卷二基督奧跡的慶典-共融服務的聖事/THE SACRAMENTS AT THE SERVICE OF COMMUNION

天主教教理
卷二基督奧跡的慶典

第二部分
第三章為共融服務的聖事

 

 

1533. 聖洗、堅振和感恩(聖體)聖事是基督徒入門聖事。它們是所有基督門徒共同聖召的基礎;他們被召成聖,並實踐向世界傳福音的使命。這三件聖事賦予人必要的聖寵,使人在邁向天鄉的旅途生活中,能依照聖神的指引而生活。

1534. 有兩件聖事──聖秩和婚姻──是為其他人的得救而設立的。雖然它們同樣地有助於其個人的得救,但也是通過其為他人服務而達成的。這兩件聖事賦予領受人在教會內一項特殊使命,並用來建立天主的子民。

1535. 透過這兩件聖事,那些已經在聖洗和堅振聖事中蒙受祝聖,而享有全體信友所共有的普通司祭職的人,能夠接受特殊的祝聖。那些接受聖秩聖事者 蒙受祝聖而成為牧者,因基督之名,「以天主的聖言和恩寵牧養教會」。另一方面,「基督徒夫婦,為善盡他們身分的職責,藉特殊的聖事而增強力量,一如已蒙受祝聖一樣」。

第六條

聖秩聖事

 

1536. 聖秩 (ordo)是聖事,藉此聖事,基督所託付給宗徒的使命,得以在教會中繼續執行,直到世代的終結。故此,它是宗徒職務的聖事。它包括主教職、司鐸職、執事職三個等級。

[有關基督對宗徒職務的創立和使命,見上文 (874……等號)。這裡只論及此項職務如何透過聖事的途徑而傳遞]。

一、為何稱這聖事為聖秩聖事?

1537. 在古代羅馬,拉丁文 Ordo是指一些確立的的公務團體,特別是管理團體 (governing body)。Ordinatio則指被納入一個這類的團體 (Ordo)。在教會也有一些確立的團體,聖傳依據聖經從古以來就稱之為 taxeis (希臘文),拉丁文是 ordines (聖秩)。於是,禮儀中說到 ordo episcoporum (主教聖秩), ordo presbyterorum (原意是「長老聖秩」,中文一般稱「司鐸聖秩」), ordo diaconorum (執事聖秩)。其他的團體也用 ordo這個名詞,諸如:慕道者、貞女們、夫婦、寡婦等。

1538. 加入教會中一個這樣的「團體」,是經由一項稱為 ordinatio (入團禮)的儀式來達成;這是一項宗教和禮儀行動,是一種祝聖,或祝福,或一件「聖事」。今日,ordinatio一詞則專用在使一個人加入主教行列、司鐸行列或執事行列的聖事行動上,並且此聖事行動超越純粹由團體所作的選立、、指派、、授權或任命;因為這聖事行動賦予聖神的恩賜,使領受者能行使「神權」(sacra potestas);這神權只能透過教會來自基督自己。 這授秩禮 (ordinatio)又稱為祝聖禮 (consecratio),因為這是基督本人為了祂的教會,將領聖秩者從眾人中選拔出來,授予他神權。主教的覆手聯同祝聖禱詞,就是構成此祝聖禮的可見標記。


CHAPTER THREE

THE SACRAMENTS AT THE SERVICE OF COMMUNION

1533 Baptism, Confirmation, and Eucharist are sacraments of Christian initiation. They ground the common vocation of all Christ's disciples, a vocation to holiness and to the mission of evangelizing the world. They confer the graces needed for the life according to the Spirit during this life as pilgrims on the march towards the homeland.

1534 Two other sacraments, Holy Orders and Matrimony, are directed towards the salvation of others; if they contribute as well to personal salvation, it is through service to others that they do so. They confer a particular mission in the Church and serve to build up the People of God.

1535 Through these sacraments those already consecrated by Baptism and Confirmation1 for the common priesthood of all the faithful can receive particular consecrations. Those who receive the sacrament of Holy Orders are consecrated in Christ's name "to feed the Church by the word and grace of God."2 On their part, "Christian spouses are fortified and, as it were, consecrated for the duties and dignity of their state by a special sacrament."3

ARTICLE 6

THE SACRAMENT OF HOLY ORDERS

1536 Holy Orders is the sacrament through which the mission entrusted by Christ to his apostles continues to be exercised in the Church until the end of time: thus it is the sacrament of apostolic ministry. It includes three degrees: episcopate, presbyterate, and diaconate.

(On the institution and mission of the apostolic ministry by Christ, see above, no. 874 ff. Here only the sacramental means by which this ministry is handed on will be treated.)

I. Why Is This Sacrament Called "Orders"?

1537 The word order in Roman antiquity designated an established civil body, especially a governing body. Ordinatio means incorporation into an ordo. In the Church there are established bodies which Tradition, not without a basis in Sacred Scripture,4 has since ancient times called taxeis (Greek) or ordines. and so the liturgy speaks of the ordo episcoporum, the ordo presbyterorum, the ordo diaconorum. Other groups also receive this name of ordo: catechumens, virgins, spouses, widows,....

1538 Integration into one of these bodies in the Church was accomplished by a rite called ordinatio, a religious and liturgical act which was a consecration, a blessing or a sacrament. Today the word "ordination" is reserved for the sacramental act which integrates a man into the order of bishops, presbyters, or deacons, and goes beyond a simple election, designation, delegation, or institution by the community, for it confers a gift of the Holy Spirit that permits the exercise of a "sacred power" (sacra potestas)5 which can come only from Christ himself through his Church. Ordination is also called consecratio, for it is a setting apart and an investiture by Christ himself for his Church. the laying on of hands by the bishop, with the consecratory prayer, constitutes the visible sign of this ordination.

二、救恩史中的聖秩聖事

舊約的司祭職

1539. 天主將選民立為「一個司祭的國家,一個聖潔的國民」(出 19:6)。在以色列子民當中,天主由十二個支派中選出了一支,就是肋未支派,把他們選拔出來,專作禮儀服務,而天主本身就是他們的產業。當時有專用儀式來祝聖舊約最初的司祭,司祭的「設立是為人行關於天主的事,為奉獻供物和犧牲,以贖罪過」。

1540. 這司祭職的設立是為宣講天主聖言,並藉奉獻犧牲和祈禱,與天主重建共融的關係。可是,這司祭職卻不能帶來救恩,需要不斷地重複獻祭,也不能獲得決定性的聖化。 這決定性的聖化只有藉基督的祭獻才可以實現。

1541. 但是,教會的禮儀將亞郎的司祭職和肋未支派的服務,一如七十個「長老」的建立,都視為新約晉秩職務的預象。因此在拉丁禮中,教會在授予主教聖秩的祝聖經文中祈禱說:
1542.在司鐸聖秩授予禮中,教會祈求:

《主教禮書•主教聖秩授與禮》26 ,祝聖經文 (參照 1989修訂版):天主,我們的主耶穌基督之父……祢曾以恩寵的言語,訂定了教會規範;祢從起初就預定使亞巴郎的後裔,成為神聖的子民,祢設立了君王和司祭,使他們常服務於祢的聖所……。

