叫,它是人因犯罪而遠離天父後,回歸天父的路徑。
它稱為懺悔聖事 (Sacrament of Penance),因為它祝聖基督徒罪人在個人及教會層次上的皈依、懺悔及補贖的步驟。

1424. 它稱為告解聖事 (Sacrament of Confession),因為罪人在司鐸(或主教) 前告明並認罪,是這聖事的要素。從更深的意義來看,這聖事也是一種「頌揚」,即感謝和讚美天主的神聖,以及祂對罪人的仁慈。

它稱為寬恕聖事 (Sacrament of Forgiveness),因為藉著司鐸(或主教)在聖事中赦免罪過,天主賜予懺悔者「寬恕與平安」。

它稱為 和好聖事 (Sacrament of Reconciliation),因為它賦予罪人天主的愛;天主使罪人與祂和好:「與天主和好吧」(格後 5:20)。誰依靠天主的仁愛而生活,就是準備好自己回應主的召叫:「先去與你的弟兄和好」(瑪 5:24)。


CHAPTER TWO

THE SACRAMENTS OF HEALING

1420 Through the sacraments of Christian initiation, man receives the new life of Christ. Now we carry this life "in earthen vessels," and it remains "hidden with Christ in God."1 We are still in our "earthly tent," subject to suffering, illness, and death.2 This new life as a child of God can be weakened and even lost by sin.

1421 The Lord Jesus Christ, physician of our souls and bodies, who forgave the sins of the paralytic and restored him to bodily health,3 has willed that his Church continue, in the power of the Holy Spirit, his work of healing and salvation, even among her own members. This is the purpose of the two sacraments of healing: the sacrament of Penance and the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick.

Article 4

THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCE AND RECONCILIATION

1422 "Those who approach the sacrament of Penance obtain pardon from God's mercy for the offense committed against him, and are, at the same time, reconciled with the Church which they have wounded by their sins and which by charity, by example, and by prayer labors for their conversion."4

I. What is This Sacrament Called?

1423 It is called the sacrament of conversion because it makes sacramentally present Jesus' call to conversion, the first step in returning to the Father5 from whom one has strayed by sin. 
It is called the sacrament of Penance, since it consecrates the Christian sinner's personal and ecclesial steps of conversion, penance, and satisfaction.

1424 It is called the sacrament of confession, since the disclosure or confession of sins to a priest is an essential element of this sacrament. In a profound sense it is also a "confession" - acknowledgment and praise - of the holiness of God and of his mercy toward sinful man. 
It is called the sacrament of forgiveness, since by the priest's sacramental absolution God grants the penitent "pardon and peace."6 
It is called the sacrament of Reconciliation, because it imparts to the sinner the live of God who reconciles: "Be reconciled to God."7 He who lives by God's merciful love is ready to respond to the Lord's call: "Go; first be reconciled to your brother."8

 

二、為甚麼受洗後還需要和好聖事?

1425. 「你們因著主耶穌基督之名,並因我們天主的聖神,已經洗淨了,已經祝聖了,已經成了義人」(格前 6:11)。我們該體會到天主在基督徒入門聖事中所賦予的恩賜是何等偉大,好能清楚知道,對「穿上了基督」(迦 3:27)的人來說,罪使他們離開天主多麼遠。但是,聖若望宗徒也說:「如果我們說我們沒有罪過, 就是欺騙自己,真理也不在我們內」(若一 1:8)。主曾親自教導我們這樣祈禱:「請寬恕我們的罪過」(路 11:4);主把「我們互相寬恕」,跟「天主寬恕我們」二者相連。

1426. 皈依基督,領受聖洗的重生、聖神的恩賜、及基督聖體聖血之糧,使我們「在祂面前,成為聖潔無瑕疵的」(弗 1:4),正如教會 ── 基督的淨配 ── 一樣,「在祂面前是聖潔和沒有污點的」(弗 5:27)。然而,我們在基督徒入門聖事中所接受的新生命,並沒有消除人性的脆弱和軟弱,也沒有免除人犯罪的傾向,即傳統所稱的私慾偏情。這種私慾偏情仍存在於受過洗的人身上,他們要依靠基督恩寵的助佑,在基督徒的生活裡,接受考驗,不斷戰鬥。這戰鬥就是皈依的戰鬥,以邁向上主不停召叫我們奔赴的聖德和永生。

三、受洗者的皈依(悔改)

1427. 耶穌召叫人皈依。這召叫是宣布天國來臨的必要部分:「時期已滿,天主的國臨近了,你們悔改,信從福音罷!」(谷 1:15)在教會的宣講裡,這召叫首先是對那些尚未認識基督及祂福音的人發出的。同樣,聖洗也是首次和基本皈依的主要場所。藉著信從福音和通過聖洗,人棄絕罪惡並獲得救恩,即所有罪過得蒙赦免,並獲得新生的恩賜。

 

1428. 基督召叫我們皈依,這召叫仍不斷在基督徒的生活中迴響。這再次的皈依,是整個教會從不間斷的任務,「她將罪人緊緊地抱在懷裡,因此,她雖是聖的,但常須淨煉,不斷努力悔改和更新」。這悔改的努力不但是人的工作,也是一顆「痛悔之心」的行動(詠51:19);這顆痛悔的心受到恩寵的吸引和感動,而回應天主的仁愛,因為祂先愛了我們。

 

1429. 聖伯多祿三次否認主後的皈依可資証明。耶穌以無限仁慈的目光對他的注視,促使他痛悔流淚(路 22:61)。在主復活後,伯多祿又三次肯定自己對主的愛。這再次的皈依又具有團體幅度;由此可見,主對整個教會的召叫:「你悔改吧!」(默 2:5,16)。

聖安博談論這兩種皈依時說,在教會內「有水和淚的皈依,就是洗禮的水和悔改的淚」。


 II. Why a Sacrament of Reconciliation after Baptism?

1425 "YOU were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God."9 One must appreciate the magnitude of the gift God has given us in the sacraments of Christian initiation in order to grasp the degree to which sin is excluded for him who has "put on Christ."10 But the apostle John also says: "If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us."11 and the Lord himself taught us to pray: "Forgive us our trespasses,"12 linking our forgiveness of one another's offenses to the forgiveness of our sins that God will grant us.

1426 Conversion to Christ, the new birth of Baptism, the gift of the Holy Spirit and the Body and Blood of Christ received as food have made us "holy and without blemish," just as the Church herself, the Bride of Christ, is "holy and without blemish."13 Nevertheless the new life received in Christian initiation has not abolished the frailty and weakness of human nature, nor the inclination to sin that tradition calls concupiscence, which remains in the baptized such that with the help of the grace of Christ they may prove themselves in the struggle of Christian life.14 This is the struggle of conversion directed toward holiness and eternal life to which the Lord never ceases to call us.15

III. The Conversion of the Baptized

1427 Jesus calls to conversion. This call is an essential part of the proclamation of the kingdom: "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel."16 In the Church's preaching this call is addressed first to those who do not yet know Christ and his Gospel. Also, Baptism is the principal place for the first and fundamental conversion. It is by faith in the Gospel and by Baptism17 that one renounces evil and gains salvation, that is, the forgiveness of all sins and the gift of new life.

