卷二基督奧跡的慶典- 堅振聖事/THE SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION

 

天主教教理

卷二 基督奧跡的慶典

第二部分 第一章 第二條 堅振聖事

1285. 堅振和聖洗及感恩 (聖體 )聖事共同組成「基督徒入門聖事」,我們必 須維護這三件聖事的一體性。 因此,我們應向信徒解釋,為使聖洗的 恩寵達到圓滿,接受堅振聖事是必要的。事實上,「因著堅振聖事, 他們 [受過洗的人]與教會更完善地連結起來,又因受到聖神特別力量 的充實,更責無旁貸地以言以行,去宣揚並維護信仰,作基督真實的 見証人」。事實上,「因著堅振聖事,他們 [受過洗的人]與教會更完 善地連結起來,又因受到聖神特別力量的充實,更責無旁貸地以言以 行,去宣揚並維護信仰,作基督真實的見証人」。

一、救恩史中的堅振聖事

1286. 在舊約時代,先知已宣布上主的神要居住在萬民所期待的默西亞身 上,使祂履行救贖人類的使命。當耶穌接受若翰的洗禮時, 聖神降臨 在祂身上,這是一個標記,指出耶穌就是要來的那一位,祂是默西 亞、天主子。基督因聖神降孕,祂的整個生命和使命,是在完全與聖 神的共融中實現。這聖神是天父「無限量地」賜給基督的(若 3:34)。

1287. 聖神的這一切富饒不應只屬於默西亞,也應傳送給默西亞的全體子 民。基督曾多次應許要傾注聖神,祂的應許在逾越節那天首先實現了 (若 20:22),接著,在五旬節那天更以驚人的方式實踐。宗徒們充滿聖 神,開始宣講「天主的奇事」(宗 2:11),伯多祿宣布:聖神的傾注就 是默西亞時代的標記。當時,凡相信宗徒的宣講而受洗的人,都接受 了聖神的恩賜。

1288. 「從那時起,宗徒為了完成基督的意願,藉著覆手,把聖神的恩賜傳 送給新受洗的人,使洗禮的恩寵達到圓滿。因此,在致希伯來人書 中,把覆手禮,連同洗禮的道理,都列入培育基督徒的基本教材中。 天主教傳統理所當然地承認覆手是堅振聖事的始源;此聖事以某種方 式,使五旬節聖神降臨的恩寵在教會內綿延不絕」。  

1289.在很早以前,為了更確切地表明聖神的恩賜,除覆手外,還有傅抹加香料的油(聖化聖油)。傅油禮闡明了「基督徒」一詞的原意就是 「受傅油者」,這名稱源於基督本身,祂就是「天主以聖神 傅了」的那位(宗 10:38)。傅油禮一直流傳至今,東方和西方的教會同樣遵行。因著上述的理由,在東方,這聖事稱為傅油 (chrismation), 即 傅 抹 聖 化 聖 油 (chrisma), 或香 膏 (myron)。在西方,則稱為堅振 (confirmation):表示它對聖 洗聖事的確認,而完成基督徒的入門過程,並強化聖洗的恩 寵,這都是聖神的果實。 

東方和西方兩個傳統

1290. 在最初的幾個世紀裡,堅振通常與聖洗在同一慶典中舉行;這就是聖西彼廉所稱的 「雙重聖事」。後來,由於種種原因,尤其是嬰孩洗禮的次數終年不斷地增加,鄉 村堂區的數目增多,教區的範圍日廣,以致主教不能主持所有的聖洗慶典。在西 方,由於希望把「聖洗的完成」留給主教,所以把這兩件聖事在不同時間分開舉 行。東方教會則維持這兩件聖事的一體性,所以,是由付洗的司鐸施行堅振聖事。 但在這種情況下,主禮司鐸只能使用由主教祝聖的「香膏」來施行這聖事。

