卷二基督奧跡的慶典 -感恩(聖體)聖事/THE SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST

 

天主教教理 卷二 基督奧跡的慶典

第二部分 第一章 第三條 感恩(聖體)聖事

 

1322. 感恩 (聖體 )聖事完成基督徒入門過程。凡因聖洗而提昇到王者司祭的 尊嚴,藉堅振而更深入肖似基督的人,透過感恩祭,與整個團體一起 參與主自己的祭獻。

1323. 「我們的救主,在祂被出賣的那一夜,在最後晚餐中,建立了祂體血 的感恩祭禮,使十字架的祭獻得以永留於後世,直到祂再度來臨。主 同時把祂死亡復活的紀念,託付給祂所摯愛的淨配──教會。這是仁 愛的聖事、團結的標記、愛德的聯繫、逾越的宴會,『在此宴會中我 們以基督為食糧,使心靈充滿恩寵,並獲賜將來榮福的保証』」。

一、 感恩 (聖體)聖事 ─── 教會生活的泉源與高峰

1324. 感恩(聖體)聖事是「整個基督徒生活的泉源與高峰」。「至於其他聖 事,以及教會的一切職務和傳教事業,都與感恩(聖體)聖事緊密相 聯,並導向這聖事;因為至聖的感恩(聖體)聖事含有教會的全部屬神 寶藏,也就是基督自己,祂是我們的逾越」。

1325. 「感恩(聖體)聖事是與天主生命相通、與天主子民共融合一的有效標記 及最卓越的源頭,教會是藉此而存在的。感恩(聖體)聖事既是天主在 基督內聖化世界的高峰,也是人在聖神內敬拜基督,並藉著基督敬拜 天父的高峰」。

1326. 最後,藉著感恩慶典(彌撒),我們已與天上的禮儀相融合,且預嘗永 生,在那時,天主將是萬物之中的萬有。
1327.簡言之,感恩(聖體)聖事是我們信仰的總綱和綜合:「我們的思想方式 與感恩(聖體)聖事相符合;反過來說,感恩(聖體)聖事亦堅定我們的思 想方式」。


Article 3

THE SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST

1322 The holy Eucharist completes Christian initiation. Those who have been raised to the dignity of the royal priesthood by Baptism and configured more deeply to Christ by Confirmation participate with the whole community in the Lord's own sacrifice by means of the Eucharist.

1323 "At the Last Supper, on the night he was betrayed, our Savior instituted the Eucharistic sacrifice of his Body and Blood. This he did in order to perpetuate the sacrifice of the cross throughout the ages until he should come again, and so to entrust to his beloved Spouse, the Church, a memorial of his death and resurrection: a sacrament of love, a sign of unity, a bond of charity, a Paschal banquet 'in which Christ is consumed, the mind is filled with grace, and a pledge of future glory is given to us.'"133

I. The Eucharist - Source and Summit of Ecclesial Life

1324 The Eucharist is "the source and summit of the Christian life."134 "The other sacraments, and indeed all ecclesiastical ministries and works of the apostolate, are bound up with the Eucharist and are oriented toward it. For in the blessed Eucharist is contained the whole spiritual good of the Church, namely Christ himself, our Pasch."135

1325 "The Eucharist is the efficacious sign and sublime cause of that communion in the divine life and that unity of the People of God by which the Church is kept in being. It is the culmination both of God's action sanctifying the world in Christ and of the worship men offer to Christ and through him to the Father in the Holy Spirit."136

1326 Finally, by the Eucharistic celebration we already unite ourselves with the heavenly liturgy and anticipate eternal life, when God will be all in all.137

1327 In brief, the Eucharist is the sum and summary of our faith: "Our way of thinking is attuned to the Eucharist, and the Eucharist in turn confirms our way of thinking."138

二、怎樣稱這聖事?

1328.這聖事所具有取之不盡的富饒,可由其不同的名稱表達出來。不同的 名稱展現出此聖事的不同層面。我們稱這聖事為:

感恩禮 (Eucharist)。如此稱之,因為這聖事是向天主謝恩的行動。這 兩個希臘字 eucharistein (祝謝:路 22:19;格前 11:24)及 eulogein (祝福:瑪 26:26;谷 14:22),讓人想起猶太人的──尤其用膳時候的──祝謝禱詞,這些祝謝禱詞宣揚並讚頌天主創世、救贖和聖化的工程。

1329.主的晚餐。如此稱之,因為這聖事連接著主在受難前夕與門徒一起享 用的晚餐;藉此我們預享那在天上耶路撒冷的羔羊婚宴。

擘餅 。如此稱之,因為耶穌採用了這源自猶太人用餐的特有儀式:祂 以主人的身分,祝謝並把餅擘開,分給眾人,祂刻意地在最後晚餐中 這樣做了。耶穌復活後,門徒就是因這動作而認出祂來,初期的基督 徒也用這個說法來稱呼感恩聚會。他們藉著分餅來象徵:凡分食同一 個擘開的餅──基督──的人,就是進入與祂的共融中,並在祂內形 成一個身體。

感恩聚會 (synaxis)。如此稱之,因為感恩(聖體)聖事是在信友聚會中舉行的,這是教會的有形表達。

1330.主受難和復活的紀念。

神聖的祭獻 (聖祭)。如此稱之,因為它是救主基督的唯一祭獻的實 現,並包括教會的奉獻;它也稱為彌撒聖祭、「讚頌之祭讚頌之祭」(希 13:15)、屬神的祭獻聖潔的祭獻,因為它完成並超越舊約的一切祭 獻。

神聖的禮儀 。如此稱之,因為在這聖事的慶典中,找到教會整個禮儀 的核心及最深刻的表達;在同一意義下,我們也稱這聖事為神聖奧跡 的慶典。又稱之為至聖聖事,因為它是聖事中的聖事。這名稱也用於 存放在聖體櫃裡祝聖過的餅酒。

1331. 共融(領聖體)

共融 。如此稱之,因為藉此聖事,我們與基督結合。基督使我 們分享祂的體血,成為一個身體;我們也稱之為神聖之物(ta hagia; sancta)── 這是宗徒信經所說「諸聖相通」的原本意義──天使的食糧、天上的食糧、常生之藥、天路行糧(Viaticum)……

1332.神聖的彌撒 (Missa)。如此稱之,因為這實現救恩奧跡的禮儀,在結束 時派遣 (missio)信友,好使他們能在日常生活裡實踐天主的旨意。


II. What is This Sacrament Called?

1328 The inexhaustible richness of this sacrament is expressed in the different names we give it. Each name evokes certain aspects of it. It is called: Eucharist, because it is an action of thanksgiving to God. the Greek words eucharistein139 and eulogein140 recall the Jewish blessings that proclaim - especially during a meal - God's works: creation, redemption, and sanctification.

1329 The Lord's Supper, because of its connection with the supper which the Lord took with his disciples on the eve of his Passion and because it anticipates the wedding feast of the Lamb in the heavenly Jerusalem.141 
The Breaking of Bread, because Jesus used this rite, part of a Jewish meat when as master of the table he blessed and distributed the bread,142 above all at the Last Supper.143 It is by this action that his disciples will recognize him after his Resurrection,144 and it is this expression that the first Christians will use to designate their Eucharistic assemblies;145 by doing so they signified that all who eat the one broken bread, Christ, enter into communion with him and form but one body in him.146 
The Eucharistic assembly (synaxis), because the Eucharist is celebrated amid the assembly of the faithful, the visible expression of the Church.147

1330 The memorial of the Lord's Passion and Resurrection. 
The Holy Sacrifice, because it makes present the one sacrifice of Christ the Savior and includes the Church's offering. the terms holy sacrifice of the Mass, "sacrifice of praise," spiritual sacrifice, pure and holy sacrifice are also used,148 since it completes and surpasses all the sacrifices of the Old Covenant. 
The Holy and Divine Liturgy, because the Church's whole liturgy finds its center and most intense expression in the celebration of this sacrament; in the same sense we also call its celebration the Sacred Mysteries. We speak of the Most Blessed Sacrament because it is the Sacrament of sacraments. the Eucharistic species reserved in the tabernacle are designated by this same name.

1331 Holy Communion, because by this sacrament we unite ourselves to Christ, who makes us sharers in his Body and Blood to form a single body.149 We also call it: the holy things (ta hagia; sancta)150 - the first meaning of the phrase "communion of saints" in the Apostles' Creed - the bread of angels, bread from heaven, medicine of immortality,151 viaticum....

1332 Holy Mass (Missa), because the liturgy in which the mystery of salvation is accomplished concludes with the sending forth (missio) of the faithful, so that they may fulfill God's will in their daily lives.

三、救恩史中的感恩 (聖體)聖事

餅酒的標記

1333. 藉著基督的話語和祈求聖神,使餅酒成為基督的體血,是感恩禮的核 心。教會忠於主的命令,為紀念祂,繼續做祂在受難前夕所做的: 「祂拿起餅來……」,「祂拿起一杯葡萄酒……」,直到祂光榮地再 來。餅酒以超乎我們理解的方式成為基督的體血,餅酒的標記也繼續 象徵天主創世的慈恩。因此,在獻禮中,我們感謝造物主賜給我們餅 酒──「人類勞動」的成果,但它們首先是「大地的產物」和「葡萄 樹的果實」,是造物主的恩賜。教會在「君王司祭」默基瑟德「帶來 餅酒」(創 14:18)的行動中,看到了自己獻禮的預象。

1334. 在舊約時代,人把餅和酒,與大地的其他初果一起呈上,作為祭獻, 這表示對造物主的知恩。但是,在「出谷」事件裡,餅和酒又被賦予 了新的意義:以色列人每年在逾越節所吃的無酵餅,是紀念天主解救 他們倉皇逃離埃及;也紀念天主在曠野降下瑪納,使以色列人時常謹 記,要靠天主的聖言作為生活的食糧最後,日用的食糧是預許福地的 出產,是天主信守祂許諾的保証。猶太人在逾越節晚餐結束前舉起 「祝福之杯」(格前 10:16),為酒帶來的慶節般的歡樂,增添了末世的 幅度,亦即期待著默西亞降來重建耶路撒冷。當耶穌建立感恩(聖體) 聖事時,祂賦予祝福餅和酒的行動一個新而決定性的意義。

1335. 在增餅奇跡裡,主[拿起餅來]祝謝後,擘開,交由門徒分給群眾,讓他 們吃飽;這預示祂感恩(聖體)聖事的獨特食糧是如此豐盛,取之不 盡。在加納婚宴上變水為酒的標記,已預告耶穌受光榮的時刻。它顯 示在天父的國裡婚宴的圓滿,在那裡,信友暢飲那成為基督寶血的新 酒。