《主教禮書•司鐸聖秩授與禮》22 ,祝聖經文 (參照 1989修訂版):主、聖父……遠在舊約時代,祢就以神妙的聖禮,創立了多種職務。祢委派梅瑟和亞郎,管理及聖化祢的子民,祢又簡選一些人,賜予他們職位和名分,與梅瑟和亞郎聯合,以協助他們的工作。為此,祢在曠野裡,將梅瑟的神能賦予七十位賢士,使他們充作他的助手,讓他更容易管理祢的子民。同樣,祢將亞郎的職權,完整地交給他的子孫,按照司祭的律例,供職於會幕,履行獻祭的職務;而這會幕的祭獻,正是未來美好事物的預象。

1543.在授予執事聖秩的祝聖經文中,教會宣認:

《主教禮書•執事聖秩授與禮》21 ,祝聖經文 (參照 1989修訂版):全能的天主……祢建立教會作為基督的身體,且使這身體的肢體享有天上不同之神恩,各司其職,又因聖神而奇妙的結合成一體,成為新的聖殿,不斷成長與擴大。祢建立了三個聖秩職分,使聖職人員為祢的聖名而服務。猶如當初祢曾簡選肋未的子孫,在祢的聖殿中供職……。

基督的唯一司祭職

1544. 舊約司祭職的所有預象都在耶穌基督身上找到了圓滿的實現,祂是「天人之間唯一的中保」(弟前 2:5)。基督徒聖傳視「至高天主的司祭」默基瑟德 (創 14:18)為基督司祭職的一個預象。祂是唯一「按照默基瑟德品位的大司祭」(希 5:10; 6:20),祂是「聖潔、無罪、毫無瑕疵的」(希 7:26)。祂「只藉一次奉獻……就永遠使那些被聖化的人得以成全」(希 10:14),也就是藉祂在十字架上的唯一祭獻。

1545. 基督贖罪的祭獻是唯一的,是一次而永遠完成的,卻在教會的感恩祭中臨現。 基督的唯一司祭職也是一樣:此司祭職藉著公務司祭職而臨現,基督司祭職的唯一性並不因此而削減:「而且只有基督自己才是真正的司祭,其他的都只是祂的僕人」。

參與基督唯一司祭職的兩種方式

1546. 大司祭和唯一中保──基督──使教會「成為一個司祭的國度,事奉祂的天主和父」(默 1:6)。整個信友團體,就其本身而言,是司祭性的。信友實行他們由聖洗聖事接受的司祭職,每個人依照自己的聖召,參與基督作為司祭、先知和君王的使命。他們是藉聖洗和堅振而「被祝聖為……神聖的司祭」。

1547. 主教及司鐸的公務或聖統司祭職,與所有信友的普通司祭職,雖然「兩者各按其自己的方式都分享基督唯一的司祭職」卻有實質上的分別,但「彼此有連帶關係」。這從何說起?信友們的普通司祭職實行於發展聖洗的恩寵──亦即信、望、愛三德的生活,順應聖神的生活。公務司祭職是為普通司祭職服務的,致力於發展所有基督徒聖洗的恩寵。公務司祭職是基督用來不停地建立並領導教會的方法之一。因此,公務司祭職是透過它專有的聖事──聖秩聖事──而授予的。

以基督元首的身分

1548. 聖職人員為教會服務時,是基督自己臨現於祂的教會,作為祂奧體的頭、祂羊群的牧者、贖罪祭的大司祭、真理的導師。這正是教會所要表達的:因聖秩聖事的效力,司祭「以基督元首的身分」而行動:

比約十二世,《天人中保》通諭:聖職人員真正擔任同一耶穌基督司祭的職務。如果聖職人員基於他所領受司祭職的祝聖,而確實肖似大司祭,那麼他就享有以基督自己的權能而行動的權力,因為他代表基督 (virtute ac persona ipsius Christi)。

聖多瑪斯,《神學大全》:基督是一切司祭職的泉源:舊約的司祭只是基督的預象,而新約的司祭卻是以基督的身分而行動。

1549. 藉晉秩職務,特別是司鐸職和主教職,基督作為教會元首的臨在,就會在信友團體中成為有形可見的。按照聖依納爵‧安提約基的美妙說法:主教是「父之典型」(typos tou Patros),他好像是天主聖父活的肖象。

1550. 基督在其聖職人員身上的這種臨在,不應被認為好似這人已被保護,而免除任何人性軟弱,支配慾、錯謬,甚至罪惡的危害。聖神的力量並不以同樣方式保証聖職人員的一切行為。可是,在施行聖事時,聖神卻賦予這種保証,為的是即使聖職人員雖有罪亦不能阻止恩寵的效果;聖職人員有許多其他行為仍存留著人性的痕跡,這些行為不常是忠於福音的標記,也因此會損害教會宗徒事業的效果。

1551. 這司祭職是公務性的。「這項由主交託給祂子民的牧者們的職務是一項道地的服務」。這服務完全與基督和人群有關;它完全從屬於基督及祂唯一的司祭職,它的建立是為了人群和教會團體的益處。聖秩聖事賦予一種「神權」, 這權力就是基督的權力。為此,這權力的行使,應依照基督的榜樣來衡量,祂為了愛而成為最卑微的和眾人的僕役。「主曾經清楚地說過,照顧祂的羊群就是愛祂的証明」。

「以整個教會的名義」

1552. 公務司祭職不僅具有在信友團體前代表基督──教會元首──的職責,而且當他把教會的祈禱呈獻給天主時,尤其奉獻感恩祭時,他也是以整個教會的名義而行動。

1553. 「以整個教會的名義」,這並不表示司祭們是團體所指派的代表。教會的祈禱和奉獻是不可與其元首基督的祈禱和奉獻分離的。這常是基督在教會內並藉著教會所行的崇拜;是整個教會,即基督的奧體,「藉著基督、偕同基督、在基督內」,在聖神的團結中,向天父呈上祈禱並奉獻自己。整個身體 ──頭和肢體 (caput et membra)── 在祈禱和奉獻自己,正因為如此,那些在奧體內,特別作祂僕人的,不但稱為基督的僕人,亦稱為教會的僕人。這是由於公務司祭職代表基督,故此亦能代表教會。


 II. The Sacrament of Holy Orders in the Economy of Salvation

The priesthood of the Old Covenant

1539 The chosen people was constituted by God as "a kingdom of priests and a holy nation."6 But within the people of Israel, God chose one of the twelve tribes, that of Levi, and set it apart for liturgical service; God himself is its inheritance.7 A special rite consecrated the beginnings of the priesthood of the Old Covenant. the priests are "appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins."8

1540 Instituted to proclaim the Word of God and to restore communion with God by sacrifices and prayer,9 this priesthood nevertheless remains powerless to bring about salvation, needing to repeat its sacrifices ceaselessly and being unable to achieve a definitive sanctification, which only the sacrifice of Christ would accomplish.10

1541 The liturgy of the Church, however, sees in the priesthood of Aaron and the service of the Levites, as in the institution of the seventy elders,11 a prefiguring of the ordained ministry of the New Covenant. Thus in the Latin Rite the Church prays in the consecratory preface of the ordination of bishops:

God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,

by your gracious word

you have established the plan of your Church.

 

From the beginning,

you chose the descendants of Abraham to be your holy nation.