1428 Christ's call to conversion continues to resound in the lives of Christians. This second conversion is an uninterrupted task for the whole Church who, "clasping sinners to her bosom, (is) at once holy and always in need of purification, (and) follows constantly the path of penance and renewal."18 This endeavor of conversion is not just a human work. It is the movement of a "contrite heart," drawn and moved by grace to respond to the merciful love of God who loved us first.19

1429 St. Peter's conversion after he had denied his master three times bears witness to this. Jesus' look of infinite mercy drew tears of repentance from Peter and, after the Lord's resurrection, a threefold affirmation of love for him.20 The second conversion also has a communitarian dimension, as is clear in the Lord's call to a whole Church: "Repent!"21

St. Ambrose says of the two conversions that, in the Church, "there are water and tears: the water of Baptism and the tears of repentance."22

 

 

四、內心的懺悔

1430. 耶穌召喚人皈依和懺悔,正如在祂以前的先知,首先不是針對外表的行動,如「灰土和苦衣」、禁食和克己,而是心靈的皈依內心的懺 悔。沒有此種皈依和懺悔,懺悔的行動是沒有效果的,且是虛偽的;相反地,內心的皈依催促人以可見的標記、舉動和悔罪的行為予以表達。

1431. 內心的懺悔是徹底重新釐定整個生活的方向,回頭並全心皈依天主,停止犯罪,棄絕邪惡,對我們所曾犯的惡行感到厭惡。同時,內心的懺悔需要有改變生活的渴望和決心,期待天主的仁慈,信賴祂恩寵的助佑。這樣,隨著心靈的皈依,產生具有神益的悲痛和憂傷,即教父們所 稱 的 靈 魂 或精神 上 的 苦 痛 (animi cruciatus), 和心靈 的 痛 悔 (compunctio cordis)

1432. 人的心是遲鈍而頑梗的,需要天主恩賜人一顆新的心。皈依首先是天主恩寵的工作,是祂使我們的心歸向祂:「上主,求祢叫我們歸向祢,我們必定回心轉意」(哀 5:21)。天主賜給我們重新開始的力量。當我們發現天主的愛是如此偉大時,我們的心靈才因罪惡的可怕和嚴重而震驚,開始害怕因罪惡而冒犯天主並遠離祂。人的心靈因注視被我們的罪所剌透的那一位而皈依祂:

聖克來孟教宗,《致格林多人書》:我們要目不轉睛地凝視基督的寶血。要知道,在祂父親前,祂的聖血是多麼寶貴的,因為這為了我們的得救而傾流的血,為舉世人類爭取了悔改的恩寵。

1433. 自逾越節以後,聖神「要指証世界關於罪惡所犯的錯誤」就是世界沒有相信父所派遣來的那一位。但是,同一聖神雖指証罪惡,祂同時也是施慰者,賜給人心懺悔和皈依的恩寵。

五、基督徒生活中多元的懺悔方式

1434. 基督徒內心的懺悔,可以透過多元的方式來表達。聖經和教父們尤其強調三種方式:禁食、、祈禱和施捨祈禱和施捨,以表達人對自己、對天主、對他人的關係的改善。連同經由聖洗或殉道所帶來的根本淨化,他們也指出獲得罪赦的其他方法,就是:努力與近人和好,痛哭己罪,關注近人的得救,請聖人代禱和實踐愛德,因為「愛德遮蓋許多罪過」(伯前 4:8)。

1435. 皈依實現於日常生活中,就是和好的行動、關懷窮人、履行並維護公道和正義、向弟兄承認自己的過失、弟兄間的規過勸善、檢討自己的生活、省察良心、接受靈修指導、忍受痛苦、為正義而忍受迫害。每天背負自己的十字架、跟隨基督,是懺悔最穩妥的途徑。

1436. 感恩祭與懺悔感恩祭與懺悔。我們在感恩祭中,找到日常皈依和懺悔的泉源,並得到滋養,因為基督的祭獻在感恩祭中臨現人間,使我們與天主和好。感恩(聖體)聖事滋養並強化那些要活出基督生命的人。「聖體是良藥,它從日常的過失中解救我們,並保護我們不犯大罪」。

1437.閱讀聖經、誦唸時辰頌禱禮和天主經:凡是真誠的敬禮或熱心的行動,都能在我們內心重振皈依和懺悔的精神,有助我們得到罪赦。
1438.禮儀年中,補贖補贖 (懺悔懺悔)的日子和時期(四旬期、逢星期五紀念主受難的日子)是教會踐
懺悔的日子和時期

行懺悔的重要時刻。這些日子尤其適合作靈修的操練(退省)及行善功,懺悔禮儀,為補贖而做的朝聖,自發性的克己,如禁食和施捨、弟兄的分享(慈善和傳教工作) 等。

1439. 耶穌以「蕩子」的比喻(路 15:11-24),淋漓盡致地描寫了皈依和懺悔皈依和懺悔的過程的過程。「慈父」是這比喻的核心人物。兒子被一種虛幻的自由所迷惑,離棄父家;在揮霍盡了他的財產之後,就陷入極大的痛苦中;為了自己要替人放豬而感到莫大的羞辱,尤有甚者,就是竟然想拿豬吃的豆莢來果腹;這蕩子反省自己所失去的幸福;十分後悔,並決定回到父親面前承認自己的過失;走上回家的道路;父親又喜悅、又慷慨地迎接他:這些都是皈依過程固有的特點。上等的袍子、戒指以及歡宴,象徵這嶄新的生命、一個純淨、高尚、並充滿喜樂的生命,也象徵人回頭歸向天主,回到父家──教會──的情形。唯有基督的心洞悉天父深厚的慈愛,才能以如此純樸美麗的方式,向我們啟示天父那深不可測的仁慈。


 IV. Interior Penance

1430 Jesus' call to conversion and penance, like that of the prophets before him, does not aim first at outward works, "sackcloth and ashes," fasting and mortification, but at the conversion of the heart, interior conversion. Without this, such penances remain sterile and false; however, interior conversion urges expression in visible signs, gestures and works of penance.23

1431 Interior repentance is a radical reorientation of our whole life, a return, a conversion to God with all our heart, an end of sin, a turning away from evil, with repugnance toward the evil actions we have committed. At the same time it entails the desire and resolution to change one's life, with hope in God's mercy and trust in the help of his grace. This conversion of heart is accompanied by a salutary pain and sadness which the Fathers called animi cruciatus (affliction of spirit) and compunctio cordis (repentance of heart).24

1432 The human heart is heavy and hardened. God must give man a new heart.25 Conversion is first of all a work of the grace of God who makes our hearts return to him: "Restore us to thyself, O LORD, that we may be restored!"26 God gives us the strength to begin anew. It is in discovering the greatness of God's love that our heart is shaken by the horror and weight of sin and begins to fear offending God by sin and being separated from him. the human heart is converted by looking upon him whom our sins have pierced:27

Let us fix our eyes on Christ's blood and understand how precious it is to his Father, for, poured out for our salvation it has brought to the whole world the grace of repentance.

1433 Since Easter, the Holy Spirit has proved "the world wrong about sin,"29 i.e., proved that the world has not believed in him whom the Father has sent. But this same Spirit who brings sin to light is also the Consoler who gives the human heart grace for repentance and conversion.30

V. The Many Forms of Penance in Christian Life

1434 The interior penance of the Christian can be expressed in many and various ways. Scripture and the Fathers insist above all on three forms, fasting, prayer, and almsgiving,31 which express conversion in relation to oneself, to God, and to others. Alongside the radical purification brought about by Baptism or martyrdom they cite as means of obtaining forgiveness of sins: effort at reconciliation with one's neighbor, tears of repentance, concern for the salvation of one's neighbor, the intercession of the saints, and the practice of charity "which covers a multitude of sins."32

1435 Conversion is accomplished in daily life by gestures of reconciliation, concern for the poor, the exercise and defense of justice and right,33 by the admission of faults to one's brethren, fraternal correction, revision of life, examination of conscience, spiritual direction, acceptance of suffering, endurance of persecution for the sake of righteousness. Taking up one's cross each day and following Jesus is the surest way of penance.34

1436 Eucharist and Penance. Daily conversion and penance find their source and nourishment in the Eucharist, for in it is made present the sacrifice of Christ which has reconciled us with God. Through the Eucharist those who live from the life of Christ are fed and strengthened. "It is a remedy to free us from our daily faults and to preserve us from mortal sins."35

1437 Reading Sacred Scripture, praying the Liturgy of the Hours and the Our Father - every sincere act of worship or devotion revives the spirit of conversion and repentance within us and contributes to the forgiveness of our sins.