1291. 羅馬教會的一項習慣逐漸發展成西方現行的禮規,該習慣是:在洗禮後傅兩次「聖 化聖油」。第一次傅油,是在受洗者由洗禮池出來時,立即由司鐸施行;這次傅油 仍要由主教在新教友額上第二次傅油來完成。如今保留了由司鐸以聖化聖油施行的 第一次傅油禮,它與聖洗的儀式連結在一起,象徵受過洗的人分享基督先知、司祭 和王者的職務。如果是為成人施洗,便只施行一次聖洗後的傅油:這就是堅振聖事 的傅油禮。

1292. 東方教會的做法,是更強調基督徒入門聖事的一體性。拉丁教會的做法則更清楚地 表達出新基督徒與主教的共融;因為主教是其教會唯一性、至公性和宗徒性的保証 人和僕人,由此他連接著基督教會的宗徒起源。

Article 2

THE SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION

1285 Baptism, the Eucharist, and the sacrament of Confirmation together constitute the "sacraments of Christian initiation," whose unity must be safeguarded. It must be explained to the faithful that the reception of the sacrament of Confirmation is necessary for the completion of baptismal grace.88 For "by the sacrament of Confirmation, [the baptized] are more perfectly bound to the Church and are enriched with a special strength of the Holy Spirit. Hence they are, as true witnesses of Christ, more strictly obliged to spread and defend the faith by word and deed."89

I. Confirmation in the Economy of Salvation

1286 In the Old Testament the prophets announced that the Spirit of the Lord would rest on the hoped-for Messiah for his saving mission.90 The descent of the Holy Spirit on Jesus at his baptism by John was the sign that this was he who was to come, the Messiah, the Son of God.91 He was conceived of the Holy Spirit; his whole life and his whole mission are carried out in total communion with the Holy Spirit whom the Father gives him "without measure."92

1287 This fullness of the Spirit was not to remain uniquely the Messiah's, but was to be communicated to the whole messianic people.93 On several occasions Christ promised this outpouring of the Spirit,94a promise which he fulfilled first on Easter Sunday and then more strikingly at Pentecost.95 Filled with the Holy Spirit the apostles began to proclaim "the mighty works of God," and Peter declared this outpouring of the Spirit to be the sign of the messianic age.96 Those who believed in the apostolic preaching and were baptized received the gift of the Holy Spirit in their turn.97

1288 "From that time on the apostles, in fulfillment of Christ's will, imparted to the newly baptized by the laying on of hands the gift of the Spirit that completes the grace of Baptism. For this reason in the Letter to the Hebrews the doctrine concerning Baptism and the laying on of hands is listed among the first elements of Christian instruction. the imposition of hands is rightly recognized by the Catholic tradition as the origin of the sacrament of Confirmation, which in a certain way perpetuates the grace of Pentecost in the Church."98

1289 Very early, the better to signify the gift of the Holy Spirit, an anointing with perfumed oil (chrism) was added to the laying on of hands. This anointing highlights the name "Christian," which means "anointed" and derives from that of Christ himself whom God "anointed with the Holy Spirit."99 This rite of anointing has continued ever since, in both East and West. For this reason the Eastern Churches call this sacrament Chrismation, anointing with chrism, or myron which means "chrism." In the West, Confirmation suggests both the ratification of Baptism, thus completing Christian initiation, and the strengthening of baptismal grace - both fruits of the Holy Spirit.

Two traditions: East and West

1290 In the first centuries Confirmation generally comprised one single celebration with Baptism, forming with it a "double sacrament," according to the expression of St. Cyprian. Among other reasons, the multiplication of infant baptisms all through the year, the increase of rural parishes, and the growth of dioceses often prevented the bishop from being present at all baptismal celebrations. In the West the desire to reserve the completion of Baptism to the bishop caused the temporal separation of the two sacraments. the East has kept them united, so that Confirmation is conferred by the priest who baptizes. But he can do so only with the "myron" consecrated by a bishop.100

1291 A custom of the Roman Church facilitated the development of the Western practice: a double anointing with sacred chrism after Baptism. the first anointing of the neophyte on coming out of the baptismal bath was performed by the priest; it was completed by a second anointing on the forehead of the newly baptized by the bishop.101 The first anointing with sacred chrism, by the priest, has remained attached to the baptismal rite; it signifies the participation of the one baptized in the prophetic, priestly, and kingly offices of Christ. If Baptism is conferred on an adult, there is only one post-baptismal anointing, that of Confirmation.

