卷三在基督內的生活 - 道德的良心/MORAL CONSCIENCE

 天主教教理

卷三在基督內的生活理

第六條

道德的良心

 

1776. 「人在其良心的深處,發現法律的存在。這法律的來源並不是人,人卻應服從之。這法律的呼聲不斷地促使人去愛、行善並避惡,在適當時刻,它便於人內心發出迴響……這是天主在其心內銘刻的法律……良心是人最秘密的中樞、聖所。在此,人獨自與天主會晤,並聽到祂的聲音」。

一、良心的判斷

1777. 道德的良心存在於人心深處,在適當的時刻,囑咐他行善避惡。道德的良心也判斷具體的抉擇,良好的予以贊同,不好的加以譴責。道德的良心証明與至善相關真理的權威,人原受到至善的吸引並由祂領受了誡命。當聆聽道德良心的時候,明智的人便能聽到天主發言。

1778. 道德的良心是理性的一個判斷,藉此人可以對一個將要做的具體行為,正在做的行為,或已經完成的行為,認出其道德的品質。人無論講甚麼,做甚麼,必須忠實地依照他所確知為公正的和正直的去講去做。藉著良心的判斷,人領會並認出神律的規定:

約翰亨利•紐曼,《致諾福克公爵書》5:良心是我們心靈的法律,但超越我們的心靈,對我們發號施令,指示責任和職務,恐懼和希望……良心是自然界中,一如恩寵界中的那位傳訊者,透過面紗向我們發言,教導我們,帶領我們。良心是基督所有代表中的第一位代表。

1779. 有一點很重要,就是為聆聽和順從個人良心的聲音,每一個人必須小心地面對自己。這內心收歛的要求格外需要,尤其是因為我們所面對的生活屢次阻擾我們反省、省察、或自我收歛:

聖奧思定,《致巴特人論若望書信》:返回你的良心,向她發問……弟兄們,返回內心,並在你所做的一切中,注視那位作証者 ── 天主。

1780. 人位格的尊嚴包含並要求道德良心的正直。道德良心包括對道德原則的領會 (本性良心,synderesis),包括將這些原則,經過理性和善惡的實際分辨之後,運用於目前的環境,最後,包括對一些具體的行為,不論是行將開始的,或是已經完成的,作出判斷。在理性的法律內有關道德善所宣告的真理,實際上,具體地,亦為良心所作的謹慎判斷所承認。人稱那依照這判斷作選擇的人為明智的人。

1781. 良心使人對所完成的行為負起責任。如果人作惡,良心的正直判斷能夠留在他內作為善的普遍真理的見証,同時對他這一次選擇作見証。良心判斷的裁決,仍可成為希望和慈悲的保証。在指証所犯的錯誤時,提醒人祈求寬恕,繼續行善,並因著天主的恩寵不停地修練德行:

在祂面前可以安心;縱然我們的心責備我們,我們還可以安心,因為天主比我們的心大,祂原知道一切(若一 3:19-20)。

1782. 人有依照良心和自由行事的權利,為使他本人得以作出道德的抉擇。「不應強迫人違反良心行事,也不應阻止人依照良心行事,尤其在宗教事務上是如此」

二、良心的培育

1783. 良心應該受到教導,道德的判斷應該受到光照。受過良好培育的良心是正直和誠實的。它依循理性,符合造物主的智慧所願的真善而作出判斷。良心的教育是必需的,因為人類遭受負面的影響,並受到罪的誘惑,寧願隨從個人的私意,拒絕接受權威性的教導。

1784. 良心的教育是一項畢生的工作。自人生的最初幾年,它啟發兒童,使他認識並實行由道德良心承認的內心法律。明智的教育教人修養德行,預防或治療由人性的軟弱和過失所產生的恐懼、自私和自大、罪惡感和自滿的衝動。良心的教育保証自由,產生心靈的平安。

