卷二基督奧跡的慶典-其他禮儀慶典/OTHER LITURGICAL CELEBRATIONS

 

天主教教理

 

卷二基督奧跡的慶典

 

第二部分
第四章其他禮儀慶典

第一條

聖儀

 

1667. 「慈母聖教會設立了一些聖儀,這是模倣聖事而設立的一些神聖標記,用以表示因教會的代禱而獲得的某些效果,尤其是屬靈的效果。藉著聖儀,使人準備接受聖事的主要效果,並聖化人生的各種境遇」。

 

聖儀的特質

 

1668. 聖儀是由教會所建立的,為聖化教會的某些職務、生命中某些情況、基督徒生活的不同境遇、及有益於人類使用的物品。聖儀根據主教的牧民決策,也可用以回應某一時代或某一地區基督徒的文化、歷史和其他需要。聖儀常包含祈禱,並時常伴以一種指定的標記,例如覆手、劃十字聖號、灑聖水(使人紀念聖洗聖事)等。

 

1669. 聖儀屬於來自聖洗的司祭職:所有已受洗的人,都蒙召成為一個「福源」(blessing),可施以祝福。因此,信友也可以主持某些祝福;但一項祝福越涉及教會和聖事生活,就越應保留給聖職人員 (主教、司鐸或執事)來主持。

 

1670. 聖儀不像聖事一般賦予聖神的恩寵,但透過教會的祈禱,讓人準備接受恩寵且與之合作。「信友盡心準備,靠著由基督受難、死亡、復活的逾越奧跡所湧出的恩寵,聖化各種生活情況,而所有聖事與聖儀的效能,也都是由這逾越奧跡而來。 於是,一切事物的正當用途,無一不能導向聖化人類、光榮天主的目的」。

 

1671.在各種聖儀中,以祝福祝福(人、食物、物件、地方)為首。每項祝福都是人對天主的讚頌並求祂賜恩的祈禱。基督徒在基督內蒙天主父降福,賜「以各種屬神的福分」(弗 1:3)。因此,教會在祝福時,都呼求耶穌之名、並習慣劃基督的十字聖號。

 

1672. 某些祝福有其持久性:因為它們把一些人奉獻奉獻於天主,或保留一些物件和地方,專供禮儀的用途。對人的祝福(但切勿與聖秩聖事混淆)有: (男、女)隱修院院長的祝福、貞女的奉獻、會士的發願、以及為某些教會職務(讀經員、輔祭員、傳道員等)的祝福。物品的祝福有:聖堂或祭台的

 

奉獻或祝福,聖油、聖爵、祭衣、鐘等的祝福。

 

1673. 當教會公開以權威,因耶穌基督之名,祈求保護某人或某物件,對抗並脫離魔鬼 (邪惡)的控制,這稱為驅魔驅魔。耶穌曾經驅魔,而教會從祂那裡獲得驅魔的權柄和任務。簡單的驅魔禮施行於聖洗聖事的慶典中。隆重的驅魔禮(即所謂的「大驅魔禮」)只能由獲得主教許可的司鐸舉行。在進行大驅魔禮時,必須明智謹慎,嚴守教會所訂的規則。驅魔的目的是藉耶穌交託給教會的神權,驅走邪魔,解放人免受魔鬼的控制。然而,這絕對不同於患病,尤其是精神方面的。若是患病,就需要接受醫學方面的治療。因此,在行驅魔禮前,必須辨認有關情況確定有魔鬼的臨在,而非疾病。

 

民間的熱心敬禮

 

1674. 除了聖事性禮儀和聖儀外,教理講授的內容還應考慮到信友間的各式熱心善功及民間敬禮。基督徒歷來都以不同方式的熱心敬禮來表達他們的宗教感情。這些熱心敬禮環繞著教會的聖事生活, 包括尊敬聖髑、拜訪聖堂、朝聖、各式敬禮遊行、拜苦路、宗教舞蹈、唸玫瑰經、佩帶聖牌等。