1438 The seasons and days of penance in the course of the liturgical year (Lent, and each Friday in memory of the death of the Lord) are intense moments of the Church's penitential practice.36 These times are particularly appropriate for spiritual exercises, penitential liturgies, pilgrimages as signs of penance, voluntary self-denial such as fasting and almsgiving, and fraternal sharing (charitable and missionary works).

1439 The process of conversion and repentance was described by Jesus in the parable of the prodigal son, the center of which is the merciful father:37 The fascination of illusory freedom, the abandonment of the father's house; the extreme misery in which the son finds himself after squandering his fortune; his deep humiliation at finding himself obliged to feed swine, and still worse, at wanting to feed on the husks the pigs ate; his reflection on all he has lost; his repentance and decision to declare himself guilty before his father; the journey back; the father's generous welcome; the father's joy - all these are characteristic of the process of conversion. the beautiful robe, the ring, and the festive banquet are symbols of that new life - pure worthy, and joyful - of anyone who returns to God and to the bosom of his family, which is the Church. Only the heart of Christ Who knows the depths of his Father's love could reveal to us the abyss of his mercy in so simple and beautiful a way.

 

六、懺悔與和好的聖事

1440. 罪惡首先是冒犯天主,斷絕我們與祂之間的共融,它同時傷害與教會的共融。因此,皈依需要天主的寬恕,並與教會和好。這就是懺悔與和好聖事以禮儀所表達和實現的。

唯獨天主能寬赦罪過

1441. 唯獨天主能寬赦罪過。由於耶穌是天主子, 祂論及自己時說:「人子在地上有權柄赦罪」(谷 2:10),並施行這神聖的權柄:「你的罪赦了」(谷 2:5;路 7:48)。此外,祂依據祂天主性的權能,把這權柄賜給人,使他們能以祂的名赦罪。
及工具,這是祂以自己寶血的代價為我們獲得的。然而,祂把赦罪的權柄交託給宗徒去執行,訓示宗徒負起「和好的職務」(格後 5:18)。宗徒「以基督的名」被派遣,而「天主親自」通過宗徒,勸勉並要求說:「你們與天主和好罷!」(格後 5:20)。

與教會和好

1443. 耶穌在其公開生活裡不但赦免罪過,也向人展示這寬恕的效能:祂使蒙寬恕的罪人重返天主子民的團體,因為罪惡曾使他們遠離這團體,甚至被隔絕。關於此事的一個明顯標記,就是耶穌接納罪人與祂同席,甚至,祂自己坐在罪人們的筵席間,這行動以令人震驚的方式同時表示天主的寬恕,以及罪人重新回到天主子民中間。

1444. 主賦予宗徒分擔祂赦罪的權柄時,也賦予他們使罪人與教會重歸於好的權柄。基督鄭重地跟西滿伯多祿所說的一番話,清楚表達出這任務的教會幅度:「我要將天國的鑰匙交給你:凡你在地上所束縛的, 在天上也要被束縛;凡你在地上所釋放的,在天上也要被釋放」(瑪 16:19)。 主「賜給伯多祿束縛與釋放的這項職務,也賜給了那與其首領相連結的宗徒團(瑪 18:18; 28:16-20)」。

1445. 束縛與釋放意指:凡被你拒絕與你共融的人,也被拒絕與天主共融;凡你重新接納與你共融的人,同樣天主也接納該人與祂共融。跟教會和 好與跟天主和好,,兩者是不可分的兩者是不可分的

寬恕的聖事

1446. 基督建立懺悔聖事,是為了祂教會所有犯罪的肢體;首先是為那些在領洗後,犯了嚴重的罪過, 因而喪失了聖洗的恩寵並傷害教會共融的人。懺悔聖事給予他們一個自新的機會,再次皈依和重新獲得成義的恩寵。教父們把這聖事形容為「覆舟後 ── 喪失恩寵後── 的第二塊救生板」。

1447. 許多世紀以來, 教會在應用這由主所交付的權柄的具體方式上,已有不少變化。在最初幾個世紀裡,如果基督徒在領洗後犯了特別嚴重的罪過 (如崇拜偶像、殺人或姦淫), 為求和好,他們須遵守一項極為嚴格的紀律,即懺悔者在接受和好之前,要為自己的罪過,公開做補贖,往往為期多年。被收錄於這類「懺悔者之行列」中的(只涉及某些重罪者),只有少數,而且在某些地區,一生只有一次機會。在第七世紀,愛爾蘭的傳教士受到東方隱修傳統的啟發,把「私下」懺悔的做法帶到歐洲大陸。懺悔者在與教會和好之前,無須先公開地和長時間地去做補贖。從此,這聖事在懺悔者和司鐸之間以隱密的方式進行。這種新的做法準備了重複這件聖事的可能性,並因而開拓了經常定期領受這聖事的途徑。這樣的方式,容許在一次聖事慶典中,同時赦免重罪和小罪。教會至今仍大致上採用這懺悔的方式。

1448. 這聖事的紀律及舉行這聖事的慶典,經歷了許多世紀的改變;從這些改變中,可辨別出一個共同的基本結構。此基本結構包含兩個同樣重要的要素。第一個要素是人的行動,即人在聖神引導下的皈依,就是痛悔、告明和補贖;另一個要素是天主透過教會的介入而行動。教會藉著主教及其司鐸,以耶穌基督之名赦免罪過,並定下補贖的模式,還為罪人祈禱並與他一起贖罪。因此,罪人在教會團體中獲得治療,並重新被接入教會的共融裡。

1449. 拉丁教會所用的赦罪經文正表達出這聖事的基本要素:仁慈的天父是寬恕的泉源。祂藉著聖子的逾越及聖神的恩賜,通過教會的祈禱和服務,讓罪人得到和好:

《羅馬禮書•懺悔禮》46:「赦罪經」:天上的慈父,因祂聖子的死亡和復活,使世界與祂和好,又恩賜聖神赦免罪過;願祂藉著教會的服務,寬恕你,賜給你平安。現在,我因父及子及聖神之名,赦免你的罪過。

 VI. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation

1440 Sin is before all else an offense against God, a rupture of communion with him. At the same time it damages communion with the Church. For this reason conversion entails both God's forgiveness and reconciliation with the Church, which are expressed and accomplished liturgically by the sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation.38

Only God forgives sin

1441 Only God forgives sins.39 Since he is the Son of God, Jesus says of himself, "The Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins" and exercises this divine power: "Your sins are forgiven."40 Further, by virtue of his divine authority he gives this power to men to exercise in his name.41

1442 Christ has willed that in her prayer and life and action his whole Church should be the sign and instrument of the forgiveness and reconciliation that he acquired for us at the price of his blood. But he entrusted the exercise of the power of absolution to the apostolic ministry which he charged with the "ministry of reconciliation."42 The apostle is sent out "on behalf of Christ" with "God making his appeal" through him and pleading: "Be reconciled to God."43

Reconciliation with the Church

1443 During his public life Jesus not only forgave sins, but also made plain the effect of this forgiveness: he reintegrated forgiven sinners into the community of the People of God from which sin had alienated or even excluded them. A remarkable sign of this is the fact that Jesus receives sinners at his table, a gesture that expresses in an astonishing way both God's forgiveness and the return to the bosom of the People of God.44

1444 In imparting to his apostles his own power to forgive sins the Lord also gives them the authority to reconcile sinners with the Church. This ecclesial dimension of their task is expressed most notably in Christ's solemn words to Simon Peter: "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven."45 "The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of the apostles united to its head."46

1445 The words bind and loose mean: whomever you exclude from your communion, will be excluded from communion with God; whomever you receive anew into your communion, God will welcome back into his. Reconciliation with the Church is inseparable from reconciliation with God.