1336. 耶穌首次預告感恩(聖體)聖事時,使得門徒分裂,如同祂預告受難時一 樣,引起他們反感:「這話生硬,誰能聽得下去呢?」(若 6:60)感恩 (聖體)聖事和十字架同是絆腳石。這是同一的奧跡,不斷成為分裂的 原因。「難道你們也願走嗎?」(若 6:67):主所提出的這個問題,經 年累月地在迴響著。祂愛的邀請使我們發現,唯有祂才有「永生的 話」(若 6:68);誰以信德來接受祂感恩(聖體)聖事的恩賜,就是接納祂 自己。

感恩(聖體)聖事的建立

1337. 主既然愛了屬於自己的人,就愛他們到底。當祂知道時辰已到,要離 開世界回到父那裡去時,祂在晚餐中為他們洗腳,並交給他們愛的命 令。為留給他們這愛情的保証,為使他們與自己永不分離,並且為讓 他們參與祂的逾越,祂建立了感恩(聖體)聖事,作為祂聖死與復活的 紀念,並吩咐祂的宗徒要舉行這事,直至祂的再來;「於是將他們立 為新約的司祭」。

1338. 三部對觀福音和聖保祿,都給我們傳述了感恩(聖體)聖事的建立;至於聖若望,他則 記載了耶穌在葛法翁會堂,為準備建立感恩(聖體)聖事所說的話:基督指明自己就 是從天上降下來的生命之糧。

1339.耶穌選擇了逾越節來實現祂以前在葛法翁所預告的:把自己的體血賜 給祂的門徒:

無酵節日到了,這一天,應宰殺逾越節羔羊。耶穌打發伯多祿和若望說:「你們去 為我們預備要吃的逾越節晚餐罷!」……他們去了,……並預備了逾越節晚餐。到 了時候,耶穌就入席,宗徒也同祂一起。耶穌對他們說:「我渴望而又渴望,在我 受難以前,同你們吃這一頓逾越節晚餐。我告訴你們:非等到它在天主的國裡成全 了,我決不再吃它。」……祂遂拿起餅來,祝謝了,擘開,遞給他們說:「這是我 的身體,為你們而捨棄。你們要這樣做,來紀念我。」晚餐以後,耶穌同樣拿起杯 來,說:「這杯是用我為你們所流出的血而立的新約」(路 22:7-20)。

1340. 耶穌與宗徒在逾越節餐宴上舉行這最後晚餐時,給猶太人的逾越節賦 予了決定性的意義。事實上,新的逾越,就是耶穌通過死亡和復活到 達父那裡,這在最後晚餐中提前實現,且在[今天的]感恩祭中慶祝。 感恩祭完成猶太人的逾越節,並提前實現教會在天國的光榮中最終的 逾越。

「你們要這樣做,來紀念我」

 

1341. 耶穌命令要重複祂的行動和話語,「直到祂再來」。這命令不但要求 我們懷念耶穌及祂所做的一切,且是針對由宗徒和他們的繼承人所舉 行的禮儀慶典,紀念基督、祂的生活、祂的死亡和復活、以及祂在父 前的代禱。

1342.從一開教會就一直忠於主的命令。關於耶路撒冷的教會,宗徒大事錄 這樣記載:

他們專心聽取宗徒的訓誨,時常團聚,擘餅,祈禱。……每天都成群結隊地前往聖 殿,也挨戶擘餅,懷著歡樂和誠實的心一起進食(宗 2:42,46)。

1343. 基督徒尤其在「一週的第一天」──主日,即耶穌復活的日子,團聚 一起「擘餅」(宗 20:7)。自那時起,直到今天,感恩(聖體)聖事慶典一 直綿延不斷;如今,在教會裡,我們在各處都可以參加這具有同樣基 本結構的感恩祭。它依然成為教會生活的中心。

1344. 如此,感恩祭一次一次地舉行,次次都在宣告耶穌的逾越奧跡,「直 到祂再來」(格前 11:26);旅途中的天主子民,「經過十字架的窄門而 前進」,走向天上的盛宴;那時,所有被選的人將在天國裡坐席。

 

III. The Eucharist in the Economy of Salvation

The signs of bread and wine

1333 At the heart of the Eucharistic celebration are the bread and wine that, by the words of Christ and the invocation of the Holy Spirit, become Christ's Body and Blood. Faithful to the Lord's command the Church continues to do, in his memory and until his glorious return, what he did on the eve of his Passion: "He took bread...." "He took the cup filled with wine...." the signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ; they continue also to signify the goodness of creation. Thus in the Offertory we give thanks to the Creator for bread and wine,152 fruit of the "work of human hands," but above all as "fruit of the earth" and "of the vine" - gifts of the Creator. the Church sees in the gesture of the king-priest Melchizedek, who "brought out bread and wine," a prefiguring of her own offering.153

1334 In the Old Covenant bread and wine were offered in sacrifice among the first fruits of the earth as a sign of grateful acknowledgment to the Creator. But they also received a new significance in the context of the Exodus: the unleavened bread that Israel eats every year at Passover commemorates the haste of the departure that liberated them from Egypt; the remembrance of the manna in the desert will always recall to Israel that it lives by the bread of the Word of God;154 their daily bread is the fruit of the promised land, the pledge of God's faithfulness to his promises. 
The "cup of blessing"155 at the end of the Jewish Passover meal adds to the festive joy of wine an eschatological dimension: the messianic expectation of the rebuilding of Jerusalem. When Jesus instituted the Eucharist, he gave a new and definitive meaning to the blessing of the bread and the cup.

1335 The miracles of the multiplication of the loaves, when the Lord says the blessing, breaks and distributes the loaves through his disciples to feed the multitude, prefigure the superabundance of this unique bread of his Eucharist.156 The sign of water turned into wine at Cana already announces the Hour of Jesus' glorification. It makes manifest the fulfillment of the wedding feast in the Father's kingdom, where the faithful will drink the new wine that has become the Blood of Christ.157

1336 The first announcement of the Eucharist divided the disciples, just as the announcement of the Passion scandalized them: "This is a hard saying; who can listen to it?"158 The Eucharist and the Cross are stumbling blocks. It is the same mystery and it never ceases to be an occasion of division. "Will you also go away?":159 The Lord's question echoes through the ages, as a loving invitation to discover that only he has "the words of eternal life"160 and that to receive in faith the gift of his Eucharist is to receive the Lord himself.

The institution of the Eucharist

1337 The Lord, having loved those who were his own, loved them to the end. Knowing that the hour had come to leave this world and return to the Father, in the course of a meal he washed their feet and gave them the commandment of love.161 In order to leave them a pledge of this love, in order never to depart from his own and to make them sharers in his Passover, he instituted the Eucharist as the memorial of his death and Resurrection, and commanded his apostles to celebrate it until his return; "thereby he constituted them priests of the New Testament."162

1338 The three synoptic Gospels and St. Paul have handed on to us the account of the institution of the Eucharist; St. John, for his part, reports the words of Jesus in the synagogue of Capernaum that prepare for the institution of the Eucharist: Christ calls himself the bread of life, come down from heaven.163

1339 Jesus chose the time of Passover to fulfill what he had announced at Capernaum: giving his disciples his Body and his Blood:

Then came the day of Unleavened Bread, on which the passover lamb had to be sacrificed. So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the passover meal for us, that we may eat it...." They went ... and prepared the passover. and when the hour came, he sat at table, and the apostles with him. and he said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer; for I tell you I shall not eat it again until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.".... and he took bread, and when he had given thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me." and likewise the cup after supper, saying, "This cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood."164

1340 By celebrating the Last Supper with his apostles in the course of the Passover meal, Jesus gave the Jewish Passover its definitive meaning. Jesus' passing over to his father by his death and Resurrection, the new Passover, is anticipated in the Supper and celebrated in the Eucharist, which fulfills the Jewish Passover and anticipates the final Passover of the Church in the glory of the kingdom.

"Do this in memory of me"

1341 The command of Jesus to repeat his actions and words "until he comes" does not only ask us to remember Jesus and what he did. It is directed at the liturgical celebration, by the apostles and their successors, of the memorial of Christ, of his life, of his death, of his Resurrection, and of his intercession in the presence of the Father.165

1342 From the beginning the Church has been faithful to the Lord's command. of the Church of Jerusalem it is written:

They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.... Day by day, attending the temple together and breaking bread in their homes, they partook of food with glad and generous hearts.166

1343 It was above all on "the first day of the week," Sunday, the day of Jesus' resurrection, that the Christians met "to break bread."167 From that time on down to our own day the celebration of the Eucharist has been continued so that today we encounter it everywhere in the Church with the same fundamental structure. It remains the center of the Church's life.

1344 Thus from celebration to celebration, as they proclaim the Paschal mystery of Jesus "until he comes," the pilgrim People of God advances, "following the narrow way of the cross,"168 toward the heavenly banquet, when all the elect will be seated at the table of the kingdom.

四、感恩祭的禮儀慶典

世代相傳的彌撒

1345. 從第二世紀起,我們已有殉道者聖猶思定的見証,他描述了感恩祭程 序的基本輪廓。直到今天,這輪廓仍完好地為各大禮儀族群所保存。 聖猶思定曾在公元 155年左右,向外教皇帝虔誠者安多尼 (Antoninus Pius)解釋基督徒所做的:

在我們稱為「太陽日」這天,住在城市和鄉間的信眾,都前來聚集在同一地方。

按照時間許可,誦讀宗徒的記載和先知的著作。

讀經者讀畢,主席便教導和勉勵會眾仿行這些美好之事。

然後,我們一同起立祈禱:為我們自己……,也為所有其他的人祈禱,無論他們身在何地,好使我們都能正直地生活和行動,並忠於誡命,以獲得永遠的救恩。

祈禱結束後,我們彼此親吻。

然後,有人遞上餅與一杯混合了水的酒,交給眾弟兄的主席。

他接過餅酒,便因子及聖神之名,光榮稱頌宇宙之父;並以相當長的時間感恩(希臘 文:eucharistian),使我們堪當領受這些恩賜。

當他祈禱和感恩完畢,全體會眾便高聲回應:「阿們」。

主席感恩與民眾回應之後,我們中那稱為執事者,就把祝謝過的餅以及酒和水,分給在場參禮的人;也帶給那些不在場的人。

1346.感恩祭禮儀按照它的基本結構展開,這結構歷經許多世紀,一直保存 到今天。它包含著兩大部分,這兩大部分基本上形成一個整體:

──會眾集合,聖道禮儀,包括宣讀聖經、講道和信友禱詞;

──感恩禮儀,包括呈獻餅酒、有祝聖效果的感恩祈禱(感恩經)和領聖體禮。

聖道禮儀和感恩禮儀,共同組成「一個整體的敬禮行動」事實上,在 感恩祭裡,為我們擺設的筵席,既是天主聖言的筵席,也是主的身體 的筵席。

1347. 這不就是「復活的耶穌跟門徒所共進的逾越節晚餐」的情節嗎?復活 的耶穌與他們同行時,給他們講解聖經,然後與他們同席進餐時, 「祂拿起餅來,祝謝了,擘開,遞給他們」。