1292 The practice of the Eastern Churches gives greater emphasis to the unity of Christian initiation. That of the Latin Church more clearly expresses the communion of the new Christian with the bishop as guarantor and servant of the unity, catholicity and apostolicity of his Church, and hence the connection with the apostolic origins of Christ's Church.

 

 

二、、堅振聖事的標記和儀式

1293. 在堅振聖事的儀式中,該細想傅油的標記,以及它所象徵的和所蓋下 的屬神印記。 傅油,就聖經上和古代的象徵來說,含義豐富:油是富裕 和喜樂的標 誌,它潔淨(在沐浴前後的傅油)和滋潤身體(為運動員和角力者的傅 油);它是治癒的標記,因為它紓解瘀腫和傷口的痛楚;它也帶來美 麗、健康和力量的光彩。

1294. 在聖事生活裡,「傅油」也有上述的含意。在洗禮前,傅上「候洗聖 油」,象徵淨化和強化;給病人傅油表示治療和安慰。洗禮後,在 「堅振禮」和「聖秩授予禮」中傅以「聖化聖油」,是祝聖的標記。 藉著堅振聖事,即那些接受了傅油的基督徒,更圓滿地分享耶穌基督 的使命,充滿聖神的富饒,使他們的生命更能散發出「基督的馨 香」。

1295. 藉著傅油,領受堅振者接受了一個「記號」,就是聖神的印記。印記 代表個人的印信, 是他權力的標記,是他擁有某物的標記。因此,士 兵蓋上他們將領的印記,奴隸蓋上他們主人的印記。印記証實一個法 律行為,或一分文件,並在某些情況下,有保密作用。

1296. 基督宣稱自己是天父所印証的。同樣,在基督徒身上也蓋了印:「那 堅固我們同你們在基督內的,並給我們傅油的,就是天主;他在我們 身上蓋了印,並在我們心裡賜下聖神作為保証」(格後 1:22)。這聖神 的印記標示出我們整個屬於基督,永遠加盟為祂服務,也標示出天主 的許諾,要在末世的重大考驗中,保護[我們]。

堅振聖事慶典的舉行

1297. 聖化聖油的祝聖是一個重要的行動,它雖在堅振聖事以前舉行,但在 某種意義上,也算是堅振慶典的一部分。主教在聖週四主持聖油彌 撒,為他的整個教區祝聖聖化聖油。在東方教會裡,聖油祝聖的禮儀 甚至保留給宗主教主持:

安提約基的敘利亞禮用下述的「呼求聖神禱詞」來祝聖聖化聖油(香膏):「(聖 父……請派遣聖神),降臨在我們,及在我們面前的油之上,並予以聖化, 好為那些 接受它的傅油和印記的人,成為神聖的香膏、司祭的香膏、王者的香膏、喜悅的傅 油、光明的衣服、救恩的外氅、屬神的恩賜、靈魂和肉身的聖化、永存的福樂、永 不磨滅的印記、信德的護盾、無敵的盔甲,以抵抗魔鬼的一切惡事」。

1298. 當堅振聖事慶典與聖洗聖事慶典分開舉行,一如羅馬禮所行,堅振聖事禮儀以領堅 振者重宣洗禮誓詞及宣認信仰開始,清楚顯示堅振是在聖洗之後舉行。如果成人受 洗,則立即接受堅振、參與感恩祭並領聖體。