 

1675. 這些熱心行為延續教會的禮儀生活,卻非予以取代:「安排這些熱心善功時,應該顧及禮儀季節,與禮儀配合,在某種程度上由禮儀延伸而來,並引導民眾走向禮儀,因禮儀本身遠比這些熱心善功更為尊高」

 

1676. 為保存和支持民間的熱心敬禮,需要牧民上的辨別,必要時,還得淨化,並糾正這些熱心敬禮背後的宗教感情,使能增進對基督奧跡的認識。這些民間熱心敬禮的舉行,須受主教的監督和批准,並遵守教會的一般準則。

 

本質上,民間熱心敬禮包含豐富的價值。它以基督徒的智慧,回答有關生命(存在)的重大問題。天主教徒的信仰智慧,能把(存在的)問題綜合起來:以創新的方式綜合了神性與人性、基督與瑪利亞、靈魂與肉身、共融與制度、個人與團體、信仰與國家、理智與感情。這智慧基於基督徒的人文主義,徹底肯定每個人都有天主子女的尊嚴,建立基本的友愛團契,教導人接觸自然的化工,同時也了解人為的事功,並且讓人即使遇上艱難的時刻,仍有理由在喜樂和愉快中生活。對民眾來說,這智慧也是一種辨別的原則,一種傳揚福音的精神,使他們自然察覺到:何時教會是以服務福音為首;何時此福音被其他利益所窒息,並失去其內涵。

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

OTHER LITURGICAL CELEBRATIONS

Article 1

SACRAMENTALS

1667 "Holy Mother Church has, moreover, instituted sacramentals. These are sacred signs which bear a resemblance to the sacraments. They signify effects, particularly of a spiritual nature, which are obtained through the intercession of the Church. By them men are disposed to receive the chief effect of the sacraments, and various occasions in life are rendered holy."171

The characteristics of sacramentals

1668 Sacramentals are instituted for the sanctification of certain ministries of the Church, certain states of life, a great variety of circumstances in Christian life, and the use of many things helpful to man. In accordance with bishops' pastoral decisions, they can also respond to the needs, culture, and special history of the Christian people of a particular region or time. They always include a prayer, often accompanied by a specific sign, such as the laying on of hands, the sign of the cross, or the sprinkling of holy water (which recalls Baptism).

1669 Sacramentals derive from the baptismal priesthood: every baptized person is called to be a "blessing," and to bless.172 Hence lay people may preside at certain blessings; the more a blessing concerns ecclesial and sacramental life, the more is its administration reserved to the ordained ministry (bishops, priests, or deacons).173

1670 Sacramentals do not confer the grace of the Holy Spirit in the way that the sacraments do, but by the Church's prayer, they prepare us to receive grace and dispose us to cooperate with it. "For well-disposed members of the faithful, the liturgy of the sacraments and sacramentals sanctifies almost every event of their lives with the divine grace which flows from the Paschal mystery of the Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Christ. From this source all sacraments and sacramentals draw their power. There is scarcely any proper use of material things which cannot be thus directed toward the sanctification of men and the praise of God."174

Various forms of sacramentals

1671 Among sacramentals blessings (of persons, meals, objects, and places) come first. Every blessing praises God and prays for his gifts. In Christ, Christians are blessed by God the Father "with every spiritual blessing."175 This is why the Church imparts blessings by invoking the name of Jesus, usually while making the holy sign of the cross of Christ.

1672 Certain blessings have a lasting importance because they consecrate persons to God, or reserve objects and places for liturgical use. Among those blessings which are intended for persons - not to be confused with sacramental ordination - are the blessing of the abbot or abbess of a monastery, the consecration of virgins, the rite of religious profession and the blessing of certain ministries of the Church (readers, acolytes, catechists, etc.). the dedication or blessing of a church or an altar, the blessing of holy oils, vessels, and vestments, bells, etc., can be mentioned as examples of blessings that concern objects.