You established rulers and priests

and did not leave your sanctuary without ministers to serve you....12

1542 At the ordination of priests, the Church prays:

Lord, holy Father, . . .

when you had appointed high priests to rule your people,

you chose other men next to them in rank and dignity

to be with them and to help them in their task....

 

you extended the spirit of Moses to seventy wise men....

You shared among the sons of Aaron

the fullness of their father's power.13

1543 In the consecratory prayer for ordination of deacons, the Church confesses:

Almighty God . . ..

You make the Church, Christ's body,

grow to its full stature as a new and greater temple.

You enrich it with every kind of grace

and perfect it with a diversity of members

to serve the whole body in a wonderful pattern of unity.

 

You established a threefold ministry of worship and service,

for the glory of your name.

As ministers of your tabernacle you chose the sons of Levi

and gave them your blessing as their everlasting inheritance.14

The one priesthood of Christ

1544 Everything that the priesthood of the Old Covenant prefigured finds its fulfillment in Christ Jesus, the "one mediator between God and men."15 The Christian tradition considers Melchizedek, "priest of God Most High," as a prefiguration of the priesthood of Christ, the unique "high priest after the order of Melchizedek";16 "holy, blameless, unstained,"17 "by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are sanctified,"18 that is, by the unique sacrifice of the cross.

1545 The redemptive sacrifice of Christ is unique, accomplished once for all; yet it is made present in the Eucharistic sacrifice of the Church. the same is true of the one priesthood of Christ; it is made present through the ministerial priesthood without diminishing the uniqueness of Christ's priesthood: "Only Christ is the true priest, the others being only his ministers."19

Two participations in the one priesthood of Christ

1546 Christ, high priest and unique mediator, has made of the Church "a kingdom, priests for his God and Father."20 The whole community of believers is, as such, priestly. the faithful exercise their baptismal priesthood through their participation, each according to his own vocation, in Christ's mission as priest, prophet, and king. Through the sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation the faithful are "consecrated to be . . . a holy priesthood."21

1547 The ministerial or hierarchical priesthood of bishops and priests, and the common priesthood of all the faithful participate, "each in its own proper way, in the one priesthood of Christ." While being "ordered one to another," they differ essentially.22 In what sense? While the common priesthood of the faithful is exercised by the unfolding of baptismal grace - a life of faith, hope, and charity, a life according to the Spirit - ,the ministerial priesthood is at the service of the common priesthood. It is directed at the unfolding of the baptismal grace of all Christians. the ministerial priesthood is a means by which Christ unceasingly builds up and leads his Church. For this reason it is transmitted by its own sacrament, the sacrament of Holy Orders.

In the person of Christ the Head . . .

1548 In the ecclesial service of the ordained minister, it is Christ himself who is present to his Church as Head of his Body, Shepherd of his flock, high priest of the redemptive sacrifice, Teacher of Truth. This is what the Church means by saying that the priest, by virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, acts in persona Christi Capitis:23

It is the same priest, Christ Jesus, whose sacred person his minister truly represents. Now the minister, by reason of the sacerdotal consecration which he has received, is truly made like to the high priest and possesses the authority to act in the power and place of the person of Christ himself (virtute ac persona ipsius Christi).24 
Christ is the source of all priesthood: the priest of the old law was a figure of Christ, and the priest of the new law acts in the person of Christ.25

1549 Through the ordained ministry, especially that of bishops and priests, the presence of Christ as head of the Church is made visible in the midst of the community of believers.26 In the beautiful expression of St. Ignatius of Antioch, the bishop is typos tou Patros: he is like the living image of God the Father.27

1550 This presence of Christ in the minister is not to be understood as if the latter were preserved from all human weaknesses, the spirit of domination, error, even sin. the power of the Holy Spirit does not guarantee all acts of ministers in the same way. While this guarantee extends to the sacraments, so that even the minister's sin cannot impede the fruit of grace, in many other acts the minister leaves human traces that are not always signs of fidelity to the Gospel and consequently can harm the apostolic fruitfulness of the Church.

1551 This priesthood is ministerial. "That office . . . which the Lord committed to the pastors of his people, is in the strict sense of the term a service."28 It is entirely related to Christ and to men. It depends entirely on Christ and on his unique priesthood; it has been instituted for the good of men and the communion of the Church. the sacrament of Holy Orders communicates a "sacred power" which is none other than that of Christ. the exercise of this authority must therefore be measured against the model of Christ, who by love made himself the least and the servant of all.29 "The Lord said clearly that concern for his flock was proof of love for him."30

. . . "in the name of the whole Church"

1552 The ministerial priesthood has the task not only of representing Christ - Head of the Church - before the assembly of the faithful, but also of acting in the name of the whole Church when presenting to God the prayer of the Church, and above all when offering the Eucharistic sacrifice.31

1553 "In the name of the whole Church" does not mean that priests are the delegates of the community. the prayer and offering of the Church are inseparable from the prayer and offering of Christ, her head; it is always the case that Christ worships in and through his Church. the whole Church, the Body of Christ, prays and offers herself "through him, with him, in him," in the unity of the Holy Spirit, to God the Father. the whole Body, caput et membra, prays and offers itself, and therefore those who in the Body are especially his ministers are called ministers not only of Christ, but also of the Church. It is because the ministerial priesthood represents Christ that it can represent the Church.

 

三、聖秩聖事的三個等級

1554. 「由天主所設立的教會職務是分等級去執行的,這些執行人員從古以來就被稱為主教、司鐸和執事」。教會在禮儀中、在其訓導以及其恆常的實踐中所表達的天主教教義,承認在公務上分享基督司祭職的,共有兩個等級,就是:主教職和司鐸職。而執事職則是為輔助及服務他們的。為此,「司祭」(sacerdos)一詞實在的用法是指主教和司鐸,而非執事。不過,天主教教義教導,兩個分享司祭職的等級(主教和司鐸)和服務的等級(執事),三者都是透過稱為「授予聖秩」的聖事行動,亦即透過聖秩聖事而授予的:

聖依納爵•安提約基,《致特拉里亞人書》:所有的人須尊敬執事就如對耶穌一樣,尊敬主教如對天父的肖象,尊敬司鐸就如對天主的議會和宗徒團一樣,因為沒有他們就沒有教會可言。

主教聖秩授予禮 ── 聖秩聖事的圓滿

1555. 「據聖傳証明,從教會初期就一直通行的不同職務中,首要的就是那些被立為主教職位的,因為他們從開始就綿延不絕地由宗徒一脈相傳下來,且被視為宗徒繼承的傳遞者」。

1556. 為完成他們的崇高使命,「宗徒們在聖神降臨時因基督而滿渥特殊傾注的聖神,他們又以覆手禮,把聖神的恩寵傳授給他們的合作者,這聖神的恩賜藉主教的祝聖禮,一直流傳到今天」

1557. 梵二大公會議訓導說:「在主教祝聖禮中授予聖秩聖事的圓滿,這在教會的禮儀傳統中,並按教父的說法,稱為至高的司祭職,神聖職務的全部 (summa)」。

1558. 「祝聖主教時,連同聖化的職務,也授予訓導和管理的職務……。事實上……覆手禮和祝聖經文賦予聖神的恩寵,並留下神印,致使主教們卓越地、有形可見地代表基督自己,作為導師、牧人和大司祭,並以基督的身分行事 (in Eius persona agant)」。「所以,主教們因所領受的聖神,成為信仰的真正導師、大司祭及牧人」。