禮儀慶典的進行

1348. 所有信友聚集一起。基督徒來到同一地方舉行感恩聚會。此聚會之領 導者是基督自己,祂是感恩祭的主要執行者 (principal agent)。祂是新 約的大司祭,是祂親自以不可見的方式主持整個感恩慶典。主教或司 鐸則是以基督元首之名 (in persona Christi capitis)代表祂主持聚會,在宣讀聖經後講道,接受獻禮並以感恩經祈禱。所有的人在慶典中,都各按其分,主動參與:宣讀聖經、呈獻禮品、送聖體聖血,全體會眾則以「阿們」顯示他們的參與。

1349. 聖道禮儀的讀經包括「先知的著作」,即舊約聖經和「宗徒的回憶錄」,即宗徒書信和福音。宣讀聖經後就是講道,勸勉眾人接受聖 言,並切實當作天主的話來領受,且付諸實行。隨後,為全人類代 禱,正如宗徒所說的:「首先我勸導眾人,要為一切人懇求、祈禱、 轉求和謝恩,並為眾君王和一切有權位的人代禱」(弟前 2:1-2)。

1350. 呈獻禮品:然後有時以列隊方式,把餅酒帶到祭台,由司祭以基督之 名在感恩祭中奉獻,使之成為基督的體血。這正是基督在最後晚餐中 所做的行動:「拿起餅和杯來」。「唯有教會能向造物主獻上這純潔 的祭品,即以感恩之心,向造物主獻上祂所創造的」。祭品呈獻到祭 台,是沿用默基瑟德的舉動,並將造物主的恩賜交託在基督的手中。 是基督在祂的祭獻裡,使人類的獻祭達致完美。

1351. 從起初,基督徒帶來為感恩祭用的餅酒,也同時帶來他們的禮物,為 分給有需要的人。這奉獻 (捐獻)的習慣是合乎時代的,是由基督的榜 樣所啟發的,祂成了貧困的,好使我們成為富有的:

聖猶思定,《護教書》:那些富裕的,和願意的人,按照各人的能力捐獻。收集的 捐獻,交給主席,用來幫助孤兒寡婦、病人或因其他原故而有所匱乏的人,如囚 犯、移民等。總之,是援助所有貧困的人。

1352.感恩經 (anaphora):藉著感恩經──感恩和祝聖的祈禱,我們到達慶典 的中心和高峰:

在頌謝詞 頌謝詞裡,教會藉著基督、在聖神內,感謝聖父;感謝祂所做的一切工程:創 造、救贖和聖化的工程。整個團體連同天上的教會、天使和全體聖人,不停地讚頌 天主,向祂高唱「聖、聖、聖」。

1353. 在呼求聖神禱詞 (epiclesis)裡,教會祈求聖父派遣祂的聖神(或祂聖化的德能)降臨於 餅酒之上,使餅酒藉著聖神的德能成為耶穌基督的聖體聖血,並使那些分享感恩祭 宴的人,成為一心一體(某些禮儀傳統把呼求聖神禱詞編排在紀念禱詞 [anamnesis] 之後)。

在建立聖體聖血的敘述裡,基督所言所行的力量,以及聖神的德能,使基督的聖體 聖血,也就是祂在十字架上一次而為永久所完成的祭獻,以聖事的方式,臨現於餅 酒形下。

1354.在隨後的紀念禱詞裡,教會紀念耶穌基督的苦難、復活和光榮地再來;將聖子為使我 們與天主和好的祭獻,呈獻給天主父。

在求恩禱詞 (intercessions)裡,教會表示感恩祭是天上人間的整個教會一起舉行的, 包括生者、死者;並與教會的牧者,即教宗、教區主教和他的司祭團及執事、以及 普世主教和他們的教會,團結合一。

1355. 在領聖體禮部分,唸完主禱文(天主經)及擘餅後,信友領受「天上的食 糧」和「救恩之杯」──即基督的體和血,祂「為世界的生命」(若 6:51)把自己奉獻出來。

聖猶思定,《護教書》:這餅酒是「祝謝過的」(古老用法是採被動式 eucharisted), 因此,「我們稱這食糧為祝謝過的餅祝謝過的餅 (eucharist);只有相信我們所講的是真理,受過 洗而獲得罪赦和重生,並按基督的教訓而生活的人,才可分享這食糧」。


IV. The Liturgical Celebration of the Eucharist

The Mass of all ages

1345 As early as the second century we have the witness of St. Justin Martyr for the basic lines of the order of the Eucharistic celebration. They have stayed the same until our own day for all the great liturgical families. St. Justin wrote to the pagan emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161) around the year 155, explaining what Christians did:

On the day we call the day of the sun, all who dwell in the city or country gather in the same place. 
The memoirs of the apostles and the writings of the prophets are read, as much as time permits. 
When the reader has finished, he who presides over those gathered admonishes and challenges them to imitate these beautiful things. 
Then we all rise together and offer prayers* for ourselves . . .and for all others, wherever they may be, so that we may be found righteous by our life and actions, and faithful to the commandments, so as to obtain eternal salvation. 
When the prayers are concluded we exchange the kiss. 
Then someone brings bread and a cup of water and wine mixed together to him who presides over the brethren. 
He takes them and offers praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy 
Spirit and for a considerable time he gives thanks (in Greek: eucharistian) that we have been judged worthy of these gifts. 
When he has concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all present give voice to an acclamation by saying: 'Amen.' 
When he who presides has given thanks and the people have responded, those whom we call deacons give to those present the "eucharisted" bread, wine and water and take them to those who are absent.169

1346 The liturgy of the Eucharist unfolds according to a fundamental structure which has been preserved throughout the centuries down to our own day. It displays two great parts that form a fundamental unity: 
- the gathering, the liturgy of the Word, with readings, homily and general intercessions; 
- the liturgy of the Eucharist, with the presentation of the bread and wine, the consecratory thanksgiving, and communion. 
The liturgy of the Word and liturgy of the Eucharist together form "one single act of worship";170 The Eucharistic table set for us is the table both of the Word of God and of the Body of the Lord.171

1347 Is this not the same movement as the Paschal meal of the risen Jesus with his disciples? Walking with them he explained the Scriptures to them; sitting with them at table "he took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to them."172

The movement of the celebration

1348 All gather together. Christians come together in one place for the Eucharistic assembly. At its head is Christ himself, the principal agent of the Eucharist. He is high priest of the New Covenant; it is he himself who presides invisibly over every Eucharistic celebration. It is in representing him that the bishop or priest acting in the person of Christ the head (in persona Christi capitis) presides over the assembly, speaks after the readings, receives the offerings, and says the Eucharistic Prayer. All have their own active parts to play in the celebration, each in his own way: readers, those who bring up the offerings, those who give communion, and the whole people whose "Amen" manifests their participation.

1349 The Liturgy of the Word includes "the writings of the prophets," that is, the Old Testament, and "the memoirs of the apostles" (their letters and the Gospels). After the homily, which is an exhortation to accept this Word as what it truly is, the Word of God,173 and to put it into practice, come the intercessions for all men, according to the Apostle's words: "I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all men, for kings, and all who are in high positions."174

1350 The presentation of the offerings (the Offertory). Then, sometimes in procession, the bread and wine are brought to the altar; they will be offered by the priest in the name of Christ in the Eucharistic sacrifice in which they will become his body and blood. It is the very action of Christ at the Last Supper - "taking the bread and a cup." "The Church alone offers this pure oblation to the Creator, when she offers what comes forth from his creation with thanksgiving."175 The presentation of the offerings at the altar takes up the gesture of Melchizedek and commits the Creator's gifts into the hands of Christ who, in his sacrifice, brings to perfection all human attempts to offer sacrifices.

1351 From the very beginning Christians have brought, along with the bread and wine for the Eucharist, gifts to share with those in need. This custom of the collection, ever appropriate, is inspired by the example of Christ who became poor to make us rich:176

Those who are well off, and who are also willing, give as each chooses. What is gathered is given to him who presides to assist orphans and widows, those whom illness or any other cause has deprived of resources, prisoners, immigrants and, in a word, all who are in need.177

1352 The anaphora: with the Eucharistic Prayer - the prayer of thanksgiving and consecration - we come to the heart and summit of the celebration:

In the preface, the Church gives thanks to the Father, through Christ, in the Holy Spirit, for all his works: creation, redemption, and sanctification. the whole community thus joins in the unending praise that the Church in heaven, the angels and all the saints, sing to the thrice-holy God.

1353 In the epiclesis, the Church asks the Father to send his Holy Spirit (or the power of his blessing178) on the bread and wine, so that by his power they may become the body and blood of Jesus Christ and so that those who take part in the Eucharist may be one body and one spirit (some liturgical traditions put the epiclesis after the anamnesis). 
In the institution narrative, the power of the words and the action of Christ, and the power of the Holy Spirit, make sacramentally present under the species of bread and wine Christ's body and blood, his sacrifice offered on the cross once for all.

1354 In the anamnesis that follows, the Church calls to mind the Passion, resurrection, and glorious return of Christ Jesus; she presents to the Father the offering of his Son which reconciles us with him. 
In the intercessions, the Church indicates that the Eucharist is celebrated in communion with the whole Church in heaven and on earth, the living and the dead, and in communion with the pastors of the Church, the Pope, the diocesan bishop, his presbyterium and his deacons, and all the bishops of the whole world together with their Churches.