The sacrament of forgiveness

1446 Christ instituted the sacrament of Penance for all sinful members of his Church: above all for those who, since Baptism, have fallen into grave sin, and have thus lost their baptismal grace and wounded ecclesial communion. It is to them that the sacrament of Penance offers a new possibility to convert and to recover the grace of justification. the Fathers of the Church present this sacrament as "the second plank [of salvation] after the shipwreck which is the loss of grace."47

1447 Over the centuries the concrete form in which the Church has exercised this power received from the Lord has varied considerably. During the first centuries the reconciliation of Christians who had committed particularly grave sins after their Baptism (for example, idolatry, murder, or adultery) was tied to a very rigorous discipline, according to which penitents had to do public penance for their sins, often for years, before receiving reconciliation. To this "order of penitents" (which concerned only certain grave sins), one was only rarely admitted and in certain regions only once in a lifetime. During the seventh century Irish missionaries, inspired by the Eastern monastic tradition, took to continental Europe the "private" practice of penance, which does not require public and prolonged completion of penitential works before reconciliation with the Church. From that time on, the sacrament has been performed in secret between penitent and priest. This new practice envisioned the possibility of repetition and so opened the way to a regular frequenting of this sacrament. It allowed the forgiveness of grave sins and venial sins to be integrated into one sacramental celebration. In its main lines this is the form of penance that the Church has practiced down to our day.

1448 Beneath the changes in discipline and celebration that this sacrament has undergone over the centuries, the same fundamental structure is to be discerned. It comprises two equally essential elements: on the one hand, the acts of the man who undergoes conversion through the action of the Holy Spirit: namely, contrition, confession, and satisfaction; on the other, God's action through the intervention of the Church. the Church, who through the bishop and his priests forgives sins in the name of Jesus Christ and determines the manner of satisfaction, also prays for the sinner and does penance with him. Thus the sinner is healed and re-established in ecclesial communion.

1449 The formula of absolution used in the Latin Church expresses the essential elements of this sacrament: the Father of mercies is the source of all forgiveness. He effects the reconciliation of sinners through the Passover of his Son and the gift of his Spirit, through the prayer and ministry of the Church:

God, the Father of mercies,

through the death and the resurrection of his Son

has reconciled the world to himself

and sent the Holy Spirit among us

for the forgiveness of sins;

 through the ministry of the Church

may God give you pardon and peace,

and I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.48

 

七、懺悔者的行動

1450.「懺悔聖事要求罪人甘心情願接受所有這些要素:以心痛悔;以口告明;以行為表現完全謙遜和具有效果的補贖」。
痛悔
1451.在懺悔者的種種行為之中,首先是痛悔。痛悔是「內心的傷痛和厭惡所犯的罪過,並且立志將來不再犯罪」。

1452. 如果痛悔是來自那愛天主在萬有之上的愛,則稱之為「完美的」(上等) 痛悔(愛德的痛悔)。這樣的痛悔赦免小罪;如果悔罪者下定決心盡快接受告解聖事,那麼,這樣的痛悔也能赦免大罪。

1453. 所謂「不完美的」痛悔(或「下等痛悔」), 也是天主的恩賜,聖神的推動。這樣的痛悔是由於考慮到罪惡的醜陋,以及害怕受到永罰和其他懲罰的威脅(因害怕而發的痛悔)。當良心如此受到震撼,遂能引發內心的轉化,在恩寵的推動下,被引導完成懺悔的過程,藉「聖事」而獲得罪赦。然而,只有「不完美的」痛悔,並不能赦免重罪,但這樣的痛悔使人作好準備經由懺悔聖事,而得到罪赦。

1454.接受這聖事前,宜先在天主聖言的光照下,省察省察自己的良心良心。為此,可在福音和宗徒書信的倫理教導當中,找到最合適的章節,如:山中聖訓、宗徒的教誨等。 告明罪過

1455. 即使純粹從人性的角度來看,告罪這行動也能釋放我們,並使我們更容易與他人和好。透過告罪,人真誠地面對自己所犯的罪過,承擔其責任,藉此重新向天主打開心門,並開放自己,尋找教會的共融,以開展嶄新的未來。

1456. 向司鐸告明是懺悔聖事的必要部分:「懺悔者必須告明所有用心省察出來的大罪,即使是最隱密的,如違反十誡中最後兩誡的罪過,因為有時這些罪過會更嚴重地傷害靈魂,且比那些公開的罪,更為危險」。

聖熱羅尼莫,《訓道篇詮釋》:當基督信徒盡力告明所有記得的罪過時,無可置疑地,他們是把這一切罪過放在仁慈的天主前,以獲得寬恕。誰不這樣做,並故意隱瞞自己的某些罪過, 便不能通過司鐸獲得赦免;因為「如果一個病人羞於向醫生揭示自己的傷口,醫生就不能為他所不知的病對症下藥」。

1457. 根據教會規定,「凡到達懂事年齡的信友,皆有責任至少一年一次,誠實地告明經省察出來的、自己的重罪」。誰省察到自己犯了死罪,卻沒有先透過懺悔聖事而獲得寬赦,即使懷有很深的痛悔,也不可以領聖體,除非他有充分的理由要領此聖事,但又無法找到聽告解者。兒童在初領聖體之前,也應先領受懺悔聖事。

1458. 告明日常的過錯(小罪),雖然沒有嚴重需要,但教會仍積極勸勉這樣做。事實上,定期告明小罪,有助於培養我們的良心,對抗惡習,讓基督治癒我們,在聖神的生命中不斷進步。如果我們經常藉此聖事,接受天父慈悲的恩賜,便會促使我們像祂那樣慈悲:

聖奧思定,《論若望福音》:誰明認自己的罪過,……就已經與天主一起行動了。天主指責你的罪過;如果你也承認自己的罪過,你就是與天主聯合一起。人和罪人可以說是兩個事實:當你聽到「人」,這是天主所造成的;當你聽到「罪人」,這是「你」、人自己所造成的。消滅你所做的,好讓天主拯救祂所造的……。當你開始厭棄你所做的,你的善行已經開始,因為你承認你的惡行。善行是以承認惡行開始的。你履行真理,便邁向光明。

補贖

1459. 很多罪惡傷害到近人,我們應盡量予以賠補 (例如:償還偷取的物品、重建被誹謗者的聲譽、補償種種傷害等),單是正義就這樣要求;更甚者,罪惡也傷害罪人自身,使自己軟弱,且傷害與天主以及與近人的關係。赦罪去掉罪過,但未補救所有因罪過而造成的混亂。被解除罪惡後,罪人仍應使靈性的健康完全復元。他為此應該做些事情,以彌補他的罪過:他應以適當的方式來「賠補」或「補償」他的罪過。這樣的賠補也稱為「補贖」。

1460. 聽告解者在指定補贖時,應考慮到懺悔者的個別情況,並使他能藉此獲得神益。補贖應盡可能符合所犯罪過的嚴重性和性質。它可包括祈禱、奉獻(捐獻)、仁愛的行動、為近人服務、甘願克己犧牲,尤其以忍耐接受我們應背負的十字架。這樣的補贖,幫助我們更肖似基督;祂獨自地,且一次而永遠地,補贖了我們的罪過。補贖也讓我們與復活的基督成為共同繼承人,「因為我們與祂一同受苦」(羅 8:17):

但我們為自己的罪所做的補贖,並非我們自己做的,而是透過耶穌基督而做的:事實上,我們只憑自己,一無所能,仰賴「加強我們力量的那位,才能應付一切」(斐 4:13)。因此,人沒有甚麼可誇耀之處,所有的「誇耀」,全在於基督……。我們藉著「結出與悔改相稱的果實」(路 3:8),在祂內做補贖;悔改的果實從祂而來,經由祂奉獻於父,且因祂而蒙父悅納。


 VII. The Acts of the Penitent

1450 "Penance requires . . . the sinner to endure all things willingly, be contrite of heart, confess with the lips, and practice complete humility and fruitful satisfaction."49

Contrition

1451 Among the penitent's acts contrition occupies first place. Contrition is "sorrow of the soul and detestation for the sin committed, together with the resolution not to sin again."50