1299.在羅馬禮中,主教給全體領堅振者覆手,這手勢從宗徒時代就象徵恩 賜聖神。主教覆手呼求聖神的傾注:

《主教禮書•堅振禮》25:全能的天主,我們的主耶穌基督之父,請祢垂顧這些已 受洗者:藉著洗禮,祢已從罪惡中拯救了他們,祢以水及聖神使他們重獲新生。就 如祢曾許諾的,如今求祢傾注祢的聖神於他們身上;圓滿地賜給他們那曾停留在祢 聖子耶穌身上的聖神,也就是智慧和聰敏之神、超見和剛毅之神、明達和孝愛之 神;使他們充滿敬畏天主之神。以上所求是因我們的主基督。

1300.隨後,就是堅振聖事的必要儀式。在拉丁禮中,「堅振聖事 的施行, 是覆手時在領堅振者額上傅以聖化聖油,說: 『請藉此印記,領受天恩聖神』(Accipe signaculum doni Spiritus Sancti)」。 至於拜占廷禮的東方教會,在呼求聖神 的禱詞之後,以「香膏」傅在領堅振者身體上最具象徵的部 位:額上、眼睛、鼻子、耳朵、口唇、胸膛、背上、雙手、 雙足等;每次傅油時說:『天恩聖神的印記』(Signaculum doni Spiritus Sancti) 1301.最後以平安禮結束堅振聖事禮儀,象徵並表示與主教及所有信友在教 會內的共融。


 II. The Signs and the Rite of Confirmation

1293 In treating the rite of Confirmation, it is fitting to consider the sign of anointing and what it signifies and imprints: a spiritual seal. 
Anointing, in Biblical and other ancient symbolism, is rich in meaning: oil is a sign of abundance and joy;102 it cleanses (anointing before and after a bath) and limbers (the anointing of athletes and wrestlers); oil is a sign of healing, since it is soothing to bruises and wounds;103 and it makes radiant with beauty, health, and strength.

1294 Anointing with oil has all these meanings in the sacramental life. the pre-baptismal anointing with the oil of catechumens signifies cleansing and strengthening; the anointing of the sick expresses healing and comfort. the post-baptismal anointing with sacred chrism in Confirmation and ordination is the sign of consecration. By Confirmation Christians, that is, those who are anointed, share more completely in the mission of Jesus Christ and the fullness of the Holy Spirit with which he is filled, so that their lives may give off "the aroma of Christ."104

1295 By this anointing the confirmand receives the "mark," the seal of the Holy Spirit. A seal is a symbol of a person, a sign of personal authority, or ownership of an oblect.105 Hence soldiers were marked with their leader's seal and slaves with their master's. A seal authenticates a juridical act or document and occasionally makes it secret.106

1296 Christ himself declared that he was marked with his Father's seal.107 Christians are also marked with a seal: "It is God who establishes us with you in Christ and has commissioned us; he has put his seal on us and given us his Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee."108 This seal of the Holy Spirit marks our total belonging to Christ, our enrollment in his service for ever, as well as the promise of divine protection in the great eschatological trial.109

The celebration of Confirmation

1297 The consecration of the sacred chrism is an important action that precedes the celebration of Confirmation, but is in a certain way a part of it. It is the bishop who, in the course of the Chrism Mass of Holy Thursday, consecrates the sacred chrism for his whole diocese. In some Eastern Churches this consecration is even reserved to the patriarch:

The Syriac liturgy of Antioch expresses the epiclesis for the consecration of the sacred chrism (myron) in this way: "[Father . . . send your Holy Spirit] on us and on this oil which is before us and consecrate it, so that it may be for all who are anointed and marked with it holy myron, priestly myron, royal myron, anointing with gladness, clothing with light, a cloak of salvation, a spiritual gift, the sanctification of souls and bodies, imperishable happiness, the indelible seal, a buckler of faith, and a fearsome helmet against all the works of the adversary."