1355 In the communion, preceded by the Lord's prayer and the breaking of the bread, the faithful receive "the bread of heaven" and "the cup of salvation," the body and blood of Christ who offered himself "for the life of the world":179

Because this bread and wine have been made Eucharist ("eucharisted," according to an ancient expression), "we call this food Eucharist, and no one may take part in it unless he believes that what we teach is true, has received baptism for the forgiveness of sins and new birth, and lives in keeping with what Christ taught."180


五、聖事性的祭獻:感恩、紀念、臨現

1356. 基督徒從開始便舉行感恩祭。雖然隨著時代的變遷,也有不同的禮儀 傳統,但感恩祭的本質從未改變,因為我們自知受命於主,為主的命 令所約束;祂在受難前夕吩咐說:「你們要這樣做,來紀念我」(格前 11:24-25)。

1357. 我們為紀念祂的犧牲(祭獻)而舉行慶典,來遵守主的這項命令。這樣 做,我們就是向天父呈獻祂自己所賜給我們的:祂創造的恩賜──餅和 酒,而這餅和酒藉著聖神的德能和基督的話語,成了基督的體血;基 督就是如此真實而奧妙地臨現

1358.因此,我們應把感恩祭視為:

──向父的感恩和讚頌;

──基督及其身體所作祭獻的紀念;

──基督藉其聖言和聖神德能的親臨。

向父的感恩和讚頌

1359. 感恩祭 ── 基督在十字架上所完成的救贖我們的聖事── 也是為感謝 天主創世工程的讚頌之祭。在感恩祭裡,經由基督的死亡和復活,將 所有天主鍾愛的受造物,呈獻給天父。通過基督,教會便能為感謝天 主在受造物和人類中所做的美好和正義的一切,獻上讚頌之祭。

1360. 感恩祭是呈獻給天父的感恩之祭,是對天主的讚頌,教會藉此表達她 對天主的知恩,感謝祂的一切恩惠,也感謝祂藉創造、救贖和聖化所 完成的一切。感恩祭首先是表達「感恩」的心意。

1361. 感恩祭也是讚頌之祭,教會藉此以萬物之名頌揚天主的光榮。這讚頌 之祭只有通過基督才得實現:基督把信徒與祂自己、連同祂的讚頌和 代禱結為一體,好能藉著祂偕同祂,向天父呈獻讚頌之祭,並在祂(<基督)內蒙受悅納。

基督及其身體────教會教會────所作祭獻的紀念

1362. 在教會──基督的身體──的禮儀中,感恩祭是基督逾越的紀念,是 祂唯一祭獻的實現和聖事性的奉獻。所有的感恩經中,在建立聖體聖 血的敘述之後,都有一端稱為紀念 (anamnesis)的禱詞。

1363. 按照聖經的意義,紀念不但意指回憶往事,也是宣告天主為人類所完 成的奇跡異事。在舉行這些事件的禮儀時,這些事件透過某種方式而 得以臨在和實現。以色列子民就是以這種方式,了解他們出離埃及的 事件:每當他們慶祝逾越節時,出谷的事件便臨現在信徒的記憶中, 如此促使他們的生活符合這事件。

1364. 紀念在新約中得到了一個新的含義。每當教會舉行感恩祭時,就是在 紀念基督的逾越奧跡,這奧跡亦藉此而臨現:基督在十字架上一次而 永遠完成的祭獻萬古常新。「每次在祭台上舉行基督──我們的逾越 羔羊──在十字架上所作的祭獻,就是實行我們得救的工程」。

1365. 由於感恩祭是基督逾越的紀念,所以它也是一個祭獻。感恩祭的祭獻 特質顯示在基督建立這聖事的話上:「這是我的身體,為你們而捨棄 的」;以及「這杯是用我為你們流出的血而立的新約」(路路 20)。在感恩祭中,基督所交付的身體,就是祂在十字架上為我們所交 付的身體;所交付的血,就是祂「為大眾傾流,以赦免罪過」的血(瑪 26:28)。

1366.所以,感恩祭是祭獻,因為它使十字架的祭獻重現(臨到現場),因為它 是十字架祭獻的紀念,也因為它應用十字架祭獻的果實:

[基督]我們的主、天主,以代禱者之身死在十字架祭台上;祂藉此一次而永遠地奉 獻自己給天主父,為人類實現祂永恆的救贖。可是,祂的死亡不應使祂的司祭職中 斷(希 7:24,27),於是,祂在最後晚餐,即「祂被交付的那一夜」,願意留給教會 ── 祂鍾愛的淨配── 一個有形可見的祭獻(正如人性所要求的),以便重現祂在十 字架上一次而永遠地所完成的流血祭獻,使此祭獻的紀念一直流傳至世界的終結(格 前 11:23),並使其救贖效能應用在我們身上,赦免我們每日所犯的罪過。

1367.基督的祭獻和感恩祭的祭獻是一個獨一無二的祭獻:「所奉 獻的祭品是同一個,如今藉司祭的職務作奉獻的,和當時那 位在十字架上作自我奉獻的,是同一位,只是奉獻的方式不 同而已」。「而且由於在彌撒中所完成的神聖祭獻裡,同一 基督身在其中,以不流血方式自作犧牲;祂昔日以流血方式 在十字架的祭台上一次而永遠地奉獻了自己……這祭獻是真 正的贖價」。

1368. 感恩祭也是教會的祭獻。教會是基督的身體,參與她元首的奉獻。教 會偕同基督完全奉獻自己。她結合於基督的代禱,為全人類祈求天 父。在感恩祭中,基督的祭獻也成為祂肢體的祭獻。信友的生活,他 們的讚美、痛苦、祈禱、工作,都與基督的讚美、痛苦、祈禱、工 作,及祂整個的奉獻結合,因而獲得新的價值。基督的祭獻臨現在祭 台上,使世世代代的基督徒,都可以與祂的奉獻相結合。

在地下墓穴的畫象上,教會常被劃成一位正在祈禱的婦人,她伸開雙臂祈禱。正如 基督在十字架上伸開雙臂,教會也藉著基督、偕同基督、在基督內,奉獻自己,並 為全人類代禱。

1369. 整個教會都與基督的奉獻和代禱結合。教宗擔負著伯多祿在教會中的 職務,他與每次舉行的感恩祭相連合,在感恩祭中,他被稱為普世教 會合一的標記和僕人。地方主教常是感恩祭的負責人,即使由司鐸主 持的也是如此;誦唸感恩經時,提及他的名字,表示他在他的司鐸團 當中,並由執事所協助,是個別教會的首領。團體也為所有聖職人員 祈禱,他們為團體,並偕同團體,奉獻感恩祭獻:

聖依納爵•安提約基,《致斯米納人書》:唯有由主教,或由他所授權的人所主持 的感恩祭,才被視為是合法的。

基督信徒的屬神祭獻,是藉著司鐸的職務,與唯一中保基督的祭獻結合而完成;就 是說,這祭獻是藉司鐸的手,以整個教會的名義,在感恩祭中,以不流血的聖事方 式所奉獻的,直到主再來臨。

1370. 與基督祭獻相結合的,不但是現世的信友,也包括那些已經在天上受 光榮的信友:教會紀念榮福童貞瑪利亞,以及所有聖人聖女,並聯同 他們,一起奉獻感恩祭。在感恩祭中,教會一如在十字架下,偕同瑪 利亞,與基督的奉獻和代禱相結合。

1371.感恩祭也為去世的信友──「那些在基督內逝世,卻尚未完全淨化的 信友」──而奉獻,好使他們能進入基督的光明和平安裡:

聖婦莫尼加臨終時對聖奧思定及其兄弟的遺言:聖奧思定,《懺悔錄》:把這身體 隨便埋在哪裡吧!不要為它煩惱!我只要求你們,無論在那裡,都要在主的祭台前紀 念我。

聖濟利祿•耶路撒冷,《釋奧期的教理講授》:然後,[在感恩經中]祈禱時,我們 為已亡的神長、主教,總之,為所有先我們而安息的人代禱,我們相信由於那神聖 可敬的犧牲者之臨現,我們為亡者獻上懇禱,這為他們的靈魂是有極大益處 的。……當我們為亡者向天主呈上祈禱時,即使他們曾是罪人,……我們獻上那為 我們的罪而自作犧牲的基督,如此使人類之友 ── 天主── 垂憐亡者,也垂憐我 們。

1372.聖奧思定巧妙地概括了這端信理,鼓勵我們日益圓滿地參與感恩祭中 所慶祝的我們救主的祭獻:

這個完全得到救贖的城市,亦即諸聖的聚會和團體,經由大司祭呈獻給天主,作為 普世的祭獻。這位大司祭取了奴僕的形體,在受難中,為我們眾人奉獻了自己,使 我們成為這偉大元首的身體。……這就是基督徒的祭獻:「我們雖多,在基督內只 是一個身體」(羅 12:5)。教會不斷地以教友都熟知的祭台上的聖事重行 (reproduce) 這個祭獻;教會也很明白,隨著她所奉獻的,她自己也被奉獻了。

基督藉其聖言和聖神的德能臨現

1373. 「那已死、或更好說已復活,現今在天主右邊,代我們轉求的基督耶 穌」(羅 8:34),以不同的方式臨現於祂的教會內:在祂的聖言中,在 教會的祈禱中,因為「哪裡有兩個或三個人,因我的名字聚在一起, 我就在他們中間」(瑪 18:20);在貧窮、病弱和被囚禁的人當中(瑪 25:31-46);在祂所建立的聖事中,在彌撒聖祭中,並在聖職人員身 上。但「最高峰,是祂臨現於感恩(聖體)聖事的餅酒形下」。

1374. 基督臨現於感恩(聖體)聖事的餅酒形下,其方式是獨一無二的。祂提昇 感恩(聖體)聖事,使之超越其他聖事,成為「靈性生活的圓滿,和所 有聖事的終向」。「我們的主耶穌基督的身體和血,連同祂的靈魂和 天主性,即整個基督,,真正地真正地、、真實地真實地、、且實體地」蘊藏於至聖的感 恩(聖體)聖事之內。「我們稱這種臨在為真實的,這說法並非是排他 性的,好似其他的臨在是不真實的;但這臨在是最卓越的,因為它是 實體的臨在,而且既是天主、又是人的基督整個地藉此臨現」。

1375. 基督是藉著餅酒的轉變成為基督的體血,而親臨在這聖事裡。教父們 堅決確認這是教會的信仰:是基督的話及聖神的行動,有效地促使 「餅酒轉變成為基督的體血」。因此,金口聖若望宣告說:

使所奉獻的(餅酒)成為基督體血的,不是人,而是那為我們釘死在十字架上的基督 自己。司祭擔任基督的角色,說出基督的這些話,然而,這些話的力量及恩寵,卻 是天主的。基督說:「這是我的身體這是我的身體」。是這句話把奉獻的禮品轉化[成了基督的體 血]。

聖安博談論這種轉變時說:

我們要相信這並不是自然形成的,而是由那祝謝[的話]所祝聖的。祝聖的力量遠勝 於自然的能力,因為藉著祝聖,自然的事物被轉變了。……基督的話,既然可以使 那不存在的成為存在的,難道不能轉變那些已經存在的東西,成為另一種截然不同 的存在嗎?給予事物原來的本質,跟改變它們的本質,是一項驚人的壯舉。

1376. 特倫多大公會議綜合天主教的信仰,聲明說:「因為我們的救主基督 說過,祂在麪餅形內所奉獻的,真是祂自己的身體。所以,教會一直 確信,如今在這神聖大公會議,再度予以宣布:藉著餅與酒的被祝 聖,餅的整個實體,被轉變成為我主基督身體的實體;酒的整個實 體,被轉變成為祂寶血的實體。這種轉變,天主教會恰當地、正確地

稱之為餅酒的實體轉變 (transsubstantiation)」。

1377. 基督在感恩 (聖體)聖事中的臨在,始於祝聖餅酒的那一刻;同時,祝 聖的餅酒形持續多久,基督的臨在就持續多久。基督是整個地、完全 地臨在於餅形及酒形內,而且是整個地、完全地臨在於每一分之內, 所以,擘餅並不把基督分開。