1452 When it arises from a love by which God is loved above all else, contrition is called "perfect" (contrition of charity). Such contrition remits venial sins; it also obtains forgiveness of mortal sins if it includes the firm resolution to have recourse to sacramental confession as soon as possible.51

1453 The contrition called "imperfect" (or "attrition") is also a gift of God, a prompting of the Holy Spirit. It is born of the consideration of sin's ugliness or the fear of eternal damnation and the other penalties threatening the sinner (contrition of fear). Such a stirring of conscience can initiate an interior process which, under the prompting of grace, will be brought to completion by sacramental absolution. By itself however, imperfect contrition cannot obtain the forgiveness of grave sins, but it disposes one to obtain forgiveness in the sacrament of Penance.52

1454 The reception of this sacrament ought to be prepared for by an examination of conscience made in the light of the Word of God. the passages best suited to this can be found in the moral catechesis of the Gospels and the apostolic Letters, such as the Sermon on the Mount and the apostolic teachings.53

The confession of sins

1455 The confession (or disclosure) of sins, even from a simply human point of view, frees us and facilitates our reconciliation with others. Through such an admission man looks squarely at the sins he is guilty of, takes responsibility for them, and thereby opens himself again to God and to the communion of the Church in order to make a new future possible.

1456 Confession to a priest is an essential part of the sacrament of Penance: "All mortal sins of which penitents after a diligent self-examination are conscious must be recounted by them in confession, even if they are most secret and have been committed against the last two precepts of the Decalogue; for these sins sometimes wound the soul more grievously and are more dangerous than those which are committed openly."54

When Christ's faithful strive to confess all the sins that they can remember, they undoubtedly place all of them before the divine mercy for pardon. But those who fail to do so and knowingly withhold some, place nothing before the divine goodness for remission through the mediation of the priest, "for if the sick person is too ashamed to show his wound to the doctor, the medicine cannot heal what it does not know."55

1457 According to the Church's command, "after having attained the age of discretion, each of the faithful is bound by an obligation faithfully to confess serious sins at least once a year."56 Anyone who is aware of having committed a mortal sin must not receive Holy Communion, even if he experiences deep contrition, without having first received sacramental absolution, unless he has a grave reason for receiving Communion and there is no possibility of going to confession.57 Children must go to the sacrament of Penance before receiving Holy Communion for the first time.58

1458 Without being strictly necessary, confession of everyday faults (venial sins) is nevertheless strongly recommended by the Church.59 Indeed the regular confession of our venial sins helps us form our conscience, fight against evil tendencies, let ourselves be healed by Christ and progress in the life of the Spirit. By receiving more frequently through this sacrament the gift of the Father's mercy, we are spurred to be merciful as he is merciful:60

Whoever confesses his sins . . . is already working with God. God indicts your sins; if you also indict them, you are joined with God. Man and sinner are, so to speak, two realities: when you hear "man" - this is what God has made; when you hear "sinner" - this is what man himself has made. Destroy what you have made, so that God may save what he has made .... When you begin to abhor what you have made, it is then that your good works are beginning, since you are accusing yourself of your evil works. the beginning of good works is the confession of evil works. You do the truth and come to the light.61

Satisfaction

1459 Many sins wrong our neighbor. One must do what is possible in order to repair the harm (e.g., return stolen goods, restore the reputation of someone slandered, pay compensation for injuries). Simple justice requires as much. But sin also injures and weakens the sinner himself, as well as his relationships with God and neighbor. Absolution takes away sin, but it does not remedy all the disorders sin has caused.62 Raised up from sin, the sinner must still recover his full spiritual health by doing something more to make amends for the sin: he must "make satisfaction for" or "expiate" his sins. This satisfaction is also called "penance."

1460 The penance the confessor imposes must take into account the penitent's personal situation and must seek his spiritual good. It must correspond as far as possible with the gravity and nature of the sins committed. It can consist of prayer, an offering, works of mercy, service of neighbor, voluntary self-denial, sacrifices, and above all the patient acceptance of the cross we must bear. Such penances help configure us to Christ, who alone expiated our sins once for all. They allow us to become co-heirs with the risen Christ, "provided we suffer with him."63

The satisfaction that we make for our sins, however, is not so much ours as though it were not done through Jesus Christ. We who can do nothing ourselves, as if just by ourselves, can do all things with the cooperation of "him who strengthens" us. Thus man has nothing of which to boast, but all our boasting is in Christ . . . in whom we make satisfaction by bringing forth "fruits that befit repentance." These fruits have their efficacy from him, by him they are offered to the Father, and through him they are accepted by the Father.64

 

八、這聖事的施行人

1461. 基督既把和好的職務託付給祂的宗徒,於是宗徒的繼承人──主教,以及主教的合作者──司鐸,繼續執行這職務。事實上,主教和司鐸,由於聖秩聖事,享有「因父及子及聖神之名」赦免一切罪過的權柄。

1462. 赦免罪過使罪人與天主和好,也與教會和好。自古以來,主教是個別教會可見的領袖,因此,名正言順,他就被視為主要地擁有和好權柄及職務的人:他是懺悔紀律的監督者。他的合作者──司鐸──依照教會的法律, 在他們從自己的主教(或修會會長)、或從教宗所接受的職務範圍內,執行赦罪的權柄。

1463. 某些特別嚴重的罪過會被處以絕罰 (incur excommunication); 這是教會給予最嚴厲的處罰,即罪人不得領受聖事,及執行某些教會行動。並且,按照教會法律,只有教宗、地方主教或獲得他們授權的司鐸,才能給予赦免。此外,為有死亡危險者,任何一位司鐸,即使被解除了聽告解權,都能赦免垂危者的任何罪過及絕罰。

1464.司鐸應鼓勵信徒領受懺悔聖事,而且每當基督徒合理地要求這聖事時,應隨時樂意為他們舉行這聖事。

1465. 司鐸在舉行懺悔聖事慶典時,所完成的職務,就好比尋找亡羊的善牧,為人包紮傷口的慈善撒瑪黎雅人,等待並迎接浪子回頭的慈父;也如同一位正義的法官,無所偏私,作出公平而仁慈的判決。簡言之,司鐸是天主憐愛罪人的標記和工具。

1466. 聽告解者並非主人,而是予人寬恕的天主的僕人。這聖事的施行人,應與基督的意願和慈愛相結合。他對基督徒的行為操守、人情世故,應有深透的了悟,對跌倒的人懷有尊重和靈敏的心;他應熱愛真理,忠於教會的訓導當局,並以耐心帶領懺悔者邁向治癒和完全成熟。他應為懺悔者祈禱、做補贖,並把懺悔者託付給仁慈的主。

1467. 鑑於這職務的崇高和微妙,以及對人應有的尊重,教會宣布所有聽告解的司鐸,必須對懺悔者所告明的罪過絕對保守秘密,否則將受到極嚴厲的處罰。他不可運用在告解時所知道有關懺悔者生活的事情。這個秘密不容許有任何例外的情況,因此稱之為「聖事的封印」,因為懺悔者向司鐸所說的一切,都由聖事予以「密封」起來。

九、聖事的效果

1468. 「懺悔聖事的所有功效,在於使我們重新生活在天主的恩寵中,並使我們在至密切的親情裡與祂結合」。 因此,這聖事的目的和效果就是與與天主和好。那些懷著痛悔之心,虔誠地接受懺悔聖事的人,「得到良心的平安和寧靜,且獲得莫大的精神安慰」。事實上,與天主和好的聖事帶來真實的「靈性復活」,恢復天主子女的尊嚴及生命中的各種恩賜,其中最寶貴的,就是天主的親情(路 15:32)。

1469. 這聖事使我們與教會和好。罪過所傷害或破壞的手足共融由懺悔聖事予以彌補或恢復。從這意義上說,懺悔聖事不但治癒那些重新被接納與教會共融的人,也為教會生活帶來充滿生命力的效果,因為教會曾因她部分的肢體犯罪而受害。懺悔者重新被接納,或被鞏固於諸聖的相通之中;他們──不論是處於旅途中或已活在天鄉裡──藉著基督身體所有活肢體彼此之間的神益交流,得以堅強。

《和好與懺悔》31:我們應注意,與天主和好也帶來其他方面的和好,使其他因罪惡所導致的分裂得以補救:蒙赦免的懺悔者在心靈深處跟自己和好,在那裡回復最深的真貌;跟弟兄們和好,儘管他曾虧負並傷害了他們;跟教會和好;跟整個受造界和好。

1470. 在這聖事裡,罪人面對天主仁慈的審判,透過某種方式預嘗到今世終結時所要受的審判。因為是在現世,我們面臨生命或死亡的抉擇,只有通過皈依的道路,才可進入天國,在那裡絕不容許重罪存在。罪人藉著悔改和信德皈依基督,出死入生,「並且不受審判」(若 5:24)。

十、大赦

1471.教會關於大赦的教義和實行,都跟懺悔聖事的效果緊密相連。
甚麼是大赦?