1298 When Confirmation is celebrated separately from Baptism, as is the case in the Roman Rite, the Liturgy of Confirmation begins with the renewal of baptismal promises and the profession of faith by the confirmands. This clearly shows that Confirmation follows Baptism.110 When adults are baptized, they immediately receive Confirmation and participate in the Eucharist.111

1299 In the Roman Rite the bishop extends his hands over the whole group of the confirmands. Since the time of the apostles this gesture has signified the gift of the Spirit. the bishop invokes the outpouring of the Spirit in these words:

All-powerful God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,

by water and the Holy Spirit

you freed your sons and daughters from sin

and gave them new life.

Send your Holy Spirit upon them

to be their helper and guide.

Give them the spirit of wisdom and understanding,

the spirit of right judgment and courage,

the spirit of knowledge and reverence.

Fill them with the spirit of wonder and awe in your presence.

We ask this through Christ our Lord.112

1300 The essential rite of the sacrament follows. In the Latin rite, "the sacrament of Confirmation is conferred through the anointing with chrism on the forehead, which is done by the laying on of the hand, and through the words: 'Accipe signaculum doni Spiritus Sancti' [Be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit.]."113 In the Eastern Churches, after a prayer of epiclesis the more significant parts of the body are anointed with myron: forehead, eyes, nose, ears, lips, breast, back, hands, and feet. Each anointing is accompanied by the formula: "The seal of the gift that is the Holy Spirit."

1301 The sign of peace that concludes the rite of the sacrament signifies and demonstrates ecclesial communion with the bishop and with all the faithful.114

 

三、堅振聖事的效果

1302.從堅振聖事慶典的舉行,可得知此聖事的效果是:聖神圓滿地傾注在 接受堅振者身上,正如昔日五旬節那天,傾注在宗徒身上一樣。

1303.從這一事實,可知堅振聖事帶來聖洗恩寵的加增與加深:

──它使我們更深入地扎根在與天主的父子關係裡,使我們呼號: 「阿爸,父呀」(羅 8:15);

──它使我們更緊密地與基督結合;

──它在我們內加增聖神的恩賜;

──它使我們與教會的連繫更趨完美;

──它賦予我們聖神的特別力量作基督的真實見証人,以言以行傳揚 並維護信仰,勇敢宣認基督的名字,且決不以十字架為恥:

聖安博,《論奧跡》:因此,你必須謹記,你接受了屬神的印號,就是領受了智慧 和聰敏之神、超見和剛毅之神、明達和孝愛之神、及敬畏天主之神;你該謹守你所 接受的。 天主父已在你身上蓋上了祂的印號;主基督已堅定了你,並把祂的保証 ── 聖神,放在你的心裡。

1304. 堅振聖事就如它完成的聖洗聖事一樣,只可接受一次,因為堅振聖事 在人靈上蓋了一個不能磨滅的、屬神的印號──「神印」, 這是耶穌 基督蓋在每個基督徒身上的聖神之印記,為他佩戴上自高天而來的能 力,好使他成為基督的見証人。

1305. 這「神印」使在聖洗中所接受的「普通司祭職」更趨完美。「領堅振 的人接受了力量, 這力量使人公開宣認基督,猶如職責所在 (quasi ex officio)」。

 III. The Effects of Confirmation

1302 It is evident from its celebration that the effect of the sacrament of Confirmation is the full outpouring of the Holy Spirit as once granted to the apostles on the day of Pentecost.