1378. 感恩 (聖體)聖事的敬禮。在彌撒禮儀中,為表達我們的信德,確信基 督真實臨在於餅酒形下,在許多敬禮中,我們以屈膝或深深鞠躬,作 為欽崇主基督的標記。「天主教會一直不斷地履行對感恩(聖體)聖事 的崇敬之禮,不但在舉行彌撒時,也在彌撒以外,包括:極細心地保 存祝聖過的麪餅(聖體);明供聖體讓信友隆重朝拜;舉行聖體遊行 等」。

1379. 聖體櫃原來是為把「聖體」恰當地保存起來,好在彌撒外,把聖體送給病人或那些不 能到場參與彌撒的人。教會由於對基督真實臨在於聖體聖事內的信德日益加深,而 意識到默默朝拜臨現聖體聖事內之主的深意,因此,聖體櫃必須放置在聖堂內特別 尊貴的地方;它的構造應強調、並顯示基督真實臨在於這聖事的事實。

1380. 基督願意以這種獨特的方式繼續臨在於教會內,是極為恰當的。基督 以可見的方式離開屬於自己的人時,願意給予我們祂聖事性的臨在; 祂為拯救我們而要在十字架上奉獻自己時,願意我們能保有祂愛的 「紀念」,祂愛我們「到底」(若 13:1),甚至獻出自己的生命。事實 上,祂藉著在聖體聖事中的臨在,奧妙地留在我們中間;祂就是曾經 愛了我們,並為我們而捨棄了自己的那一位。祂藉著表達和通傳這分 愛的標記,仍存留在我們中間:

若望保祿二世,《主的筵席》書函:教會和世界極需要聖體聖事的敬禮。耶穌在這 愛的聖事內等待我們。我們不要吝嗇時間,要在朝拜聖體中與祂相遇,在充滿信德 的默觀中與祂相遇,賠補世界的種種罪過。我們永不要停止對聖體的朝拜。

1381. 「臨在於這聖事內的,是基督真實的肉身和基督真實的寶血。聖多瑪 斯說:『我們不能靠感官,而只能靠信德來理解這種臨在;但信德卻 要依靠天主的權威』。因此,聖濟利祿註解路加福音第廿二章十九節 『這是我的身體,為你們而捨棄的』時,說:『不要問這事是否真 實;而要以信德來接受救主的話,因為祂是真理,祂不會撒 謊。』」:

「聖多瑪斯,聖歌我虔誠欽崇祢」:

虔誠朝拜,隱形的天主,我叩首至地,

祢確實臨在麪酒形下,我決不懷疑;

我心全部屬於祢,翕合祢聖意, 瞻仰祢的奧妙,我不勝欣喜。

我想看祢、摸祢、嘗祢,但都難以履及,

唯能聆聽祢的話語,覺得無比甘飴。

我相信天主聖子所說的一切,盡屬真理; 沒有任何事物,可與此真理之言相比。


V. The Sacramental Sacrifice Thanksgiving, Memorial, Presence

1356 If from the beginning Christians have celebrated the Eucharist and in a form whose substance has not changed despite the great diversity of times and liturgies, it is because we know ourselves to be bound by the command the Lord gave on the eve of his Passion: "Do this in remembrance of me."181

1357 We carry out this command of the Lord by celebrating the memorial of his sacrifice. In so doing, we offer to the Father what he has himself given us: the gifts of his creation, bread and wine which, by the power of the Holy Spirit and by the words of Christ, have become the body and blood of Christ. Christ is thus really and mysteriously made present.

1358 We must therefore consider the Eucharist as: - thanksgiving and praise to the Father; 
- the sacrificial memorial of Christ and his Body; 
- the presence of Christ by the power of his word and of his Spirit.

Thanksgiving and praise to the Father

1359 The Eucharist, the sacrament of our salvation accomplished by Christ on the cross, is also a sacrifice of praise in thanksgiving for the work of creation. In the Eucharistic sacrifice the whole of creation loved by God is presented to the Father through the death and the Resurrection of Christ. Through Christ the Church can offer the sacrifice of praise in thanksgiving for all that God has made good, beautiful, and just in creation and in humanity.

1360 The Eucharist is a sacrifice of thanksgiving to the Father, a blessing by which the Church expresses her gratitude to God for all his benefits, for all that he has accomplished through creation, redemption, and sanctification. Eucharist means first of all "thanksgiving."

1361 The Eucharist is also the sacrifice of praise by which the Church sings the glory of God in the name of all creation. This sacrifice of praise is possible only through Christ: he unites the faithful to his person, to his praise, and to his intercession, so that the sacrifice of praise to the Father is offered through Christ and with him, to be accepted in him.

The sacrificial memorial of Christ and of his Body, the Church

1362 The Eucharist is the memorial of Christ's Passover, the making present and the sacramental offering of his unique sacrifice, in the liturgy of the Church which is his Body. In all the Eucharistic Prayers we find after the words of institution a prayer called the anamnesis or memorial.

1363 In the sense of Sacred Scripture the memorial is not merely the recollection of past events but the proclamation of the mighty works wrought by God for men.182 In the liturgical celebration of these events, they become in a certain way present and real. This is how Israel understands its liberation from Egypt: every time Passover is celebrated, the Exodus events are made present to the memory of believers so that they may conform their lives to them.

1364 In the New Testament, the memorial takes on new meaning. When the Church celebrates the Eucharist, she commemorates Christ's Passover, and it is made present the sacrifice Christ offered once for all on the cross remains ever present.183 "As often as the sacrifice of the Cross by which 'Christ our Pasch has been sacrificed' is celebrated on the altar, the work of our redemption is carried out."184

1365 Because it is the memorial of Christ's Passover, the Eucharist is also a sacrifice. the sacrificial character of the Eucharist is manifested in the very words of institution: "This is my body which is given for you" and "This cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood."185 In the Eucharist Christ gives us the very body which he gave up for us on the cross, the very blood which he "poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins."186

1366 The Eucharist is thus a sacrifice because it re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of the cross, because it is its memorial and because it applies its fruit:

[Christ], our Lord and God, was once and for all to offer himself to God the Father by his death on the altar of the cross, to accomplish there an everlasting redemption. But because his priesthood was not to end with his death, at the Last Supper "on the night when he was betrayed," [he wanted] to leave to his beloved spouse the Church a visible sacrifice (as the nature of man demands) by which the bloody sacrifice which he was to accomplish once for all on the cross would be re-presented, its memory perpetuated until the end of the world, and its salutary power be applied to the forgiveness of the sins we daily commit.187

1367 The sacrifice of Christ and the sacrifice of the Eucharist are one single sacrifice: "The victim is one and the same: the same now offers through the ministry of priests, who then offered himself on the cross; only the manner of offering is different." "In this divine sacrifice which is celebrated in the Mass, the same Christ who offered himself once in a bloody manner on the altar of the cross is contained and is offered in an unbloody manner."188

1368 The Eucharist is also the sacrifice of the Church. the Church which is the Body of Christ participates in the offering of her Head. With him, she herself is offered whole and entire. She unites herself to his intercession with the Father for all men. In the Eucharist the sacrifice of Christ becomes also the sacrifice of the members of his Body. the lives of the faithful, their praise, sufferings, prayer, and work, are united with those of Christ and with his total offering, and so acquire a new value. Christ's sacrifice present on the altar makes it possible for all generations of Christians to be united with his offering.

In the catacombs the Church is often represented as a woman in prayer, arms outstretched in the praying position. Like Christ who stretched out his arms on the cross, through him, with him, and in him, she offers herself and intercedes for all men.

1369 The whole Church is united with the offering and intercession of Christ. Since he has the ministry of Peter in the Church, the Pope is associated with every celebration of the Eucharist, wherein he is named as the sign and servant of the unity of the universal Church. the bishop of the place is always responsible for the Eucharist, even when a priest presides; the bishop's name is mentioned to signify his presidency over the particular Church, in the midst of his presbyterium and with the assistance of deacons. the community intercedes also for all ministers who, for it and with it, offer the Eucharistic sacrifice:

Let only that Eucharist be regarded as legitimate, which is celebrated under [the presidency of] the bishop or him to whom he has entrusted it.189

Through the ministry of priests the spiritual sacrifice of the faithful is completed in union with the sacrifice of Christ the only Mediator, which in the Eucharist is offered through the priests' hands in the name of the whole Church in an unbloody and sacramental manner until the Lord himself comes.190

1370 To the offering of Christ are united not only the members still here on earth, but also those already in the glory of heaven. In communion with and commemorating the Blessed Virgin Mary and all the saints, the Church offers the Eucharistic sacrifice. In the Eucharist the Church is as it were at the foot of the cross with Mary, united with the offering and intercession of Christ.

1371 The Eucharistic sacrifice is also offered for the faithful departed who "have died in Christ but are not yet wholly purified,"191 so that they may be able to enter into the light and peace of Christ:

Put this body anywhere! Don't trouble yourselves about it! I simply ask you to remember me at the Lord's altar wherever you are.192

Then, we pray [in the anaphora] for the holy fathers and bishops who have fallen asleep, and in general for all who have fallen asleep before us, in the belief that it is a great benefit to the souls on whose behalf the supplication is offered, while the holy and tremendous Victim is present.... By offering to God our supplications for those who have fallen asleep, if they have sinned, we . . . offer Christ sacrificed for the sins of all, and so render favorable, for them and for us, the God who loves man.193

1372 St. Augustine admirably summed up this doctrine that moves us to an ever more complete participation in our Redeemer's sacrifice which we celebrate in the Eucharist:

This wholly redeemed city, the assembly and society of the saints, is offered to God as a universal sacrifice by the high priest who in the form of a slave went so far as to offer himself for us in his Passion, to make us the Body of so great a head.... Such is the sacrifice of Christians: "we who are many are one Body in Christ" the Church continues to reproduce this sacrifice in the sacrament of the altar so well-known to believers wherein it is evident to them that in what she offers she herself is offered.194

The presence of Christ by the power of his word and the Holy Spirit

1373 "Christ Jesus, who died, yes, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us," is present in many ways to his Church:195 in his word, in his Church's prayer, "where two or three are gathered in my name,"196 in the poor, the sick, and the imprisoned,197 in the sacraments of which he is the author, in the sacrifice of the Mass, and in the person of the minister. But "he is present . . . most especially in the Eucharistic species."198

1374 The mode of Christ's presence under the Eucharistic species is unique. It raises the Eucharist above all the sacraments as "the perfection of the spiritual life and the end to which all the sacraments tend."199 In the most blessed sacrament of the Eucharist "the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ and, therefore, the whole Christ is truly, really, and substantially contained."200 "This presence is called 'real' - by which is not intended to exclude the other types of presence as if they could not be 'real' too, but because it is presence in the fullest sense: that is to say, it is a substantial presence by which Christ, God and man, makes himself wholly and entirely present."201