「大赦,是在『罪過已蒙赦免』後,因罪過而當受的暫罰,也在天主前獲得寬赦。按照指定的條件,準備妥當的信友,通過教會的行動,獲得暫罰的赦免。教會是救恩的分施者,藉著自己的權力,分施並應用基督及諸聖的補贖寶庫」。

「大赦可赦免『部分』或『全部』的暫時罪罰,依此可分為『限大赦』和『全大赦』」。大赦,可為生者或死者應用。
罪罰

1472 .為明瞭教會有關罪罰的教義和實行,我們應知道罪惡帶來的雙重後果雙重後果。重罪使我們喪失與天主的共融,因而不能享有永生,故永生的喪失稱為罪的「永罰」。另一方面,所有罪過──即使是小罪──都促使人對受造物形成不健康的依戀,這種依戀不論在現世,抑或在死後,即那稱為在煉獄的狀態中,都必須予以淨化。這種煉淨解除罪惡的「暫罰」。上述兩種罪罰,不應視為天主外加於人的報復,而是源自罪惡本質的後果。出自熱心愛德的皈依,能使罪人完全淨化,以致再沒有任何罪罰存留。

1473. 罪惡蒙寬赦,與天主的共融得以恢復,都使罪過的「永罰」獲得赦免。但是,「暫罰」仍然存留著。基督徒應竭力接受這些暫時的罪罰如同恩寵,耐心忍受各樣的痛苦和考驗,當那一日來臨時,安詳地面對死亡。人應透過仁愛的工作、祈禱和各種懺悔行動,努力完全脫去「舊人」,穿上「新人」。

諸聖的相通

1474. 保祿六世,《有關大赦的教導》宗座憲令 5:在天主恩寵的助佑下,基督徒在力求淨化自己的罪過、聖化自己時,並不是獨自一個人。「每個天主子女的生命,都在基督內,藉著基督,以一種奇妙的方式,與所有其他基督徒弟兄的生命相連繫,彼此活於基督奧體超性的合一共融之內,猶如在一個奧妙的位格內一樣」。

1475. 在諸聖相通中,「信友,不論是已經到達天鄉的,抑或還在煉獄中做補贖的, 又或仍在現世旅途上的, 在他們之間存在著一分恆久的愛的連繫,以及豐富地交流著所有美好的事物」。 在這奇妙的交流中,一個人的聖德能使他人受益,遠超過一個人的罪過為他人造成的損害。因此,靠諸聖相通的助力,可使那痛悔的罪人,能更早且更有效地淨化罪罰。

1476.
保祿六世,《有關大赦的教導》宗座憲令 5:我們也稱這些諸聖相通的精神財富為教會的寶庫會的寶庫,它「不是一筆許多世紀以來累積的物質財富,而是基督為把全人類從罪惡中解放出來,並為達成人與天父的共融,在天父面前付出的補贖及其功績的無窮無盡的代價。是在我們的救主基督之內,存有祂救贖的豐厚補贖和功績」。

1477. 保祿六世,《有關大赦的教導》宗座憲令 5:「同樣,榮福童貞瑪利亞和諸聖人在天主前的祈禱和善功也在這寶庫內,此祈禱和善功在天主面前確實有巨大的、無法估量的、歷久彌新的價值。他們追隨基督,藉著祂恩寵的力量,聖化自己的生活,完成天父交託他們的使命。這樣,他們達成自己的得救,同時也共同努力為基督奧體的其他肢體的得救作出貢獻」。

藉教會獲得天主的大赦

1478. 教會依據她由基督耶穌得來的束縛和釋放的權柄,給予大赦;她為了個別基督徒的裨益伸出援手,並為他們開啟基督和諸聖人功績的寶庫,讓他們從仁慈的天父獲得他們罪過暫罰的赦免。教會不但願意透過大赦幫助基督徒,並且鼓勵基督徒實踐虔誠、補贖和愛德的工作

1479.既然那些處於煉淨過程之中的已亡信友,是諸聖相通的肢體,我們能幫助他們的一種方式,就是為他們獲得大赦,好免除他們罪過的暫罰。

 

 VIII. The MinisIX. The Effects of This Sacrament

1468 "The whole power of the sacrament of Penance consists in restoring us to God's grace and joining us with him in an intimate friendship."73 Reconciliation with God is thus the purpose and effect of this sacrament. For those who receive the sacrament of Penance with contrite heart and religious disposition, reconciliation "is usually followed by peace and serenity of conscience with strong spiritual consolation."74 Indeed the sacrament of Reconciliation with God brings about a true "spiritual resurrection," restoration of the dignity and blessings of the life of the children of God, of which the most precious is friendship with God.75

1469 This sacrament reconciles us with the Church. Sin damages or even breaks fraternal communion. the sacrament of Penance repairs or restores it. In this sense it does not simply heal the one restored to ecclesial communion, but has also a revitalizing effect on the life of the Church which suffered from the sin of one of her members.76 Re-established or strengthened in the communion of saints, the sinner is made stronger by the exchange of spiritual goods among all the living members of the Body of Christ, whether still on pilgrimage or already in the heavenly homeland:77

It must be recalled that . . . this reconciliation with God leads, as it were, to other reconciliations, which repair the other breaches caused by sin. the forgiven penitent is reconciled with himself in his inmost being, where he regains his innermost truth. He is reconciled with his brethren whom he has in some way offended and wounded. He is reconciled with the Church. He is reconciled with all creation.78

1470 In this sacrament, the sinner, placing himself before the merciful judgment of God, anticipates in a certain way the judgment to which he will be subjected at the end of his earthly life. For it is now, in this life, that we are offered the choice between life and death, and it is only by the road of conversion that we can enter the Kingdom, from which one is excluded by grave sin.79 In converting to Christ through penance and faith, the sinner passes from death to life and "does not come into judgment."80

ter of This Sacrament

1461 Since Christ entrusted to his apostles the ministry of reconciliation,65 bishops who are their successors, and priests, the bishops' collaborators, continue to exercise this ministry. Indeed bishops and priests, by virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, have the power to forgive all sins "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

1462 Forgiveness of sins brings reconciliation with God, but also with the Church. Since ancient times the bishop, visible head of a particular Church, has thus rightfully been considered to be the one who principally has the power and ministry of reconciliation: he is the moderator of the penitential discipline.66 Priests, his collaborators, exercise it to the extent that they have received the commission either from their bishop (or religious superior) or the Pope, according to the law of the Church.67

1463 Certain particularly grave sins incur excommunication, the most severe ecclesiastical penalty, which impedes the reception of the sacraments and the exercise of certain ecclesiastical acts, and for which absolution consequently cannot be granted, according to canon law, except by the Pope, the bishop of the place or priests authorized by them.68 In danger of death any priest, even if deprived of faculties for hearing confessions, can absolve from every sin and excommunication.69

1464 Priests must encourage the faithful to come to the sacrament of Penance and must make themselves available to celebrate this sacrament each time Christians reasonably ask for it.70

1465 When he celebrates the sacrament of Penance, the priest is fulfilling the ministry of the Good Shepherd who seeks the lost sheep, of the Good Samaritan who binds up wounds, of the Father who awaits the prodigal son and welcomes him on his return, and of the just and impartial judge whose judgment is both just and merciful. the priest is the sign and the instrument of God's merciful love for the sinner.