1559. 「一個人基於主教的祝聖禮,並藉與主教團的首領及其他團員的聖統共融,成為主教團的一分子」。主教聖秩的集體本質(collegial nature)和特性,尤其在教會古代的習慣中表現出來,即在祝聖一位新主教時,請來多位主教參與祝聖。今日,為合法地祝聖一位主教,需要羅馬主教的特殊參與,因為他是所有個別教會在唯一教會內共融之最高、有形可見的聯繫,同時,他又是它們自由的保証。

1560.每位主教,身為基督的代表 (vicar),對於那託付給他的個別教會,負有牧者的職責,但他同時與所有主教弟兄集體地負有關懷所有其他教會的責徒使命」。

1561. 前述的一切,正說明為何主教所主持的感恩祭具有特殊的意義,它表達團結一起圍繞祭台的教會,由代表基督──善牧和教會元首──的主教所主持。

司鐸────主教們的合作者──
──聖秩授予禮

1562. 「基督是聖父所祝聖和派遣來到世上的,祂藉宗徒們並使他們的繼承人 ──主教們──分享祂的祝聖和使命。主教們又把自己的職務,合法地按不同的等級,委託給教會不同的成員」。「主教們的職務以從屬的等級交給司鐸們:他們被納入司鐸聖秩中,成為主教聖秩的合作者,去履行基督所託付的宗徒使命」

1563. 「由於司鐸的職務與主教聖秩緊密相連,因而分享基督親自建立、聖化和治理祂奧體的權柄。為此,司鐸們的司祭職雖以基督徒入門聖事為先決條件,卻是由另一件特殊的聖事所授予。透過聖秩聖事,司鐸們藉聖神的傅油,烙上特殊神印,使他們肖似基督大司祭,能以基督元首的身分行事」。

1564. 「司鐸們雖未達到司祭職的最高峰,在執行分內職權時又從屬於主教,但司鐸們和主教們在司祭的尊位上連在一起,也因著聖秩聖事,按照至高永遠大司祭基督的肖象,他們是被祝聖為真正的新約司祭,去宣講福音,牧養信友並舉行禮儀慶典」。

1565. 司鐸經由聖秩聖事,分擔了基督交託給宗徒們向普世傳福音的使命。「司鐸們在領受聖秩時所得的神恩,準備他們不只去執行一種限定的使命,而是廣大普遍的救世使命,『直達地極』」「故在他們內心應有準備可到任何地方去宣講福音」。

1566. 「司鐸們行使其神聖職務的最高峰,是在感恩祭中或感恩聚會 (synaxis):在那裡他們以基督的身分行動,宣布祂的奧跡,把信友們的祈禱和他們元首基督的犧牲聯合一起。同時,在彌撒聖祭中,透過他們使唯一的新約祭獻臨現並產生實效,直到主的再臨;這就是基督曾一次而永遠地把自己當作無玷的犧牲而奉獻於天父的祭獻」。他們由這唯一的祭獻汲取整個司鐸職務的力量。

1567. 「司鐸們是主教聖秩謹慎的合作者、助手和工具,奉召為天主的子民服務,與他們的主教組成唯一的司祭團,分擔不同的職務。在每一個地區的信友團體中,他們可以說是代表主教, 並以完全信任和慷慨的心胸與他聯合, 分擔他的部分職責和關懷,並在每日的操勞中付諸實行」。司鐸們若子、兄弟和朋友,他們應向主教回以敬愛和服從。

1568. 「司鐸們因授秩禮都加入司鐸的行列,彼此藉這聖事性的手足關係密切團結,尤其在所服務的教區,在當地的主教領導下,以特殊的方式組成唯一的司祭團」。司祭團的一體性,按慣例有其禮儀的表達,即在授秩禮中,主教為領秩者覆手後,司鐸們也為他覆手。

執事授秩禮 ────「為人服務」

1569. 「在聖統制中,等級最低的是執事, 他們所領受的覆手,『不是為作司祭,而是為服務』」。在執事聖秩授予禮儀中,只有主教為候選人覆手,表示執事在「服務」的任務上特別與主教聯繫在一起。

1570. 執事以特殊的方式分享基督的使命和恩寵。聖秩聖事給他們蓋上一個不能磨滅的印號 (「神印」),使他們肖似基督:基督自己曾成為「執事」,亦即眾人之僕。在執事的許多職務之中,特別有:輔助主教和司鐸舉行神聖奧跡的慶典,尤其是感恩祭;分送聖體,証婚並祝福婚姻,宣讀福音和講道,主持葬禮,並獻身於各種愛德服務工作。

1571. 自梵二大公會議以來,拉丁教會恢復了執事職,「作為聖統固有及永久的一個等級」。此職在東方教會則是一直保持的。終身執事職可授予已婚人士,它為教會的使命構成一項重要的富源。其實,對那些在教會內,不論在禮儀及牧民生活中,或在社會及慈善事業上,實踐真正服務職責的人來說,「讓他們藉宗徒傳下來的覆手禮得到堅固,與祭台更密切地聯繫起來,這樣,他們靠著執事職之聖事恩寵,更有效地履行職務」,是適當而有益的。


 III. The Three Degrees of the Sacrament of Holy Orders

1554 "The divinely instituted ecclesiastical ministry is exercised in different degrees by those who even from ancient times have been called bishops, priests, and deacons."32 Catholic doctrine, expressed in the liturgy, the Magisterium, and the constant practice of the Church, recognizes that there are two degrees of ministerial participation in the priesthood of Christ: the episcopacy and the presbyterate . the diaconate is intended to help and serve them. For this reason the term sacerdos in current usage denotes bishops and priests but not deacons. Yet Catholic doctrine teaches that the degrees of priestly participation (episcopate and presbyterate) and the degree of service (diaconate) are all three conferred by a sacramental act called "ordination," that is, by the sacrament of Holy Orders:

Let everyone revere the deacons as Jesus Christ, the bishop as the image of the Father, and the presbyters as the senate of God and the assembly of the apostles. For without them one cannot speak of the Church.33

Episcopal ordination - fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders

1555 "Amongst those various offices which have been exercised in the Church from the earliest times the chief place, according to the witness of tradition, is held by the function of those who, through their appointment to the dignity and responsibility of bishop, and in virtue consequently of the unbroken succession going back to the beginning, are regarded as transmitters of the apostolic line."34

1556 To fulfil their exalted mission, "the apostles were endowed by Christ with a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit coming upon them, and by the imposition of hands they passed on to their auxiliaries the gift of the Spirit, which is transmitted down to our day through episcopal consecration."35

1557 The Second Vatican Council "teaches . . . that the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders is conferred by episcopal consecration, that fullness namely which, both in the liturgical tradition of the Church and the language of the Fathers of the Church, is called the high priesthood, the acme (summa) of the sacred ministry."36

1558 "Episcopal consecration confers, together with the office of sanctifying, also the offices of teaching and ruling.... In fact ... by the imposition of hands and through the words of the consecration, the grace of the Holy Spirit is given, and a sacred character is impressed in such wise that bishops, in an eminent and visible manner, take the place of Christ himself, teacher, shepherd, and priest, and act as his representative (in Eius persona agant)."37 "By virtue, therefore, of the Holy Spirit who has been given to them, bishops have been constituted true and authentic teachers of the faith and have been made pontiffs and pastors."38

1559 "One is constituted a member of the episcopal body in virtue of the sacramental consecration and by the hierarchical communion with the head and members of the college."39 The character and collegial nature of the episcopal order are evidenced among other ways by the Church's ancient practice which calls for several bishops to participate in the consecration of a new bishop.40 In our day, the lawful ordination of a bishop requires a special intervention of the Bishop of Rome, because he is the supreme visible bond of the communion of the particular Churches in the one Church and the guarantor of their freedom.