1673 When the Church asks publicly and authoritatively in the name of Jesus Christ that a person or object be protected against the power of the Evil One and withdrawn from his dominion, it is called exorcism. Jesus performed exorcisms and from him the Church has received the power and office of exorcizing.176 In a simple form, exorcism is performed at the celebration of Baptism. the solemn exorcism, called "a major exorcism," can be performed only by a priest and with the permission of the bishop. the priest must proceed with prudence, strictly observing the rules established by the Church. Exorcism is directed at the expulsion of demons or to the liberation from demonic possession through the spiritual authority which Jesus entrusted to his Church. Illness, especially psychological illness, is a very different matter; treating this is the concern of medical science. Therefore, before an exorcism is performed, it is important to ascertain that one is dealing with the presence of the Evil One, and not an illness.177

Popular piety

1674 Besides sacramental liturgy and sacramentals, catechesis must take into account the forms of piety and popular devotions among the faithful. the religious sense of the Christian people has always found expression in various forms of piety surrounding the Church's sacramental life, such as the veneration of relics, visits to sanctuaries, pilgrimages, processions, the stations of the cross, religious dances, the rosary, medals,178 etc.

1675 These expressions of piety extend the liturgical life of the Church, but do not replace it. They "should be so drawn up that they harmonize with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some way derived from it and lead the people to it, since in fact the liturgy by its very nature is far superior to any of them."179

1676 Pastoral discernment is needed to sustain and support popular piety and, if necessary, to purify and correct the religious sense which underlies these devotions so that the faithful may advance in knowledge of the mystery of Christ.180 Their exercise is subject to the care and judgment of the bishops and to the general norms of the Church.

At its core the piety of the people is a storehouse of values that offers answers of Christian wisdom to the great questions of life. the Catholic wisdom of the people is capable of fashioning a vital synthesis.... It creatively combines the divine and the human, Christ and Mary, spirit and body, communion and institution, person and community, faith and homeland, intelligence and emotion. This wisdom is a Christian humanism that radically affirms the dignity of every person as a child of God, establishes a basic fraternity, teaches people to encounter nature and understand work, provides reasons for joy and humor even in the midst of a very hard life. For the people this wisdom is also a principle of discernment and an evangelical instinct through which they spontaneously sense when the Gospel is served in the Church and when it is emptied of its content and stifled by other interests.181

 

撮要
1677.聖儀是教會所建立的神聖標記,其目的是使人準備接受聖事的效果,並聖化生命中不同的境況。

 

1678. 祝福在聖儀中佔了重要的地位。祝福包括人為了天主的工程和恩賜而讚頌祂,同時也包含教會的代禱,使人能夠按照福音的精神,善用天主的恩賜。

 

1679. 除禮儀外,基督徒生活也由植根於不同文化的各式熱心敬禮所滋養。教會在信德的光照下謹慎地闡明這些「熱心敬禮」:凡能表達傳揚福音精神、人類智慧、充實基督徒生活的,教會都予以鼓勵。

 

第二條

基督徒的喪禮

 

1680. 一切聖事,尤其基督徒入門聖事,是以天主子女的最後逾越為目標。此最後的逾越,通過死亡,引領人進入天國的生命。如此,滿全了人在信德與希望裡所宣認的:「我期待死人的復活,及來世的生命」。

 

一、基督徒的最後逾越

1681. 基督死而復活的逾越奧跡,啟示了基督徒死亡的意義。因此,我們把唯一的希望寄託在基督身上。那在基督耶穌內去世的基督徒是「出離肉身,與主同在。」(格後 5:8)

 

1682. 對基督徒來說,死亡那天雖結束了聖事生活,卻帶來另一個新的開始。他完成了受洗時開始的新生命;決定性地「相似」那藉聖神的傅油而獲賜的「聖子的肖象」;並能分享那曾在感恩祭中預嘗過的天國筵席,縱使他還需最終的淨化,才能穿上結婚禮服。

 