1466 The confessor is not the master of God's forgiveness, but its servant. the minister of this sacrament should unite himself to the intention and charity of Christ.71 He should have a proven knowledge of Christian behavior, experience of human affairs, respect and sensitivity toward the one who has fallen; he must love the truth, be faithful to the Magisterium of the Church, and lead the penitent with patience toward healing and full maturity. He must pray and do penance for his penitent, entrusting him to the Lord's mercy.

1467 Given the delicacy and greatness of this ministry and the respect due to persons, the Church declares that every priest who hears confessions is bound under very severe penalties to keep absolute secrecy regarding the sins that his penitents have confessed to him. He can make no use of knowledge that confession gives him about penitents' lives.72 This secret, which admits of no exceptions, is called the "sacramental seal," because what the penitent has made known to the priest remains "sealed" by the sacrament.

X. Indulgences

1471 The doctrine and practice of indulgences in the Church are closely linked to the effects of the sacrament of Penance.

What is an indulgence?

"An indulgence is a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven, which the faithful Christian who is duly disposed gains under certain prescribed conditions through the action of the Church which, as the minister of redemption, dispenses and applies with authority the treasury of the satisfactions of Christ and the saints."81 
"An indulgence is partial or plenary according as it removes either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin."82 Indulgences may be applied to the living or the dead.

The punishments of sin

1472 To understand this doctrine and practice of the Church, it is necessary to understand that sin has a double consequence. Grave sin deprives us of communion with God and therefore makes us incapable of eternal life, the privation of which is called the "eternal punishment" of sin. On the other hand every sin, even venial, entails an unhealthy attachment to creatures, which must be purified either here on earth, or after death in the state called Purgatory. This purification frees one from what is called the "temporal punishment" of sin. These two punishments must not be conceived of as a kind of vengeance inflicted by God from without, but as following from the very nature of sin. A conversion which proceeds from a fervent charity can attain the complete purification of the sinner in such a way that no punishment would remain.83

1473 The forgiveness of sin and restoration of communion with God entail the remission of the eternal punishment of sin, but temporal punishment of sin remains. While patiently bearing sufferings and trials of all kinds and, when the day comes, serenely facing death, the Christian must strive to accept this temporal punishment of sin as a grace. He should strive by works of mercy and charity, as well as by prayer and the various practices of penance, to put off completely the "old man" and to put on the "new man."84

In the Communion of Saints

1474 The Christian who seeks to purify himself of his sin and to become holy with the help of God's grace is not alone. "The life of each of God's children is joined in Christ and through Christ in a wonderful way to the life of all the other Christian brethren in the supernatural unity of the Mystical Body of Christ, as in a single mystical person."85

1475 In the communion of saints, "a perennial link of charity exists between the faithful who have already reached their heavenly home, those who are expiating their sins in purgatory and those who are still pilgrims on earth. between them there is, too, an abundant exchange of all good things."86 In this wonderful exchange, the holiness of one profits others, well beyond the harm that the sin of one could cause others. Thus recourse to the communion of saints lets the contrite sinner be more promptly and efficaciously purified of the punishments for sin.

1476 We also call these spiritual goods of the communion of saints the Church's treasury, which is "not the sum total of the material goods which have accumulated during the course of the centuries. On the contrary the 'treasury of the Church' is the infinite value, which can never be exhausted, which Christ's merits have before God. They were offered so that the whole of mankind could be set free from sin and attain communion with the Father. In Christ, the Redeemer himself, the satisfactions and merits of his Redemption exist and find their effficacy."87

1477 "This treasury includes as well the prayers and good works of the Blessed Virgin Mary. They are truly immense, unfathomable, and even pristine in their value before God. In the treasury, too, are the prayers and good works of all the saints, all those who have followed in the footsteps of Christ the Lord and by his grace have made their lives holy and carried out the mission the Father entrusted to them. In this way they attained their own salvation and at the same time cooperated in saving their brothers in the unity of the Mystical Body."88

Obtaining indulgence from God through the Church

1478 An indulgence is obtained through the Church who, by virtue of the power of binding and loosing granted her by Christ Jesus, intervenes in favor of individual Christians and opens for them the treasury of the merits of Christ and the saints to obtain from the Father of mercies the remission of the temporal punishments due for their sins. Thus the Church does not want simply to come to the aid of these Christians, but also to spur them to works of devotion, penance, and charity.89

1479 Since the faithful departed now being purified are also members of the same communion of saints, one way we can help them is to obtain indulgences for them, so that the temporal punishments due for their sins may be remitted.

 

十一、懺悔聖事慶典的舉行

1480. 如同所有聖事一樣,懺悔也是一項禮儀行動。這聖事的禮儀通常包括以下的要素:首先司鐸致候並祝福,然後恭讀天主聖言,為光照懺悔者的良心,激發痛悔之情,並規勸他們懊悔自己的罪過;接著是告明,懺悔者承認自己的罪過,並向司鐸告明,然後接受司鐸給予的補贖;司鐸赦免懺悔者的罪過;最後,讚美感謝天主,蒙寬恕者在司鐸的祝福下離去。

1481 .拜占廷禮採用多種祈求式的赦罪經文,美妙地表達出寬恕的奧跡:「天主曾藉著先知納堂寬恕了懺悔的達味;也曾寬恕痛哭的伯多祿、用眼淚擦乾耶穌雙腳的妓女,以及法利塞人和浪子。願這同一天主藉著我這罪人寬恕你,在今世及來世; 願祂使你走到祂威嚴的審判座前時,不會受到任何譴責。祂當受頌揚,直到永遠。阿們」。

1482. 懺悔聖事也可在團體慶典團體慶典中舉行。以團體慶典的方式舉行時,會眾一同準備告明,並且為所接受的寬恕,一起感謝天主。這樣,個別告明和赦罪的部分安排在聖道禮當中;讀經、講道、共同省察、一起祈求天主的寬恕、以天主經祈禱、[個別告明和赦罪],然後同謝主恩。以團體慶典的方式來舉行這聖事,更能清楚表達出懺悔的教會性。不論慶典以甚麼方式舉行,懺悔聖事按照它本身的性質,是一項禮儀行動,故常是公開的教會行動。

1483. 如有嚴重的需要,可用包括集體認罪和集體赦罪的團體慶典集體認罪和集體赦罪的團體慶典來舉行和好聖事。所謂嚴重的需要,包括死亡的危險逼近、沒有足夠的時間,讓一位或數位司鐸聽每一位懺悔者的告明。這嚴重的情況也包括懺悔者人數眾多,無法有眾多的聽告解司鐸,在合理的時間內,完成聽每個人的告明,致使懺悔者非因自己的過失,長期被迫得不到聖事的恩寵,或不能領聖體。在這情況下,信友為能有效地接受赦免,應立意在適當的時候,再個別告明自己的罪過。教區主教可鑒定那些情況符合需要,可以舉行集體赦罪。但如果只是因為在大慶節或朝聖時,有大量信友,則不得視為有足夠的嚴重需要。

1484. 「個別且完整的告明及赦罪,仍是信友與天主和教會和好的唯一、通常之方式,除非身體上,或倫理上無法履行,才可免除這樣的告明」。這不是沒有更深的理由的。基督在每件聖事中行動。祂親自對每個罪人說:「孩子,你的罪赦了」(谷 2:5);祂是醫生,關心每個需要祂醫治的病人;祂使人恢復健康,並重返於弟兄的共融之中。因此,個別告明是表達與天主及教會和好最意味深長的方式。