1375 It is by the conversion of the bread and wine into Christ's body and blood that Christ becomes present in this sacrament. the Church Fathers strongly affirmed the faith of the Church in the efficacy of the Word of Christ and of the action of the Holy Spirit to bring about this conversion. Thus St. John Chrysostom declares:

It is not man that causes the things offered to become the Body and Blood of Christ, but he who was crucified for us, Christ himself. the priest, in the role of Christ, pronounces these words, but their power and grace are God's. This is my body, he says. This word transforms the things offered.202

and St. Ambrose says about this conversion:

Be convinced that this is not what nature has formed, but what the blessing has consecrated. the power of the blessing prevails over that of nature, because by the blessing nature itself is changed.... Could not Christ's word, which can make from nothing what did not exist, change existing things into what they were not before? It is no less a feat to give things their original nature than to change their nature.203

1376 The Council of Trent summarizes the Catholic faith by declaring: "Because Christ our Redeemer said that it was truly his body that he was offering under the species of bread, it has always been the conviction of the Church of God, and this holy Council now declares again, that by the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly called transubstantiation."204

1377 The Eucharistic presence of Christ begins at the moment of the consecration and endures as long as the Eucharistic species subsist. Christ is present whole and entire in each of the species and whole and entire in each of their parts, in such a way that the breaking of the bread does not divide Christ.205

1378 Worship of the Eucharist. In the liturgy of the Mass we express our faith in the real presence of Christ under the species of bread and wine by, among other ways, genuflecting or bowing deeply as a sign of adoration of the Lord. "The Catholic Church has always offered and still offers to the sacrament of the Eucharist the cult of adoration, not only during Mass, but also outside of it, reserving the consecrated hosts with the utmost care, exposing them to the solemn veneration of the faithful, and carrying them in procession."206

1379 The tabernacle was first intended for the reservation of the Eucharist in a worthy place so that it could be brought to the sick and those absent outside of Mass. As faith in the real presence of Christ in his Eucharist deepened, the Church became conscious of the meaning of silent adoration of the Lord present under the Eucharistic species. It is for this reason that the tabernacle should be located in an especially worthy place in the church and should be constructed in such a way that it emphasizes and manifests the truth of the real presence of Christ in the Blessed Sacrament.

1380 It is highly fitting that Christ should have wanted to remain present to his Church in this unique way. Since Christ was about to take his departure from his own in his visible form, he wanted to give us his sacramental presence; since he was about to offer himself on the cross to save us, he wanted us to have the memorial of the love with which he loved us "to the end,"207 even to the giving of his life. In his Eucharistic presence he remains mysteriously in our midst as the one who loved us and gave himself up for us,208 and he remains under signs that express and communicate this love:

The Church and the world have a great need for Eucharistic worship. Jesus awaits us in this sacrament of love. Let us not refuse the time to go to meet him in adoration, in contemplation full of faith, and open to making amends for the serious offenses and crimes of the world. Let our adoration never cease.209

1381 "That in this sacrament are the true Body of Christ and his true Blood is something that 'cannot be apprehended by the senses,' says St. Thomas, 'but only by faith, which relies on divine authority.' For this reason, in a commentary on Luke 22:19 ('This is my body which is given for you.'), St. Cyril says: 'Do not doubt whether this is true, but rather receive the words of the Savior in faith, for since he is the truth, he cannot lie.'"210

Godhead here in hiding, whom I do adore

Masked by these bare shadows, shape and nothing more,

See, Lord, at thy service low lies here a heart

Lost, all lost in wonder at the God thou art.


Seeing, touching, tasting are in thee deceived; 
How says trusty hearing? that shall be believed; 
What God's Son has told me, take for truth I do; 
Truth himself speaks truly or there's nothing true.211

六、逾越的宴會

1382. 彌撒是祭獻性的紀念──在它內延續十字架的祭獻,同時也是領受主 的體血的神聖宴會,兩者是不可分的。然而,感恩祭獻的慶典,全是 為指向信友藉著領聖體與基督親密結合。領聖體,就是接受基督本 身;祂曾為我們犧牲自己。

1383. 教會舉行感恩祭所聚集圍繞的祭台,代表著同一個奧跡的兩面:主獻 祭的祭台和主的餐桌。很明顯,基督徒的祭台就是基督自己的象徵: 祂臨在於信友的聚會當中,奉獻自己,作為我們和好的犧牲品;同時 交付自己,成為從天上賜下給我們的食糧。聖安博道:「如果基督的 祭台不是基督身體的肖象,那麼是甚麼」?他在另一處又說:「祭台 代表[基督的]身體,而基督的身體就在祭台上」。禮儀的許多祈禱文 中,表達祭獻和共融宴會(領聖體)之一體性。羅馬教會在她的感恩經 中,這樣祈禱:

《羅馬彌撒經書》,「感恩經第一式」96:全能的天主,我們懇切求祢命令祢的聖 天使,將這祭品捧到祢至高的祭台上,呈獻於祢神聖的尊威台前:賜我們凡參與這 祭獻的,領受了祢聖子的聖體聖血之後,得以充滿一切天恩和聖寵。

「你們大家拿去吃」:與主共融(領聖體)

 

1384 主再三邀請我們,囑咐我們在感恩(聖體)聖事中接受祂:「我實實在在告訴你們:你們若不吃人子的肉,不喝祂的血,在你們內,便沒有生命」(若 6:53)。

1385. 為回應這項邀請,對如此偉大和神聖的時刻,我們必須準備自己。聖 保祿勸勉我們要省察自己的良心:「無論誰,若不相稱地吃主的餅, 或喝主的杯,就是干犯主體和主血的罪人。所以人應先省察自己,然後才可以吃這餅,喝這杯;因為那吃喝的人,若不分辨主的身體,就是吃喝自己的罪案」(格前 11:27-29)。凡明知自己身負大罪的人,必須先接受和好聖事,才可領受主的體血。

1386. 面對著如此偉大的聖事,信徒只可懷著一分熾熱的信德,謙虛地重複 百夫長的話說:「主,我當不起祢我心裡來,只要祢說一句話,我的 靈魂就會痊癒」。在金口聖若望的神聖禮儀 (彌撒)中,信友以同樣的 心神祈求:

啊,天主子,讓我今天在祢奧妙的晚餐中,與祢共融吧。我不會向祢的仇敵揭示那 奧秘,也不會像猶達斯那樣親吻祢。但是,會像那好強盜一樣,向祢呼喚:「耶 穌,當祢進入祢的國時,請紀念我」。

1387.為能相稱地接受這聖事,信友應遵守自己教會所規定的聖體齋。外在的態度(姿勢、 服裝)應表達出尊重、莊嚴和喜樂之情,因為此刻基督要成為我們的貴賓。 1388.信友如果具有所需的準備,參與彌撒時領聖體,這才符合感 恩祭本來的意義。正如梵二大公會議所說:「極鼓勵信友更 完善地參與彌撒,就是在司鐸領受聖體聖血之後,信友們也 接受在同一祭獻中的主的身體」。

1389.教會規定信友「在主日和慶節參與神聖禮儀 (彌撒)」,並以 和好聖事做準備,每年至少領受感恩 (聖體)聖事一次。如果 可能的話,就在復活期內履行。但教會積極鼓勵信友在主日 和慶節,或更經常地,甚至是每日都領受感恩 (聖體)聖事。

1390. 由於基督是聖事性地臨在於餅酒形下,因此即使單以「餅形」領聖體,也足以得到感恩祭的全部恩寵。基於牧民理由,以這種方式領聖體,已合法地成為拉丁禮教會普遍的習慣。但是,「如兼領餅、酒兩形,則領聖體的標記更能圓滿地表達其標記的意義,因為這種方式使 感恩宴會的標記更明顯地表示出來」。這是東方禮領聖體的通常方 式。

領聖體的效果

1391. 領聖體加強我們與基督的契合。在領聖體禮中所領的聖體(聖血)帶來的 主要效果,是與耶穌基督親密結合。事實上,主說:「誰吃我的肉, 並喝我的血,便住在我內,我也住在他內」(若 6:56)。在基督內的生活建基於感恩宴會:「就如那生活的父派遣了我,我因父而生活;照樣,那吃我的人,也要因我而生活」(若 6:57)。

范傑,《安提約基雅的敘利亞日課》第一節,通用經文 237a-b:在主的慶節,信友 領受聖子的聖體時,彼此宣布喜訊:永生的保証已經賜下,正如天使向瑪利亞瑪大 肋納說:「基督已復活了!」現在,生命和復活也都賦予那領受基督的人。

1392. 一如物質的食糧滋養我們的肉身生命,領聖體同樣奇妙地滋養我們的靈性生命。共融於復活基督的身體,即「那藉聖神得到生命,也藉聖神賦予生命」的身體,能保存、增強並更新基督徒受洗時所接受的恩寵生命。此生命的成長,需要聖體來滋養。聖體也是人生旅途的食糧;直到我們臨終的時候,它將是賜予我們的天路行糧 (viaticum)。

1393. 領聖體使我們與罪惡分開。領聖體時所領的基督身體,是「為我們而 交付的」;所喝的血,是「為眾人所傾流的,以赦免罪過」。因此, 感恩(聖體)聖事若不同時潔淨我們所犯的罪,並保護我們免陷於將來 的罪,就不能使我們與基督結合。

聖安博,《論聖事》:「我們每次吃這餅,喝這杯,就是宣告主的死亡」(格前 11:26)。我們宣告主的死亡,就是宣告罪惡的赦免。如果祂每次傾流祂的血,都是 為了赦免罪惡,我們就應時常領受祂的聖血,為使我們的罪常得赦免。正因為我們 時常犯罪,就應時常獲得治療。

1394. 正如肉體的食糧用以補充消耗的體力,同樣,感恩(聖體)聖事堅強那在 日常生活中容易減弱的愛德,此受振奮而具有活力的愛德除去小罪。 由於基督把自己交付給我們,因而重新激發我們的愛,使我們能擺脫 依戀世物的偏情,而植根於祂:

聖福京斯•路司帕,《駁斥法比央的作為》:由於基督因愛為我們而死,當我們為 紀念祂的聖死而舉行聖祭時,祈求聖神降臨,把基督那分愛賜給我們;基督正是因 為這愛,願意為我們而死,我們謙恭地祈求:靠這愛的力量,因領受聖神的恩賜, 我們能夠「把世界看作為我們被釘在十字架上,同樣我們也為世界而被釘在十字架 上」。……接受了這愛的恩賜後,我們便死於罪惡而活於天主。

1395. 感恩(聖體)聖事,藉著它在我們內所激發同樣的愛德,保護我們免陷於 將來的大罪中。我們越分享基督的生命,越增進與基督的友誼,就越 不容易因大罪而與祂分離。感恩(聖體)聖事的目的,不是為赦免大 罪,因為赦免大罪是和好聖事本身的事。感恩(聖體)聖事本身,是那 些與教會圓滿地共融的人的聖事。

1396. 奧體的合一感恩(聖體)聖事塑造教會。那些領受這聖事的人,與基督 更緊密地結合。基督更藉此把他們與所有的信徒結合,成為一個身體 ──教會。領聖體更新、堅強、深化這分藉聖洗已實現的、在教會內 的結合。在聖洗聖事中,我們蒙召成為一個身體。感恩(聖體)聖事實 現這個召叫:「我們所祝福的那祝福之杯,豈不是共結合於基督的血 嗎?我們所擘開的餅,豈不是共結合於基督的身體嗎?因為餅只是一 個,我們雖多,只是一個身體,因為我們眾人都共享這一個餅」(格前 10:16-17)。

聖奧思定,《懺悔錄》:如果你們是基督的身體,各自都是祂的肢體,那末,這放 在主的餐桌上的,便是你們的聖事;你們所領受的,是你們的聖事。面對你們所領 受的,你們回答:「阿們」(「是的,這是真的!」)。這樣回答,你們就予以肯定。 因為你們聽到「基督的身體」這句話,回答「阿們」,你們就該成為基督身體的一 個肢體,好使你們的「阿們」真的成為名副其實!