1560 As Christ's vicar, each bishop has the pastoral care of the particular Church entrusted to him, but at the same time he bears collegially with all his brothers in the episcopacy the solicitude for all the Churches: "Though each bishop is the lawful pastor only of the portion of the flock entrusted to his care, as a legitimate successor of the apostles he is, by divine institution and precept, responsible with the other bishops for the apostolic mission of the Church."41

1561 The above considerations explain why the Eucharist celebrated by the bishop has a quite special significance as an expression of the Church gathered around the altar, with the one who represents Christ, the Good Shepherd and Head of his Church, presiding.42

The ordination of priests - co-workers of the bishops

1562 "Christ, whom the Father hallowed and sent into the world, has, through his apostles, made their successors, the bishops namely, sharers in his consecration and mission; and these, in their turn, duly entrusted in varying degrees various members of the Church with the office of their ministry."43 "The function of the bishops' ministry was handed over in a subordinate degree to priests so that they might be appointed in the order of the priesthood and be co-workers of the episcapal order for the proper fulfillment of the apostolic mission that had been entrusted to it by Christ."44

1563 "Because it is joined with the episcopal order the office of priests shares in the authority by which Christ himself builds up and sanctifies and rules his Body. Hence the priesthood of priests, while presupposing the sacraments of initiation, is nevertheless conferred by its own particular sacrament. Through that sacrament priests by the anointing of the Holy Spirit are signed with a special character and so are configured to Christ the priest in such a way that they are able to act in the person of Christ the head."45

1564 "Whilst not having the supreme degree of the pontifical office, and notwithstanding the fact that they depend on the bishops in the exercise of their own proper power, the priests are for all that associated with them by reason of their sacerdotal dignity; and in virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, after the image of Christ, the supreme and eternal priest, they are consecrated in order to preach the Gospel and shepherd the faithful as well as to celebrate divine worship as true priests of the New Testament."46

1565 Through the sacrament of Holy Orders priests share in the universal dimensions of the mission that Christ entrusted to the apostles. the spiritual gift they have received in ordination prepares them, not for a limited and restricted mission, "but for the fullest, in fact the universal mission of salvation 'to the end of the earth,"'47 "prepared in spirit to preach the Gospel everywhere."48

1566 "It is in the Eucharistic cult or in the Eucharistic assembly of the faithful (synaxis) that they exercise in a supreme degree their sacred office; there, acting in the person of Christ and proclaiming his mystery, they unite the votive offerings of the faithful to the sacrifice of Christ their head, and in the sacrifice of the Mass they make present again and apply, until the coming of the Lord, the unique sacrifice of the New Testament, that namely of Christ offering himself once for all a spotless victim to the Father."49 From this unique sacrifice their whole priestly ministry draws its strength.50

1567 "The priests, prudent cooperators of the episcopal college and its support and instrument, called to the service of the People of God, constitute, together with their bishop, a unique sacerdotal college (presbyterium) dedicated, it is, true to a variety of distinct duties. In each local assembly of the faithful they represent, in a certain sense, the bishop, with whom they are associated in all trust and generosity; in part they take upon themselves his duties and solicitude and in their daily toils discharge them."51 priests can exercise their ministry only in dependence on the bishop and in communion with him. the promise of obedience they make to the bishop at the moment of ordination and the kiss of peace from him at the end of the ordination liturgy mean that the bishop considers them his co-workers, his sons, his brothers and his friends, and that they in return owe him love and obedience.

1568 "All priests, who are constituted in the order of priesthood by the sacrament of Order, are bound together by an intimate sacramental brotherhood, but in a special way they form one priestly body in the diocese to which they are attached under their own bishop. . ;"52 The unity of the presbyterium finds liturgical expression in the custom of the presbyters' imposing hands, after the bishop, during the Ate of ordination.

The ordination of deacons - "in order to serve"

1569 "At a lower level of the hierarchy are to be found deacons, who receive the imposition of hands 'not unto the priesthood, but unto the ministry."'53 At an ordination to the diaconate only the bishop lays hands on the candidate, thus signifying the deacon's special attachment to the bishop in the tasks of his "diakonia."54

1570 Deacons share in Christ's mission and grace in a special way.55 The sacrament of Holy Orders marks them with an imprint (“character") which cannot be removed and which configures them to Christ, who made himself the "deacon" or servant of all.56 Among other tasks, it is the task of deacons to assist the bishop and priests in the celebration of the divine mysteries, above all the Eucharist, in the distribution of Holy Communion, in assisting at and blessing marriages, in the proclamation of the Gospel and preaching, in presiding over funerals, and in dedicating themselves to the various ministries of charity.57

1571 Since the Second Vatican Council the Latin Church has restored the diaconate "as a proper and permanent rank of the hierarchy,"58 while the Churches of the East had always maintained it. This permanent diaconate, which can be conferred on married men, constitutes an important enrichment for the Church's mission. Indeed it is appropriate and useful that men who carry out a truly diaconal ministry in the Church, whether in its liturgical and pastoral life or whether in its social and charitable works, should "be strengthened by the imposition of hands which has come down from the apostles. They would be more closely bound to the altar and their ministry would be made more fruitful through the sacramental grace of the diaconate."59

 

四、聖秩聖事慶典的舉行

1572. 由於主教、司鐸或執事的聖秩授予禮,對個別教會的生活是很重要的,因此盡量要求有較多的信友參禮。最好是在主日並在主教座堂舉行,並且以適合於該慶典的隆重禮儀舉行。主教、司鐸、執事三項聖秩授予禮,遵從同樣的進行程序,都是在感恩祭中進行。

1573. 聖秩聖事的必要儀式,為主教職、司鐸職和執事職,都是主教在領受聖秩者的頭上覆手,並以特定的祝聖禱詞祈禱,呼求天主將聖神傾注於領受聖秩者身上,並賜與相稱其職務的神恩。

1574. 就如在所有的聖事中,授秩慶典也有一些附加的儀式。雖然這些附加儀式在不同的禮儀傳 統中有顯著的差異,但都有共同點,就是表達聖事恩寵多方面的意義。比方,在拉丁禮 中,開端儀式包括:領聖秩者的推介及甄選、主教訓話、詢問領聖秩者、諸聖禱文等, 這些儀式表明該候選人的挑選是符合教會的常規,並導入隆重的祝聖禮。祝聖禮之後的 其他儀式,則以象徵的方式表達和完成所實現的奧跡:為主教和司鐸有傅「聖化聖油」 禮,作為聖神特別傅油的標記,聖神使他們的職務成效卓著; 把福音書、戒指、禮冠和 牧杖交給新主教,表示他負有宣講聖言的宗徒使命,並表示他對教會──基督淨配── 的忠貞,以及他牧養主的羊群之責任;把聖盤及聖爵交給新司鐸,表示他是奉召把「聖 潔的子民的獻禮」呈獻給天主;把福音書交給新執事,表明他已領受了宣講基督福音的 使命。  

五、誰可授予聖秩聖事?