1683. 在塵世的朝聖旅程中,教會好比母親那般,透過聖事,懷抱著基督徒,也陪伴他走到人生路途的終點,把他交託在「天父的手裡」。教會在基督內向天父獻上祂寵愛的子女,且懷著希望,在地裡播下那將光榮復活的肉身的種子。這奉獻藉感恩祭予以充分地慶祝。在彌撒前、後所舉行的祝禱禮,都是聖儀。

 

1684. 基督徒的喪禮既不授予亡者聖事,也不授予聖儀,因為亡者已「跨越」聖事救恩計劃之外。但它是教會的禮儀慶典。教會在此的職務,是為了藉喪禮表達與亡者亡者之間有效的共融,也是為了使參加喪禮的會眾團體團體參與此共融,並向會眾宣告永遠的生命。

 

1685.不同的喪禮儀式表達出基督徒死亡的逾越特色逾越特色,並且適應各地區的情況和傳統,甚至包括禮儀服飾的顏色。

1686. 羅馬禮的殯葬禮, 為適應喪禮過程中的三個不同地方(家裡、聖堂、墓地), 並 按照家庭、本地習俗、文化和民間的熱心敬禮在喪禮中的重要作用,提供了三種 類型。 下述過程為所有禮儀傳統所共有,它包括四個主要的部分: 

1687. 向團體致候。禮儀由信德的致候開始。主禮以「安慰」的言詞 (依照新約 的意思:聖神的力量在希望中)來接待亡者的親友。 在此聚集祈禱的團體 也期待聆聽 「永生之言」。 面對團體中一個肢體的去世(或逝世週年紀 念,或逝世後第七天或第四十天),應使我們超越「現世」的觀點,引導 信友確信復活的基督。 

1688. 聖道禮儀。在舉行喪禮時,應加倍用心準備聖道禮儀,尤其會眾當中可能有些是 很少參與禮儀的信友,或是亡者的非基督徒朋友。講道時,尤其要避免使用「對 亡者歌功頌德的悼詞」, 但要在復活基督的光照下,闡明基督徒死亡的奧跡。

 1689. 感恩聖祭。喪禮如在聖堂舉行,感恩祭是基督徒去世逾越事實的核心。教會表達 她與亡者有效的共融:在聖神內,向天父呈上基督死而復活的祭獻;教會祈求她 的子女得到罪過及其後果的淨化,並蒙接納參與天國的筵席,分享逾越的圓滿 (福樂)。藉著如此舉行的感恩祭,信友團體──尤其是亡者的家人──學習在與 「主內安息」那一位的共融中生活。此共融的生活是藉著領受基督聖體(亡者亦 是基督的活肢體),並藉著為他祈禱,也與他一起祈禱。  

1690. 告別禮是教會最後一次把亡者交託於天主。這是「在埋葬亡者前,基督徒團體對其成員作最後的告別」。在拜占廷禮的傳統中,表達方式是於告別時向亡者吻別:

 

聖西默盎•得撒洛尼,《論殯葬禮》:藉著這最後的致敬,「我們為他的去世和分離、也因與他的共融和重聚而詠唱。事實上,死亡決不能把我們彼此分離,因為我們眾人都要走完同一的道路,將在同一個地方重逢。我們將不再分離,因為我們為基督而活,現今又在基督內結合為一,走向祂,與祂相遇……我們將在基督內團聚一起」。

 

IN BRIEF

1677 Sacramentals are sacred signs instituted by the Church. They prepare men to receive the fruit of the sacraments and sanctify different circumstances of life.

1678 Among the sacramentals blessings occupy an important place. They include both praise of God for his works and gifts, and the Church's intercession for men that they may be able to use God's gifts according to the spirit of the Gospel.

1679 In addition to the liturgy, Christian life is nourished by various forms of popular piety, rooted in the different cultures. While carefully clarifying them in the light of faith, the Church fosters the forms of popular piety that express an evangelical instinct and a human wisdom and that enrich Christian life.