1397.感恩(聖體)聖事促使我們關心窮人:為能真實地領受基督為我們交付的 體血,我們當在最窮苦的人身上認出基督,他們是基督的兄弟姊妹:

金口聖若望,《格林多前書講道集》:你已品嘗了主的血,卻沒有認出你的兄弟姊 妹。如果某人被認為堪當參與聖餐,而你卻認為他不配分享你的食物,那麼你就侮 辱了這聖餐。天主從你的罪惡中解救了你,並邀請你來這裡坐席,可是你卻沒有因 而變得更慈悲。

1398. 感恩(聖體)聖事與基督徒的合一。聖奧思定面對如此偉大的奧跡,讚嘆 道:「啊!仁愛的聖事、團結的標記團結的標記、、愛德的連繫」。由於教會的分 裂使信徒不能共同參與主的聖餐,我們因而體驗到很深的痛苦;這種 痛苦越深,我們就應越迫切地向上主祈求,使所有信基督的人早日回 復圓滿的合一。

1399. 東方教會雖尚未與天主教會圓滿地共融,卻仍懷著極敬愛之情舉行感恩祭。「這些教 會雖與我們分離,卻仍保有真正的聖事,特別由於宗徒繼承而保有的司祭職和感恩 (聖體)聖事;此等聖事使他們和我們密切地聯繫」。在聖事上 (in sacris)有某種共 融,因此在感恩(聖體)聖事上,「在適當情形下,經教會當局核准,不但可行,且 應加以鼓勵」。

1400. 始自因宗教改革而與天主教會分離的教會團體,「特別是因為欠缺聖秩聖事,而未能 將感恩(聖體)聖事奧跡的固有本質,完整地保存下來」。因此,對天主教會來說, 在感恩(聖體)聖事上,與這些團體相通共融(互領聖體),是不可以的。然而,這些教 會團體「在舉行聖餐、紀念主的死亡和復活時,宣認這聖餐象徵與基督共融的生 命,並期待基督光榮地來臨」。

1401. 如有嚴重的需要,天主教聖職人員可按照教區正權人的權衡,為尚未 完全與公教會(天主教)共融、卻自願提出請求的其他基督徒,施行感 恩(聖體)、懺悔、病人傅油等聖事;不過他們必須有適當的準備,並 能表示對這些聖事所持的信仰與天主教會相同。


VI. The Paschal Banquet

1382 The Mass is at the same time, and inseparably, the sacrificial memorial in which the sacrifice of the cross is perpetuated and the sacred banquet of communion with the Lord's body and blood. But the celebration of the Eucharistic sacrifice is wholly directed toward the intimate union of the faithful with Christ through communion. To receive communion is to receive Christ himself who has offered himself for us.

1383 The altar, around which the Church is gathered in the celebration of the Eucharist, represents the two aspects of the same mystery: the altar of the sacrifice and the table of the Lord. This is all the more so since the Christian altar is the symbol of Christ himself, present in the midst of the assembly of his faithful, both as the victim offered for our reconciliation and as food from heaven who is giving himself to us. "For what is the altar of Christ if not the image of the Body of Christ?"212 asks St. Ambrose. He says elsewhere, "The altar represents the body [of Christ] and the Body of Christ is on the altar."213 The liturgy expresses this unity of sacrifice and communion in many prayers. Thus the Roman Church prays in its anaphora:

We entreat you, almighty God,

that by the hands of your holy Angel

this offering may be borne to your altar in heaven

in the sight of your divine majesty,

so that as we receive in communion at this altar

the most holy Body and Blood of your Son,

we may be filled with every heavenly blessing and grace.214

"Take this and eat it, all of you": communion

1384 The Lord addresses an invitation to us, urging us to receive him in the sacrament of the Eucharist: "Truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you."215

1385 To respond to this invitation we must prepare ourselves for so great and so holy a moment. St. Paul urges us to examine our conscience: "Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord. Let a man examine himself, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For any one who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment upon himself."216 Anyone conscious of a grave sin must receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before coming to communion.

1386 Before so great a sacrament, the faithful can only echo humbly and with ardent faith the words of the Centurion: "Domine, non sum dignus ut intres sub tectum meum, sed tantum dic verbo, et sanabitur anima mea" ("Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof, but only say the word and my soul will be healed.").217 and in the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom the faithful pray in the same spirit:

O Son of God, bring me into communion today with your mystical supper. I shall not tell your enemies the secret, nor kiss you with Judas' kiss. But like the good thief I cry, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom."

1387 To prepare for worthy reception of this sacrament, the faithful should observe the fast required in their Church.218 Bodily demeanor (gestures, clothing) ought to convey the respect, solemnity, and joy of this moment when Christ becomes our guest.

1388 It is in keeping with the very meaning of the Eucharist that the faithful, if they have the required dispositions, receive communion each time they participate in the Mass.219 As the Second Vatican Council says: "That more perfect form of participation in the Mass whereby the faithful, after the priest's communion, receive the Lord's Body from the same sacrifice, is warmly recommended."220

1389 The Church obliges the faithful "to take part in the Divine Liturgy on Sundays and feast days" and, prepared by the sacrament of Reconciliation, to receive the Eucharist at least once a year, if possible during the Easter season.221 But the Church strongly encourages the faithful to receive the holy Eucharist on Sundays and feast days, or more often still, even daily.

1390 Since Christ is sacramentally present under each of the species, communion under the species of bread alone makes it possible to receive all the fruit of Eucharistic grace. For pastoral reasons this manner of receiving communion has been legitimately established as the most common form in the Latin rite. But "the sign of communion is more complete when given under both kinds, since in that form the sign of the Eucharistic meal appears more clearly."222 This is the usual form of receiving communion in the Eastern rites.

The fruits of Holy Communion

1391 Holy Communion augments our union with Christ. the principal fruit of receiving the Eucharist in Holy Communion is an intimate union with Christ Jesus. Indeed, the Lord said: "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him."223 Life in Christ has its foundation in the Eucharistic banquet: "As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me."224

On the feasts of the Lord, when the faithful receive the Body of the Son, they proclaim to one another the Good News that the first fruits of life have been given, as when the angel said to Mary Magdalene, "Christ is risen!" Now too are life and resurrection conferred on whoever receives Christ.225

1392 What material food produces in our bodily life, Holy Communion wonderfully achieves in our spiritual life. Communion with the flesh of the risen Christ, a flesh "given life and giving life through the Holy Spirit,"226 preserves, increases, and renews the life of grace received at Baptism. This growth in Christian life needs the nourishment of Eucharistic Communion, the bread for our pilgrimage until the moment of death, when it will be given to us as viaticum.

1393 Holy Communion separates us from sin. the body of Christ we receive in Holy Communion is "given up for us," and the blood we drink "shed for the many for the forgiveness of sins." For this reason the Eucharist cannot unite us to Christ without at the same time cleansing us from past sins and preserving us from future sins:

For as often as we eat this bread and drink the cup, we proclaim the death of the Lord. If we proclaim the Lord's death, we proclaim the forgiveness of sins. If, as often as his blood is poured out, it is poured for the forgiveness of sins, I should always receive it, so that it may always forgive my sins. Because I always sin, I should always have a remedy.227

1394 As bodily nourishment restores lost strength, so the Eucharist strengthens our charity, which tends to be weakened in daily life; and this living charity wipes away venial sins.228 By giving himself to us Christ revives our love and enables us to break our disordered attachments to creatures and root ourselves in him:

Since Christ died for us out of love, when we celebrate the memorial of his death at the moment of sacrifice we ask that love may be granted to us by the coming of the Holy Spirit. We humbly pray that in the strength of this love by which Christ willed to die for us, we, by receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit, may be able to consider the world as crucified for us, and to be ourselves as crucified to the world.... Having received the gift of love, let us die to sin and live for God.229

1395 By the same charity that it enkindles in us, the Eucharist preserves us from future mortal sins. the more we share the life of Christ and progress in his friendship, the more difficult it is to break away from him by mortal sin. the Eucharist is not ordered to the forgiveness of mortal sins - that is proper to the sacrament of Reconciliation. the Eucharist is properly the sacrament of those who are in full communion with the Church.

1396 The unity of the Mystical Body: the Eucharist makes the Church. Those who receive the Eucharist are united more closely to Christ. Through it Christ unites them to all the faithful in one body - the Church. Communion renews, strengthens, and deepens this incorporation into the Church, already achieved by Baptism. In Baptism we have been called to form but one body.230 The Eucharist fulfills this call: "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? the bread which we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread:"231

If you are the body and members of Christ, then it is your sacrament that is placed on the table of the Lord; it is your sacrament that you receive. To that which you are you respond "Amen" ("yes, it is true!") and by responding to it you assent to it. For you hear the words, "the Body of Christ" and respond "Amen." Be then a member of the Body of Christ that your Amen may be true.232

1397 The Eucharist commits us to the poor. To receive in truth the Body and Blood of Christ given up for us, we must recognize Christ in the poorest, his brethren:

You have tasted the Blood of the Lord, yet you do not recognize your brother,.... You dishonor this table when you do not judge worthy of sharing your food someone judged worthy to take part in this meal.... God freed you from all your sins and invited you here, but you have not become more merciful.233

1398 The Eucharist and the unity of Christians. Before the greatness of this mystery St. Augustine exclaims, "O sacrament of devotion! O sign of unity! O bond of charity!"234 The more painful the experience of the divisions in the Church which break the common participation in the table of the Lord, the more urgent are our prayers to the Lord that the time of complete unity among all who believe in him may return.