1575. 基督簡選了宗徒們,使他們分享祂的使命和權力。基督被提昇到天父的右邊後,並未離棄羊群,仍通過宗徒們,不斷照顧和保護羊群;並且,時至今日祂仍然透過這些繼續祂工作的牧者們領導羊群。故此,是基督「恩賜」一些人作宗徒,另一些人作牧者,祂通過主教們繼續行動。

1576. 既然聖秩聖事是[賦予]宗徒職務的聖事,那麼,是由身為宗徒繼承人的主教們,去傳授「聖神的恩賜」,「宗徒繼承」(apostolic line)。有效地被祝聖的主教,即是從宗徒一脈相傳下來的主教,可有效地授予聖秩的三個等級。

六、誰可領受聖秩聖事?

1577. 「唯有受過洗的男性 (vir),才得有效地領受聖秩」。主耶穌選立了一些男人為組成十二宗徒的團體。宗徒們亦同樣簡選合作者 3繼承他們的職責。世界主教團偕同在司祭職上與他們相連的司鐸們,使十二宗徒團體不斷臨在並實現,直到基督再來。教會認識到她已被主自己的這個選擇所約束。為此,讓女性領受聖秩是不可能的。

1578. 沒有人享有領受聖秩聖事的權利。事實上,沒有人可以擅自取得這職位,這該是由天主親自召選的。誰以為自己有被天主召喚擔任晉秩職務的徵兆,應謙虛地將其意願請示教會當局;因為只有教會有責任和權利去呼召人領受聖秩。就如每項恩寵,人只能把這聖事視為無條件的恩賜去領受。

1579. 在拉丁教會中,除終身執事外,所有聖職人員通常都是選自度獨身生活的信友,他們願意「為天國」(瑪 19:12)保持獨身。他們奉召為了「主的事務」而全心奉獻自己,把自己完全地給予天主和人群。獨身是新生活的標記;教會的聖職人員正是為這新生活服務而被祝聖。以欣喜的心來接受獨身生活的人,必能喜氣洋洋地宣布天主之國。

1580. 在東方教會,很多世紀以來都實行不同的法制:只有主教才是選自獨身者, 已婚的可被祝聖為司鐸和執事。 這樣的習慣歷來都被視為合法。這些司鐸在他們的團體中執行職務,亦很有成效。但另一方面,司鐸的獨身在東方教會也很受尊敬,不少司鐸也為天主的國而自願選擇獨身。唯在東方教會,一如在西方教會,已領聖秩者就一概不可以再結婚。

 IV. The Celebration of This Sacrament

1572 Given the importance that the ordination of a bishop, a priest, or a deacon has for the life of the particular Church, its celebration calls for as many of the faithful as possible to take part. It should take place preferably on Sunday, in the cathedral, with solemnity appropriate to the occasion. All three ordinations, of the bishop, of the pRiest, and of the deacon, follow the same movement. Their proper place is within the Eucharistic liturgy.

1573 The essential rite of the sacrament of Holy Orders for all three degrees consists in the bishop's imposition of hands on the head of the ordinand and in the bishop's specific consecratory prayer asking God for the outpouring of the Holy Spirit and his gifts proper to the ministry to which the candidate is being ordained.60

1574 As in all the sacraments additional rites surround the celebration. Varying greatly among the different liturgical traditions, these rites have in common the expression of the multiple aspects of sacramental grace. Thus in the Latin Church, the initial rites - presentation and election of the ordinand, instruction by the bishop, examination of the candidate, litany of the saints - attest that the choice of the candidate is made in keeping with the practice of the Church and prepare for the solemn act of consecration, after which several rites syrnbolically express and complete the mystery accomplished: for bishop and priest, an anointing with holy chrism, a sign of the special anointing of the Holy Spirit who makes their ministry fruitful; giving the book of the Gospels, the ring, the miter, and the crosier to the bishop as the sign of his apostolic mission to proclaim the Word of God, of his fidelity to the Church, the bride of Christ, and his office as shepherd of the Lord's flock; presentation to the priest of the paten and chalice, "the offering of the holy people" which he is called to present to God; giving the book of the Gospels to the deacon who has just received the mission to proclaim the Gospel of Christ.

V. Who Can Confer This Sacrament?

1575 Christ himself chose the apostles and gave them a share in his mission and authority. Raised to the Father's right hand, he has not forsaken his flock but he keeps it under his constant protection through the apostles, and guides it still through these same pastors who continue his work today.61 Thus, it is Christ whose gift it is that some be apostles, others pastors. He continues to act through the bishops.62

1576 Since the sacrament of Holy Orders is the sacrament of the apostolic ministry, it is for the bishops as the successors of the apostles to hand on the "gift of the Spirit,"63 The "apostolic line."64 Validly ordained bishops, i.e., those who are in the line of apostolic succession, validly confer the three degrees of the sacrament of Holy Orders.65

VI. Who Can Receive This Sacrament?

1577 "Only a baptized man (vir) validly receives sacred ordination."66 The Lord Jesus chose men (viri) to form the college of the twelve apostles, and the apostles did the same when they chose collaborators to succeed them in their ministry.67 The college of bishops, with whom the priests are united in the priesthood, makes the college of the twelve an ever-present and ever-active reality until Christ's return. the Church recognizes herself to be bound by this choice made by the Lord himself. For this reason the ordination of women is not possible.68

1578 No one has a right to receive the sacrament of Holy Orders. Indeed no one claims this office for himself; he is called to it by God.69 Anyone who thinks he recognizes the signs of God's call to the ordained ministry must humbly submit his desire to the authority of the Church, who has the responsibility and right to call someone to receive orders. Like every grace this sacrament can be received only as an unmerited gift.

1579 All the ordained ministers of the Latin Church, with the exception of permanent deacons, are normally chosen from among men of faith who live a celibate life and who intend to remain celibate "for the sake of the kingdom of heaven."70 Called to consecrate themselves with undivided heart to the Lord and to "the affairs of the Lord,"71 they give themselves entirely to God and to men. Celibacy is a sign of this new life to the service of which the Church's minister is consecrated; accepted with a joyous heart celibacy radiantly proclaims the Reign of God.72

1580 In the Eastern Churches a different discipline has been in force for many centuries: while bishops are chosen solely from among celibates, married men can be ordained as deacons and priests. This practice has long been considered legitimate; these priests exercise a fruitful ministry within their communities.73 Moreover, priestly celibacy is held in great honor in the Eastern Churches and many priests have freely chosen it for the sake of the Kingdom of God. In the East as in the West a man who has already received the sacrament of Holy Orders can no longer marry.