1303 From this fact, Confirmation brings an increase and deepening of baptismal grace: 
- it roots us more deeply in the divine filiation which makes us cry, "Abba! Father!";115 
- it unites us more firmly to Christ; 
- it increases the gifts of the Holy Spirit in us; 
- it renders our bond with the Church more perfect;116 
- it gives us a special strength of the Holy Spirit to spread and defend the faith by word and action as true witnesses of Christ, to confess the name of Christ boldly, and never to be ashamed of the Cross:117

Recall then that you have received the spiritual seal, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of right judgment and courage, the spirit of knowledge and reverence, the spirit of holy fear in God's presence. Guard what you have received. God the Father has marked you with his sign; Christ the Lord has confirmed you and has placed his pledge, the Spirit, in your hearts.118

1304 Like Baptism which it completes, Confirmation is given only once, for it too imprints on the soul an indelible spiritual mark, the "character," which is the sign that Jesus Christ has marked a Christian with the seal of his Spirit by clothing him with power from on high so that he may be his witness.119

1305 This "character" perfects the common priesthood of the faithful, received in Baptism, and "the confirmed person receives the power to profess faith in Christ publicly and as it were officially (quasi ex officio)."120

 

四、誰可接受堅振聖事?

1306. 凡受過洗而尚未接受堅振的人,均可並應該接受堅振聖事既然聖洗、 堅振和感恩(聖體)聖事合成一個整體,那麼「信友就有義務在適當的 時候接受堅振聖事」。雖然缺了堅振聖事和感恩(聖體)聖事,聖洗聖 事當然還是有效且有效益,但基督徒的入門過程終究尚未完成。

1307.歷來,拉丁教會習慣,以「辨別是非的年齡」作為接受堅振聖事的參考。但倘若遇 有死亡危險時,儘管他們仍未達到辨別是非的年齡,也應給嬰孩施行堅振聖事。

1308. 雖然有時稱堅振聖事為「基督徒成熟的聖事」,但決不能把信仰上的 成熟與生理上的成熟相混淆,也不應忘記,聖洗的恩寵是無條件地賜 給人,又是人無功而獲選的恩寵,無須「認可」便生效。聖多瑪斯對 此事這樣說:

聖多瑪斯,《神學大全》:生理的年齡不可作為靈魂成熟程度的鑑別。因此,即使 在童年,人亦可達到靈性上的成熟,正如智慧書上說:「可敬的老年並不在於高 壽,也不在於以年歲來衡量」(智 4:8)。很多兒童年紀尚輕,卻因接受了聖神的力 量,而勇敢為基督奮鬥,甚至傾流自己的血。

1309. 堅振聖事的準備,目的是引導基督徒與基督更親密地結合,並更熱烈 地親近聖神,熟悉祂的行動、祂的恩賜和祂的呼召,好能更勝任地承 擔基督徒生活上的使徒責任。為此,堅振聖事的教理講授,應致力於 喚醒對耶穌基督的教會,即對普世教會和堂區團體的歸屬感。堂區團 體對於領堅振者的準備,負有特殊的責任。

1310. 領堅振者必須處於恩寵狀態,首先宜接受懺悔聖事,好能潔淨自己, 以接受聖神的恩賜。應以更熱心的祈禱,妥作準備,好能以順從和待 命的心,接受聖神的力量和恩寵。

1311. 正如受洗,準備接受堅振聖事的人宜物色代父代母,好能得到靈性 上的協助。為強調聖洗聖事和堅振聖事的一體性,最適宜由同一人擔 任堅振聖事和聖洗聖事的代父或代母。

 IV. Who can Receive This Sacrament?

1306 Every baptized person not yet confirmed can and should receive the sacrament of Confirmation.121 Since Baptism, Confirmation, and Eucharist form a unity, it follows that "the faithful are obliged to receive this sacrament at the appropriate time,"122 for without Confirmation and Eucharist, Baptism is certainly valid and efficacious, but Christian initiation remains incomplete.