Article 2

CHRISTIAN FUNERALS

1680 All the sacraments, and principally those of Christian initiation, have as their goal the last Passover of the child of God which, through death, leads him into the life of the Kingdom. Then what he confessed in faith and hope will be fulfilled: "I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come."182

I. The Christian's Last Passover

1681 The Christian meaning of death is revealed in the light of the Paschal mystery of the death and resurrection of Christ in whom resides our only hope. the Christian who dies in Christ Jesus is "away from the body and at home with the Lord."183

1682 For the Christian the day of death inaugurates, at the end of his sacramental life, the fulfillment of his new birth begun at Baptism, the definitive "conformity" to "the image of the Son" conferred by the anointing of the Holy Spirit, and participation in the feast of the Kingdom which was anticipated in the Eucharist - even if final purifications are still necessary for him in order to be clothed with the nuptial garment.

1683 The Church who, as Mother, has borne the Christian sacramentally in her womb during his earthly pilgrimage, accompanies him at his journey's end, in order to surrender him "into the Father's hands." She offers to the Father, in Christ, the child of his grace, and she commits to the earth, in hope, the seed of the body that will rise in glory.184 This offering is fully celebrated in the Eucharistic sacrifice; the blessings before and after Mass are sacramentals.

II. The Celebration of Funerals

1684 The Christian funeral confers on the deceased neither a sacrament nor a sacramental since he has "passed" beyond the sacramental economy. It is nonetheless a liturgical celebration of the Church.185The ministry of the Church aims at expressing efficacious communion with the deceased, at the participation in that communion of the community gathered for the funeral and at the proclamation of eternal life to the community.

1685 The different funeral rites express the Paschal character of Christian death and are in keeping with the situations and traditions of each region, even as to the color of the liturgical vestments worn.186

1686 The Order of Christian Funerals (Ordo exsequiarum) of the Roman liturgy gives three types of funeral celebrations, corresponding to the three places in which they are conducted (the home, the church, and the cemetery), and according to the importance attached to them by the family, local customs, the culture, and popular piety. This order of celebration is common to all the liturgical traditions and comprises four principal elements:

1687 The greeting of the community. A greeting of faith begins the celebration. Relatives and friends of the deceased are welcomed with a word of "consolation" (in the New Testament sense of the Holy Spirit's power in hope).187 The community assembling in prayer also awaits the "words of eternal life." the death of a member of the community (or the anniversary of a death, or the seventh or fortieth day after death) is an event that should lead beyond the perspectives of "this world" and should draw the faithful into the true perspective of faith in the risen Christ.

1688 The liturgy of the Word during funerals demands very careful preparation because the assembly present for the funeral may include some faithful who rarely attend the liturgy, and friends of the deceased who are not Christians. the homily in particular must "avoid the literary genre of funeral eulogy"188 and illumine the mystery of Christian death in the light of the risen Christ.

1689 The Eucharistic Sacrifice. When the celebration takes place in church the Eucharist is the heart of the Paschal reality of Christian death.189 In the Eucharist, the Church expresses her efficacious communion with the departed: offering to the Father in the Holy Spirit the sacrifice of the death and resurrection of Christ, she asks to purify his child of his sins and their consequences, and to admit him to the Paschal fullness of the table of the Kingdom.190 It is by the Eucharist thus celebrated that the community of the faithful, especially the family of the deceased, learn to live in communion with the one who "has fallen asleep in the Lord," by communicating in the Body of Christ of which he is a living member and, then, by praying for him and with him.

1690 A farewell to the deceased is his final "commendation to God" by the Church. It is "the last farewell by which the Christian community greets one of its members before his body is brought to its tomb."191 The Byzantine tradition expresses this by the kiss of farewell to the deceased:

By this final greeting "we sing for his departure from this life and separation from us, but also because there is a communion and a reunion. For even dead, we are not at all separated from one another, because we all run the same course and we will find one another again in the same place. We shall never be separated, for we live for Christ, and now we are united with Christ as we go toward him . . . we shall all be together in Christ."192

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 

 

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