撮要

1485. 「在逾越節那天晚上,主耶穌顯現給祂的宗徒,並對他們說:『領受聖神罷!你們赦免誰的罪,就給誰赦免;你們存留誰的,就給誰存留』」(若 20:22-23)。

1486.在領洗後所犯的罪,是藉著稱為悔改、告解、懺悔或和好的聖事,而獲得赦免。


1487.誰犯罪,就是有損天主的榮耀及慈愛,也有損自己被召成為天主子女的尊嚴,以及教會靈性的福祉,每位基督徒都應是教會的活石。


1488.以信德的眼光看,沒有比罪更嚴重的惡事,也沒有甚麼能比罪給罪人自己、教會和全世界帶來更壞的後果。

1489. 人在犯罪失去與天主的共融後,再與祂恢復共融,此種行動源於富於慈悲的天主的恩寵,祂關心人類的得救。人應為自己和他人祈求這分珍貴的恩賜。

1490.回頭歸向天主的行動,稱為皈依和懺悔,包含對所犯的罪過感到痛心和厭惡,並決意定改,將來不再犯罪。因此,悔改涉及人的過去和未來;此悔改因仰望天主的仁慈而強化。
1491.懺悔聖事由懺悔者的三個行動以及司鐸的赦罪所構成。懺悔者的三個行動是痛悔、告明或向司鐸明認罪過、立志作補贖並付諸實行。

1492. 懺悔(也稱痛悔)應發自信仰的動機。如果這懺悔是源於愛天主之情,我們稱之為「完美」的痛悔(上等痛悔);但若是建基於其他動機之上,則稱之為「不完美」的痛悔(下等痛悔)。

1493. 誰若願意與天主及教會和好,就應在仔細省察自己的良心後,向司鐸告明所有記得而又未曾告明的重罪。雖然小罪不需告明,但教會仍非常鼓勵告明小罪。

1494.聽告解者建議懺悔者作某些「補贖」或「懺悔」的行動,為彌補由罪過所造成的傷害,並恢復相稱於基督門徒身分的生活習慣。
1495.只有從教會掌權者獲得赦罪權的司鐸,才能因基督之名赦罪。
1496.懺悔聖事的屬靈效果包括:
──罪人與天主和好,並藉此重獲恩寵;
──與教會和好;
──赦免因死罪所帶來的永罰;
──至少赦免罪過帶來的部分暫罰;
──良心的平安和寧靜以及靈性的安慰;
──增加神力,以面對基督徒的挑戰。
1497.為與天主及教會和好,個別而完整地告明重罪,然後赦罪,仍是唯一、通常的方式。

1498.藉著大赦,信徒能為自己和煉獄的靈魂獲得因罪過所帶來的暫罰的赦免。
 XI. The Celebration of the Sacrament of Penance

1480 Like all the sacraments, Penance is a liturgical action. the elements of the celebration are ordinarily these: a greeting and blessing from the priest, reading the word of God to illuminate the conscience and elicit contrition, and an exhortation to repentance; the confession, which acknowledges sins and makes them known to the priest; the imposition and acceptance of a penance; the priest's absolution; a prayer of thanksgiving and praise and dismissal with the blessing of the priest.

1481 The Byzantine Liturgy recognizes several formulas of absolution, in the form of invocation, which admirably express the mystery of forgiveness: "May the same God, who through the Prophet Nathan forgave David when he confessed his sins, who forgave Peter when he wept bitterly, the prostitute when she washed his feet with her tears, the Pharisee, and the prodigal son, through me, a sinner, forgive you both in this life and in the next and enable you to appear before his awe-inspiring tribunal without condemnation, he who is blessed for ever and ever. Amen."

1482 The sacrament of Penance can also take place in the framework of a communal celebration in which we prepare ourselves together for confession and give thanks together for the forgiveness received. Here, the personal confession of sins and individual absolution are inserted into a liturgy of the word of God with readings and a homily, an examination of conscience conducted in common, a communal request for forgiveness, the Our Father and a thanksgiving in common. This communal celebration expresses more clearly the ecclesial character of penance. However, regardless of its manner of celebration the sacrament of Penance is always, by its very nature, a liturgical action, and therefore an ecclesial and public action.90

1483 In case of grave necessity recourse may be had to a communal celebration of reconciliation with general confession and general absolution. Grave necessity of this sort can arise when there is imminent danger of death without sufficient time for the priest or priests to hear each penitent's confession. Grave necessity can also exist when, given the number of penitents, there are not enough confessors to hear individual confessions properly in a reasonable time, so that the penitents through no fault of their own would be deprived of sacramental grace or Holy Communion for a long time. In this case, for the absolution to be valid the faithful must have the intention of individually confessing their sins in the time required.91 The diocesan bishop is the judge of whether or not the conditions required for general absolution exist.92 A large gathering of the faithful on the occasion of major feasts or pilgrimages does not constitute a case of grave necessity.93

1484 "Individual, integral confession and absolution remain the only ordinary way for the faithful to reconcile themselves with God and the Church, unless physical or moral impossibility excuses from this kind of confession."94 There are profound reasons for this. Christ is at work in each of the sacraments. He personally addresses every sinner: "My son, your sins are forgiven."95 He is the physician tending each one of the sick who need him to cure them.96 He raises them up and reintegrates them into fraternal communion. Personal confession is thus the form most expressive of reconciliation with God and with the Church.

IN BRIEF

1485 "On the evening of that day, the first day of the week," Jesus showed himself to his apostles. "He breathed on them, and said to them: 'Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained"' ( Jn 20:19, ( 22-23).

1486 The forgiveness of sins committed after Baptism is conferred by a particular sacrament called the sacrament of conversion, confession, penance, or reconciliation.

1487 The sinner wounds God's honor and love, his own human dignity as a man called to be a son of God, and the spiritual well-being of the Church, of which each Christian ought to be a living stone.

1488 To the eyes of faith no evil is graver than sin and nothing has worse consequences for sinners themselves, for the Church, and for the whole world.

1489 To return to communion with God after having lost it through sin is a process born of the grace of God who is rich in mercy and solicitous for the salvation of men. One must ask for this precious gift for oneself and for others.

1490 The movement of return to God, called conversion and repentance, entails sorrow for and abhorrence of sins committed, and the firm purpose of sinning no more in the future. Conversion touches the past and the future and is nourished by hope in God's mercy.

1491 The sacrament of Penance is a whole consisting in three actions of the penitent and the priest's absolution. the penitent's acts are repentance, confession or disclosure of sins to the priest, and the intention to make reparation and do works of reparation.

1492 Repentance (also called contrition) must be inspired by motives that arise from faith. If repentance arises from love of charity for God, it is called "perfect" contrition; if it is founded on other motives, it is called "imperfect."

1493 One who desires to obtain reconciliation with God and with the Church, must confess to a priest all the unconfessed grave sins he remembers after having carefully examined his conscience. the confession of venial faults, without being necessary in itself, is nevertheless strongly recommended by the Church.

1494 The confessor proposes the performance of certain acts of "satisfaction" or "penance" to be performed by the penitent in order to repair the harm caused by sin and to re-establish habits befitting a disciple of Christ.

1495 Only priests who have received the faculty of absolving from the authority of the Church can forgive sins in the name of Christ.

1496 The spiritual effects of the sacrament of Penance are: 
- reconciliation with God by which the penitent recovers grace; 
- reconciliation with the Church; 
- remission of the eternal punishment incurred by mortal sins; 
- remission, at least in part, of temporal punishments resulting from sin; 
- peace and serenity of conscience, and spiritual consolation; 
- an increase of spiritual strength for the Christian battle.

1497 Individual and integral confession of grave sins followed by absolution remains the only ordinary means of reconciliation with God and with the Church.

1498 Through indulgences the faithful can obtain the remission of temporal punishment resulting from sin for themselves and also for the souls in Purgatory.

 

   
   
   
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