1399 The Eastern churches that are not in full communion with the Catholic Church celebrate the Eucharist with great love. "These Churches, although separated from us, yet possess true sacraments, above all - by apostolic succession - the priesthood and the Eucharist, whereby they are still joined to us in closest intimacy." A certain communion in sacris, and so in the Eucharist, "given suitable circumstances and the approval of Church authority, is not merely possible but is encouraged."235

1400 Ecclesial communities derived from the Reformation and separated from the Catholic Church, "have not preserved the proper reality of the Eucharistic mystery in its fullness, especially because of the absence of the sacrament of Holy Orders."236 It is for this reason that Eucharistic intercommunion with these communities is not possible for the Catholic Church. However these ecclesial communities, "when they commemorate the Lord's death and resurrection in the Holy Supper . . . profess that it signifies life in communion with Christ and await his coming in glory."237

1401 When, in the Ordinary's judgment, a grave necessity arises, Catholic ministers may give the sacraments of Eucharist, Penance, and Anointing of the Sick to other Christians not in full communion with the Catholic Church, who ask for them of their own will, provided they give evidence of holding the Catholic faith regarding these sacraments and possess the required dispositions.238

 

七、感恩(聖體)聖事 —「未來光榮的保証」

1402. 教會在一篇古老的禱文內,詠讚感恩(聖體)聖事的奧跡:「啊!聖宴席 上,基督是珍餚,祂的苦難今紀念,聖寵充滿我們的靈魂,未來生命 的保証,也賜給我們」。假如感恩祭是主耶穌逾越的紀念;假如我們 在祭台前領聖體,使我們充滿「一切天恩與聖寵」,那麼,這聖事也 就讓我們預享天上的光榮。

1403. 最後晚餐中,主親自轉移門徒的目光,朝向將來在天國裡圓滿實現的 逾越奧跡:「我告訴你們:從今以後,我不再喝這葡萄汁了,直到在 我父的國裡那一天,與你們同喝新酒」(瑪 26:29)教會每次舉行感恩慶 典時,就憶起這個許諾,並轉目朝向「那要來的一位」(默 1:4)。她在 祈禱時呼求祂的來臨,說:「主,,來來罷!(Marana tha!)」(格前 16:22),「主耶穌,來罷!」(默 22:20),「願你的恩寵降臨,並願這世界過去!」。

1404. 教會知道,即使現在,主以感恩(聖體)聖事的方式來臨,祂就在此聖事中,就在我們中間。然而,這臨在是遮掩住的。因此,我們舉行感恩祭的慶典,是在「期待著永生的幸福和救主耶穌基督的來臨」,並祈求「將來在天國,永遠同享祢的光榮:那時祢將擦乾我們的眼淚,因為我們要親眼看見祢、我們的天主,永遠相似祢,無窮盡地讚美祢。 因我們的主基督」。

1405. 對「正義常居其中的新天新地」的莫大希望,我們除了感恩(聖體)聖事 之外,沒有其他更確定的保証和更明顯的標記。事實上,每次舉行這 奧跡的慶典,「實行我們得救的工程」,我們所「擘開的那同一個 餅,是常生的良藥,抗除死亡的解毒劑,使我們永遠活在耶穌基督內的食糧」。


 VII. The Eucharist - "Pledge of the Glory To Come"

1402 In an ancient prayer the Church acclaims the mystery of the Eucharist: "O sacred banquet in which Christ is received as food, the memory of his Passion is renewed, the soul is filled with grace and a pledge of the life to come is given to us." If the Eucharist is the memorial of the Passover of the Lord Jesus, if by our communion at the altar we are filled "with every heavenly blessing and grace,"239 then the Eucharist is also an anticipation of the heavenly glory.

1403 At the Last Supper the Lord himself directed his disciples' attention toward the fulfillment of the Passover in the kingdom of God: "I tell you I shall not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom."240 Whenever the Church celebrates the Eucharist she remembers this promise and turns her gaze "to him who is to come." In her prayer she calls for his coming: "Marana tha!" "Come, Lord Jesus!"241 "May your grace come and this world pass away!"242

1404 The Church knows that the Lord comes even now in his Eucharist and that he is there in our midst. However, his presence is veiled. Therefore we celebrate the Eucharist "awaiting the blessed hope and the coming of our Savior, Jesus Christ,"243 asking "to share in your glory when every tear will be wiped away. On that day we shall see you, our God, as you are. We shall become like you and praise you for ever through Christ our Lord."244

1405 There is no surer pledge or dearer sign of this great hope in the new heavens and new earth "in which righteousness dwells,"245 than the Eucharist. Every time this mystery is celebrated, "the work of our redemption is carried on" and we "break the one bread that provides the medicine of immortality, the antidote for death, and the food that makes us live for ever in Jesus Christ."246

 撮要

1406. 耶穌說:「我是從天上降下的生活的食糧;誰若吃了這食糧,必要生 活,直到永遠……。誰吃我的肉,並喝我的血,必得永生……他住在 我內,我也住在他內」(若 6:51,54,56)。

1407. 感恩祭是教會生命的中心和高峰,因為在感恩祭中,基督把祂的教會 及所有的肢體聯合於祂在十字架上、一次而永遠地、呈獻給天父的讚 頌和感恩之祭;基督藉此祭獻,把救恩傾注給祂的身體──教會。

1408. 感恩祭的慶典該常包含:宣讀天主聖言;感謝天主父所賜的一切福 分,尤其是賜給我們祂的聖子;祝聖餅酒;並藉領受主的體血,而參 與這禮儀宴會。這些要素共同組成一個整體的敬禮行動。

1409.感恩祭紀念基督的逾越,即由基督的生活、死亡和復活所完成的救世 工程,這救世工程透過禮儀行動得以臨現。

1410. 基督──新約永恆的大司祭──親自藉著司祭的職務,呈獻感恩聖 祭;而且也是那真實臨現於餅酒形下的同一基督,作為感恩聖祭的祭 品。

1411.只有那些有效領受聖秩的司祭,才能主持感恩祭,祝聖餅酒成為主的 體血。

1412. 麥麪餅和葡萄酒是感恩(聖體)聖事的必要標記。司祭呼求聖神惠然降臨 餅酒之上,並恭誦祝聖的話,即耶穌在最後晚餐所說的:「這就是我的 身體,將為你們而犧牲,……這一杯就是我的血……」 。

1413. 藉著祝聖,餅酒發生實體轉變而成為基督的體血。生活的、光榮的基 督,祂的體血、連同祂的靈魂和祂的天主性,真正地、真實地、且實 體地臨現於祝聖過的餅酒的形下。

1414.感恩祭,由於是祭獻,也為賠補生者死者的罪過而獻,並為獲得天主 賞賜的屬靈或屬世的恩惠。

1415. 願意在聖體共融中領受基督的信友,須處於天主寵愛的狀態中。覺察 自己身負大罪的信友,除非先接受和好聖事得到罪赦,不應領此聖 事。

1416. 領受基督的體血,能加強與主的契合,得赦免小罪,並受護佑免陷重 罪。由於領受這聖事的人,與基督的愛的連繫得以加強,這聖事便能 加強教會──基督奧體──的團結合一。

1417. 教會積極鼓勵信友每次參與感恩祭時教會積極鼓勵信友每次參與感恩祭時,都領聖體。教會規定信友每年至少領聖體一次。

1418. 既然基督臨現於祭台上的聖事中,我們就該以朝拜之禮來尊崇祂。「朝拜至聖聖事(聖體),是對我們的主基督感恩的証明、愛情的標記、欽崇的本分」。

1419. 基督由於已經離世回歸天父,就在感恩(聖體)聖事中賜給我們一項保 証,保証將來與祂共享光榮:參與聖祭使我們與祂以心體心,使我們 有力量跋涉今生的旅途,渴求永生,並使我們現在就與天上的教會, 與童貞榮福瑪利亞和全體聖人結合為一。

 IN BRIEF

1406 Jesus said: "I am the living bread that came down from heaven; if any one eats of this bread, he will live for ever; . . . he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life and . . . abides in me, and I in him" ( Jn 6:51,  54,  56).

1407 The Eucharist is the heart and the summit of the Church's life, for in it Christ associates his Church and all her members with his sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving offered once for all on the cross to his Father; by this sacrifice he pours out the graces of salvation on his Body which is the Church.

1408 The Eucharistic celebration always includes: the proclamation of the Word of God; thanksgiving to God the Father for all his benefits, above all the gift of his Son; the consecration of bread and wine; and participation in the liturgical banquet by receiving the Lord's body and blood. These elements constitute one single act of worship.

1409 The Eucharist is the memorial of Christ's Passover, that is, of the work of salvation accomplished by the life, death, and resurrection of Christ, a work made present by the liturgical action.

1410 It is Christ himself, the eternal high priest of the New Covenant who, acting through the ministry of the priests, offers the Eucharistic sacrifice. and it is the same Christ, really present under the species of bread and wine, who is the offering of the Eucharistic sacrifice.

1411 Only validly ordained priests can preside at the Eucharist and consecrate the bread and the wine so that they become the Body and Blood of the Lord.

1412 The essential signs of the Eucharistic sacrament are wheat bread and grape wine, on which the blessing of the Holy Spirit is invoked and the priest pronounces the words of consecration spoken by Jesus during the Last Supper: "This is my body which will be given up for you.... This is the cup of my blood...."

1413 By the consecration the transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ is brought about. Under the consecrated species of bread and wine Christ himself, living and glorious, is present in a true, real, and substantial manner: his Body and his Blood, with his soul and his divinity (cf. Council of Trent: DS 1640; 1651).

1414 As sacrifice, the Eucharist is also offered in reparation for the sins of the living and the dead and to obtain spiritual or temporal benefits from God.

1415 Anyone who desires to receive Christ in Eucharistic communion must be in the state of grace. Anyone aware of having sinned mortally must not receive communion without having received absolution in the sacrament of penance.

1416 Communion with the Body and Blood of Christ increases the communicant's union with the Lord, forgives his venial sins, and preserves him from grave sins. Since receiving this sacrament strengthens the bonds of charity between the communicant and Christ, it also reinforces the unity of the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ.

1417 The Church warmly recommends that the faithful receive Holy Communion each time they participate in the celebration of the Eucharist; she obliges them to do so at least once a year.

1418 Because Christ himself is present in the sacrament of the altar, he is to be honored with the worship of adoration. "To visit the Blessed Sacrament is . . . a proof of gratitude, an expression of love, and a duty of adoration toward Christ our Lord" (Paul VI, MF 66).

1419 Having passed from this world to the Father, Christ gives us in the Eucharist the pledge of glory with him. Participation in the Holy Sacrifice identifies us with his Heart, sustains our strength along the pilgrimage of this life, makes us long for eternal life, and unites us even now to the Church in heaven, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and all the saints.

   
   
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