 

七、聖秩聖事的效果

不可磨滅的神印

1581. 這聖事因著聖神的特殊恩寵,使領受者肖似基督,使他成為基督的工具,服務祂的教會。通過授秩禮,一個人得以作為教會元首基督的代表,執行祂司祭、先知、君王的三重職務。

1582. 就如聖洗和堅振聖事一樣,聖秩聖事這種對基督職務的分享,也是一次而永久授予的。聖秩聖事正如聖洗和堅振聖事,也給予一個永不磨滅的神 印。為此,聖秩聖事不可重複授予,亦不可暫時授予。

1583. 一位有效領過聖秩的人,因正當理由,可被解除他與聖秩有關連的義務和職分,或被禁止執行職務,但嚴格地說,他並不是重回平信徒的身分,因為聖秩的神印是永久的。自授秩當日起,他所領受的聖召和使命就永遠銘刻在他身上了。

1584.由於終究是基督透過聖職人員去行動和實行救世工作,故此縱使聖職人員有不堪當之處,並不會阻礙基督的行動。聖奧思定對此曾鏗鏘有力地說:

聖奧思定,《論若望福音》:至於驕傲的聖職人員,他該與魔鬼併列,但基督的恩寵並不因此受玷污,凡通過他而流出的一切,仍保持其純潔和清澈,且流到肥沃之地……聖事的神能實在如同光一般:那些受光照的人,是接受純潔的光,縱使光穿過污穢之物,也不受污染。

聖神的恩寵
1585.這聖事所賦予特殊的聖神恩寵,是使領受聖秩者肖似基督:司祭、導師和牧者;領受聖秩者就是成為基督的僕人。

1586. 對主教來說,這恩寵首先就是勇力之恩(即拉丁禮祝聖主教禱詞中的「領導之神」):這恩寵使他如同父親和牧人,不遺餘力地、謹慎地領導和保護他的教會,無私地愛所有的人, 並優先愛護貧窮、患病和有需要的人。這恩寵驅使他向所有的人宣講福音,作群羊的榜樣,領導他們踏上成聖之路;在感恩祭中,與親作司祭和祭品的基督認同,不怕為羊群捨生:

《主教禮書•主教聖秩授與禮》26 ,祝聖經文:洞察人心的大父,求祢使這位蒙祢選立為主教的僕人,妥善牧養祢的神聖羊群,在祢前執行大司祭的職務,無可指責,日夜不懈地事奉祢;願他時常邀得祢的仁慈垂顧,並奉獻祢聖教會的禮品;願他藉聖神的德能享有大司祭的職權,按照祢的命令,赦免罪過;按照祢的旨意,分配職務;按照祢賦予宗徒們的權柄,解除各種束縛;使他以溫良和純潔的心悅樂祢,藉祢的聖子耶穌基督向祢獻上馨香之祭……。

1587.在司鐸授秩禮中,所賜予的神恩,可從拜占廷禮的禱詞表達出來。主教覆手時,所用的禱詞中有以下的話:

上主,求祢以聖神的恩賜充滿這位祢擢升到司鐸行列的僕人,使他堪當服務祢的祭壇,穌基督第二次來臨之日,能前去與祂相遇,並從祢無限的美善中,領受他忠於職守的賞報。

1588. 至於執事,「聖事恩寵給予他們必需的力量,使他們在與主教及其司鐸團共融中,為禮儀、為福音並為愛德工作『服務』(diakonia),以服務天主的子民」。

1589. 面對司祭職務和恩寵的崇高,聖師們已感覺到皈依的迫切性,好使他們的整個生活符合那位以聖事立他們為聖職人員的主。因此,當聖額我略‧納祥還是年輕司鐸時,就呼籲說:

要潔淨他人,須先潔淨自己;為能教導他人,須先受教導;要照亮他人,須先變成光;要使人接近天主,自己應接近天主;要聖化他人,自己先須成聖;帶領人要親切,勸導人要謹慎。

我知道我們是誰的服務人員,處在甚麼樣的地位,奔向甚麼目標。我知道天主的偉大,人的軟弱,但也知道他的潛力。

[那麼司鐸是誰呢?他是]真理的護衛者,他與天使一同侍立,與總領天使一起光榮天主,使祭獻的犧牲升到天上的祭台,分享基督的大司祭職,重新塑造萬有,以 [天主的]肖象重建萬物,為了天國再造萬物。最後,更偉大的,就是他被神性化,他也使人神性化。

亞爾斯本堂神父聖維雅納說:「是司鐸在世上繼續救贖的工程;……如果我們真正明白地上的司鐸,就不怕為愛而死;……司祭職正是耶穌心裡的愛」。

 VII. The Effects of the Sacrament of Holy Orders

The indelible character

1581 This sacrament configures the recipient to Christ by a special grace of the Holy Spirit, so that he may serve as Christ's instrument for his Church. By ordination one is enabled to act as a representative of Christ, Head of the Church, in his triple office of priest, prophet, and king.

1582 As in the case of Baptism and Confirmation this share in Christ's office is granted once for all. the sacrament of Holy Orders, like the other two, confers an indelible spiritual character and cannot be repeated or conferred temporarily.74

1583 It is true that someone validly ordained can, for a just reason, be discharged from the obligations and functions linked to ordination, or can be forbidden to exercise them; but he cannot become a layman again in the strict sense,75 because the character imprinted by ordination is for ever. the vocation and mission received on the day of his ordination mark him permanently.

1584 Since it is ultimately Christ who acts and effects salvation through the ordained minister, the unworthiness of the latter does not prevent Christ from acting.76 St. Augustine states this forcefully:

As for the proud minister, he is to be ranked with the devil. Christ's gift is not thereby profaned: what flows through him keeps its purity, and what passes through him remains dear and reaches the fertile earth.... the spiritual power of the sacrament is indeed comparable to light: those to be enlightened receive it in its purity, and if it should pass through defiled beings, it is not itself defiled.77

The grace of the Holy Spirit

1585 The grace of the Holy Spirit proper to this sacrament is configuration to Christ as Priest, Teacher, and Pastor, of whom the ordained is made a minister.

1586 For the bishop, this is first of all a grace of strength (“the governing spirit": Prayer of Episcopal Consecration in the Latin rite):78 The grace to guide and defend his Church with strength and prudence as a father and pastor, with gratuitous love for all and a preferential love for the poor, the sick, and the needy. This grace impels him to proclaim the Gospel to all, to be the model for his flock, to go before it on the way of sanctification by identifying himself in the Eucharist with Christ the priest and victim, not fearing to give his life for his sheep:

Father, you know all hearts.

You have chosen your servant for the office of bishop.

May he be a shepherd to your holy flock,

and a high priest blameless in your sight,

ministering to you night and day;

may he always gain the blessing of your favor

and offer the gifts of your holy Church.