1307 The Latin tradition gives "the age of discretion" as the reference point for receiving Confirmation. But in danger of death children should be confirmed even if they have not yet attained the age of discretion.123

1308 Although Confirmation is sometimes called the "sacrament of Christian maturity," we must not confuse adult faith with the adult age of natural growth, nor forget that the baptismal grace is a grace of free, unmerited election and does not need "ratification" to become effective. St. Thomas reminds us of this:

Age of body does not determine age of soul. Even in childhood man can attain spiritual maturity: as the book of Wisdom says: "For old age is not honored for length of time, or measured by number of years. "Many children, through the strength of the Holy Spirit they have received, have bravely fought for Christ even to the shedding of their blood.124

1309 Preparation for Confirmation should aim at leading the Christian toward a more intimate union with Christ and a more lively familiarity with the Holy Spirit - his actions, his gifts, and his biddings - in order to be more capable of assuming the apostolic responsibilities of Christian life. To this end catechesis for Confirmation should strive to awaken a sense of belonging to the Church of Jesus Christ, the universal Church as well as the parish community. the latter bears special responsibility for the preparation of confirmands.125

1310 To receive Confirmation one must be in a state of grace. One should receive the sacrament of Penance in order to be cleansed for the gift of the Holy Spirit. More intense prayer should prepare one to receive the strength and graces of the Holy Spirit with docility and readiness to act.126

1311 Candidates for Confirmation, as for Baptism, fittingly seek the spiritual help of a sponsor. To emphasize the unity of the two sacraments, it is appropriate that this be one of the baptismal godparents.127

 

五、堅振聖事的施行人

1312.主教是堅振聖事的原本施行人

在東方禮 ,通常是由付洗的司鐸,在同一慶典中施行堅振聖事。但該 司鐸要用由宗主教或主教所祝聖的「聖化聖油」來施行堅振聖事,這 表示教會的宗徒性合一,而其連繫藉堅振聖事得以加強。在拉丁教會 中,同樣的規定也適用於成人的洗禮,或於接納一位已在其他基督徒 團體受過洗的人與教會完全共融,而該團體並無有效的堅振聖事。

1313. 在拉丁禮,堅振聖事的正權施行人是主教。主教雖然可為了重大的理 由,把施行此聖事的權柄授予一些司鐸,但因這聖事本身的意義,還 是由主教親自施行這聖事最適宜,不要忘記,就是基於此理由,才將 堅振聖事與聖洗聖事在時間上分開舉行。主教是宗徒的繼承人,接受 了圓滿的聖秩聖事,由他們施行堅振聖事,正好顯示出堅振聖事的效 果是使領堅振者與教會、與教會的宗徒起源、及與教會為基督作見証 的使命,更密切結合。

1314. 如有基督徒處於死亡的危險,任何一位司鐸均應為他施行堅振。事實 上,教會不願讓她的任何一位子女,即使是年紀最小的,在離開人世 前,仍未由聖神以基督圓滿的恩賜而得到成全。


 V. The Minister of Confirmation

1312 The original minister of Confirmation is the bishop.128 In the East, ordinarily the priest who baptizes also immediately confers Confirmation in one and the same celebration. But he does so with sacred chrism consecrated by the patriarch or the bishop, thus expressing the apostolic unity of the Church whose bonds are strengthened by the sacrament of Confirmation. In the Latin Church, the same discipline applies to the Baptism of adults or to the reception into full communion with the Church of a person baptized in another Christian community that does not have valid Confirmation.129

1313 In the Latin Rite, the ordinary minister of Confirmation is the bishop.130 Although the bishop may for grave reasons concede to priests the faculty of administering Confirmation,131 it is appropriate from the very meaning of the sacrament that he should confer it himself, mindful that the celebration of Confirmation has been temporally separated from Baptism for this reason. Bishops are the successors of the apostles. They have received the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders. the administration of this sacrament by them demonstrates clearly that its effect is to unite those who receive it more closely to the Church, to her apostolic origins, and to her mission of bearing witness to Christ.

1314 If a Christian is in danger of death, any priest should give him Confirmation.132 Indeed the Church desires that none of her children, even the youngest, should depart this world without having been perfected by the Holy Spirit with the gift of Christ's fullness.

 撮要

1315. 「當時,在耶路撒冷的宗徒,聽說撒瑪黎雅接受了天主的聖道,便打 發伯多祿和若望往他們那裡去。他們二人一到,就為他們祈禱,使他 們領受聖神,因為聖神還沒有降臨在任何人身上,他們只因主耶穌的 名受過洗。那時,宗徒便給他們覆手,他們就領受了聖神」(宗宗 17)。

1316. 堅振聖事使聖洗的恩寵得以圓滿。它是賦予聖神的聖事,使我們更深 入地扎根於與天主的父子關係裡,更堅固地成為基督的肢體,更牢固 地與教會連繫,更密切地與教會的使命相聯合,幫助我們以言以行來 見証基督徒的信仰。

1317.如同聖洗聖事一樣,堅振聖事在基督徒的靈魂上蓋上神印或不可磨滅 的印記;因此,人一生只可領受一次堅振聖事。

1318. 在東方禮,付洗後隨即施行堅振聖事,然後參與感恩祭;這傳統強調 基督徒入門三件聖事的完整合一。在拉丁教會中,這聖事為已達到辨 別是非年齡的人施行,並通常保留由主教舉行慶典,以表示這聖事加 強領受者與教會的關係。

1319. 已經達到辨別是非年齡的堅振聖事候選人,應宣認信仰,處於恩寵的 狀態,懷有領受這聖事的意向,並妥作準備,以便在教會團體和現世 事務裡,擔任基督門徒和見証人的角色。

1320.堅振聖事的必要儀式堅振聖事的必要儀式,是在受過洗的人額上傅以聖化聖油 (在東方 是在受過洗的人額上傅以聖化聖油禮,也傅在身體其他部位上),依照羅馬禮依照羅馬禮,施行人同時覆手說施行人同時覆手說:「請 藉此印記 +領受天恩聖神」(Accipe signaculum doni Spiritus Sancti),
而在拜占廷禮,施行人則說:「天恩聖神的印記」(Signaculum doni Spiritus Sancti)。

1321. 當堅振聖事慶典與聖洗聖事慶典分開舉行時,為表達這兩件聖事的關 連,重宣聖洗誓願是其中一種方式。堅振聖事在感恩祭中舉行,有助 於強調基督徒入門聖事的完整合一。

 

 

 IN BRIEF

1315 "Now when the apostles at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent to them Peter and John, who came down and prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit; for it had not yet fallen on any of them, but they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid their hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit" ( Acts 8:14-17).

1316 Confirmation perfects Baptismal grace; it is the sacrament which gives the Holy Spirit in order to root us more deeply in the divine filiation, incorporate us more firmly into Christ, strengthen our bond with the Church, associate us more closely with her mission, and help us bear witness to the Christian faith in words accompanied by deeds.

1317 Confirmation, like Baptism, imprints a spiritual mark or indelible character on the Christian's soul; for this reason one can receive this sacrament only once in one's life.

1318 In the East this sacrament is administered immediately after Baptism and is followed by participation in the Eucharist; this tradition highlights the unity of the three sacraments of Christian initiation. In the Latin Church this sacrament is administered when the age of reason has been reached, and its celebration is ordinarily reserved to the bishop, thus signifying that this sacrament strengthens the ecclesial bond.

1319 A candidate for Confirmation who has attained the age of reason must profess the faith, be in the state of grace, have the intention of receiving the sacrament, and be prepared to assume the role of disciple and witness to Christ, both within the ecclesial community and in temporal affairs.

1320 The essential rite of Confirmation is anointing the forehead of the baptized with sacred chrism (in the East other sense-organs as well), together with the laying on of the minister's hand and the words: "Accipe signaculum doni Spiritus Sancti" (Be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit.) in the Roman Rite, or "The seal of the gift that is the Holy Spirit" in the Byzantine rite.

1321 When Confirmation is celebrated separately from Baptism, its connection with Baptism is expressed, among other ways, by the renewal of baptismal promises. the celebration of Confirmation during the Eucharist helps underline the unity of the sacraments of Christian initiation.

   
   
   
   
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