Through the Spirit who gives the grace of high priesthood grant him the power

to forgive sins as you have commanded

to assign ministries as you have decreed

and to loose from every bond by the authority which you

gave to your apostles. May he be pleasing to you by his gentleness and purity of heart,

presenting a fragrant offering to you,

through Jesus Christ, your Son....79

1587 The spiritual gift conferred by presbyteral ordination is expressed by this prayer of the Byzantine Rite. the bishop, while laying on his hand, says among other things:

Lord, fill with the gift of the Holy Spirit

him whom you have deigned to raise to the rank of the priesthood,

that he may be worthy to stand without reproach before your altar

to proclaim the Gospel of your kingdom,

to fulfill the ministry of your word of truth,

to offer you spiritual gifts and sacrifices,

to renew your people by the bath of rebirth;

so that he may go out to meet our great God and Savior Jesus Christ, your only Son,

on the day of his second coming,

and may receive from your vast goodness

the recompense for a faithful administration of his order.80

1588 With regard to deacons, "strengthened by sacramental grace they are dedicated to the People of God, in conjunction with the bishop and his body of priests, in the service (diakonia) of the liturgy, of the Gospel, and of works of charity."81

1589 Before the grandeur of the priestly grace and office, the holy doctors felt an urgent call to conversion in order to conform their whole lives to him whose sacrament had made them ministers. Thus St. Gregory of Nazianzus, as a very young priest, exclaimed:

We must begin by purifying ourselves before purifying others; we must be instructed to be able to instruct, become light to illuminate, draw close to God to bring him close to others, be sanctified to sanctify, lead by the hand and counsel prudently. I know whose ministers we are, where we find ourselves and to where we strive. I know God's greatness and man's weakness, but also his potential. [Who then is the priest? He is] the defender of truth, who stands with angels, gives glory with archangels, causes sacrifices to rise to the altar on high, shares Christ's priesthood, refashions creation, restores it in God's image, recreates it for the world on high and, even greater, is divinized and divinizes.82 
and the holy Cure of Ars: "The priest continues the work of redemption on earth.... If we really understood the priest on earth, we would die not of fright but of love.... the Priesthood is the love of the heart of Jesus."83

 撮要

 

1590. 聖保祿對其門徒弟茂德說:「我提醒你把天主藉我的覆手所賦予你的恩賜再熾熱起來」(弟後 1:6),「誰若想望監督的職分,是渴望一件善事」(弟前 3:1)。又對弟鐸說:「我留你在克里特, 是要你整頓那些尚未完成的事,並照我所吩咐你的,在各城設立長老」(鐸 1:5)。

1591. 整個教會是一個司祭子民。藉著洗禮,所有的信友分享基督的司祭職。這種分享稱為「信友的普通司祭職」。基於這普通司祭職,並為了服務這普通司祭職,而有另一種分擔基督使命的方式:就是經由聖秩聖事所授予的職務,其任務是以基督元首的名義和身分在團體中服務。

1592. 公務司祭職與信友的普通司祭職在本質上有別,因為前者是賦予一種神權以服務信友。聖職人員藉著訓導 (munus docendi)、禮儀 (munus liturgicum) 和牧職管理 (munus regendi)為天主的子民服務。

1593. 從教會初期,晉秩職務的授予及執行分為主教、司鐸及執事三個等級。經由聖秩授予禮而賦予的職務,為有機組織的教會,是不能替代的:沒有主教,司鐸和執事,就沒有教會可言。

1594. 主教領受聖秩聖事的圓滿,這使他晉身於世界主教團中,並且在所託付給他的個別教會中,成為可見的首領。主教們作為宗徒們的繼承人和世界主教團的一分子,在伯多祿繼承人── 教宗 ── 職權的領導下,分擔宗徒的職責和整個教會的使命。

1595. 司鐸們在司祭的地位上與主教們相連,同時又在履行牧職上,從屬他們。他們奉召作主教們謹慎的合作者。他們圍繞自己的主教,組成一個司鐸團,聯同主教共同承擔個別教會的責任。他們由主教指派負責一個堂區團體或某項指定的教會工作。

1596. 執事們是聖職人員,專事教會的服務工作;他們沒有接受公務司祭職,但授秩禮賦予他們在聖言服務、禮儀服務、牧職管理以及慈善事務上重要的任務。這些任務應在主教牧權的領導下去執行。

1597. 聖秩聖事的授予是通過覆手禮及其後的隆重祝聖禱詞,呼求天主賜下聖神的恩寵,為使領聖秩者能善盡職務。授秩禮賦予一個不可磨滅的聖事神印。

1598.教會的聖秩只授予領過洗的男性,他們執行這職務的合宜性需得到確認。招請人接受聖秩是教會當局的責任和權利。

1599. 在拉丁教會中,司鐸的聖秩通常只授予那些準備甘心情願度獨身生活的候選人,同時他們須公開表明心意,為愛慕天主的國並為服務人群,而保持獨身。

1600.聖秩聖事的三個等級皆由主教授予。 
 IN BRIEF

1590 St. Paul said to his disciple Timothy: "I remind you to rekindle the gift of God that is within you through the laying on of my hands" ( 2Tim 1:6), and "If any one aspires to the office of bishop, he desires a noble task." ( 1 Tim 3:1) To Titus he said: "This is why I left you in Crete, that you amend what was defective, and appoint presbyters in every town, as I directed you" ( Titus 1:5).

1591 The whole Church is a priestly people. Through Baptism all the faithful share in the priesthood of Christ. This participation is called the "common priesthood of the faithful." Based on this common priesthood and ordered to its service, there exists another participation in the mission of Christ: the ministry conferred by the sacrament of Holy Orders, where the task is to serve in the name and in the person of Christ the Head in the midst of the community.

1592 The ministerial priesthood differs in essence from the common priesthood of the faithful because it confers a sacred power for the service of the faithful. the ordained ministers exercise their service for the People of God by teaching (munus docendi), divine worship (munus liturgicum) and pastoral governance (munus regendi).

1593 Since the beginning, the ordained ministry has been conferred and exercised in three degrees: that of bishops, that of presbyters, and that of deacons. the ministries conferred by ordination are irreplaceable for the organic structure of the Church: without the bishop, presbyters, and deacons, one cannot speak of the Church (cf St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Trall. 3,1).

1594 The bishop receives the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders, which integrates him into the episcopal college and makes him the visible head of the particular Church entrusted to him. As successors of the apostles and members of the college, the bishops share in the apostolic responsibility and mission of the whole Church under the authority of the Pope, successor of St. Peter.

1595 Priests are united with the bishops in sacerdotal dignity and at the same time depend on them in the exercise of their pastoral functions; they are called to be the bishops' prudent co-workers. They form around their bishop the presbyterium which bears responsibility with him for the particular Church. They receive from the bishop the charge of a parish community or a determinate ecclesial office.

1596 Deacons are ministers ordained for tasks of service of the Church; they do not receive the ministerial priesthood, but ordination confers on them important functions in the ministry of the word, divine worship, pastoral governance, and the service of charity, tasks which they must carry out under the pastoral authority of their bishop.

1597 The sacrament of Holy Orders is conferred by the laying on of hands followed by a solemn prayer of consecration asking God to grant the ordinand the graces of the Holy Spirit required for his ministry. Ordination imprints an indelible sacramental character.

1598 The Church confers the sacrament of Holy Orders only on baptized men (viri), whose suitability for the exercise of the ministry has been duly recognized. Church authority alone has the responsibility and right to call someone to receive the sacrament of Holy Orders.

1599 In the Latin Church the sacrament of Holy Orders for the presbyterate is normally conferred only on candidates who are ready to embrace celibacy freely and who publicly manifest their intention of staying celibate for the love of God's kingdom and the service of men.

1600 It is bishops who confer the sacrament of Holy Orders in the three degrees.

   
   
   
   
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