1785. 在良心的培育中,天主聖言是我們路途上的光明;我們應在信德和祈禱中聽取聖言,並付諸實行。我們還應該在主十字架的注視之下省察我們的良心。我們有聖神的恩寵作為支持,有他人的見証或勸告作為扶助,也有教會權威性的教導作為引導。

三、依照良心作抉擇

1786.在必須作倫理抉擇前,良心可按照理性和神律作出一個正確的判斷,或者剛好相反,作出一個錯誤的判斷而與之相背。
必須常常尋求正當的和美善的,並辨別神律所表達的天主的旨意。

1787. 人有時遇到一些情況,使道德的判斷不大肯定,並難以作出決定。但他 必須常常尋求正當的和美善的,並辨別神律所表達的天主的旨意。 

 
1788.為此,人藉著明智的德行,請教博學的人,並依靠聖神及其神恩的幫助,努力解釋經驗的諸多資料和時代徵兆。


1789.在任何情況下均適用的一些規則:
──總不允許為達到一個善而作惡。
──「金科玉律」:「凡你們願意人給你們做的,你們也要照樣給人做」(瑪 7:12)。

── 愛德常是經由尊重近人及其良心而實踐:「你們這樣得罪了弟兄們,傷了他們軟弱的良心,就是得罪基督」(格前 8:12)。「更好是不作甚麼能使你的弟兄跌倒的事」(羅 14:21)。

四、錯誤的判斷

1790. 人該常聽從自己良心確定的判斷。如果人明知故意違反這樣的判斷而行事,他必將定自己的罪。但是也有可能,道德的良心處於無知中,並對即將採取或已經冒犯的行動,作出錯誤的判斷。

1791. 這種無知多次能歸咎於當事人,要他負責。「當人對探求真理及美善不大注意,或因犯罪習慣而良心變得幾乎盲目時」,就會發生此種情況。在這情況下,人對自己所作的惡要負罪責。

1792. 對基督及其福音的無知、他人留下的惡表、作情慾的奴隸、對良心獨立自主的誤解和意圖、拒絕接受教會的權威和教導、缺乏皈依和愛德,都能成為對倫理行為判斷偏差的原因。

1793. 反過來說,如果無知是無法克服的,或者錯誤的判斷對道德的主體無責任可言,這人所作的惡便不能歸咎於他。但這行為畢竟是一件邪惡、欠缺、錯亂的事。因此,應該下功夫努力糾正道德良心的錯誤。

1794.良好而潔淨的良心受到真實信德的照耀。因為愛德同時發自「純潔的心、光明磊落的良心和真誠的信仰」(弟前 1:5)。
正確的良心越佔優勢,私人及團體越不致為盲目的武斷所左右,亦越能遵循倫理的客觀準則。

Article 6

MORAL CONSCIENCE

1776 "Deep within his conscience man discovers a law which he has not laid upon himself but which he must obey. Its voice, ever calling him to love and to do what is good and to avoid evil, sounds in his heart at the right moment.... For man has in his heart a law inscribed by God.... His conscience is man's most secret core and his sanctuary. There he is alone with God whose voice echoes in his depths."47


I. The Judgment of Conscience

1777 Moral conscience,48 present at the heart of the person, enjoins him at the appropriate moment to do good and to avoid evil. It also judges particular choices, approving those that are good and denouncing those that are evil.49 It bears witness to the authority of truth in reference to the supreme Good to which the human person is drawn, and it welcomes the commandments. When he listens to his conscience, the prudent man can hear God speaking.

1778 Conscience is a judgment of reason whereby the human person recognizes the moral quality of a concrete act that he is going to perform, is in the process of performing, or has already completed. In all he says and does, man is obliged to follow faithfully what he knows to be just and right. It is by the judgment of his conscience that man perceives and recognizes the prescriptions of the divine law:

Conscience is a law of the mind; yet [Christians] would not grant that it is nothing more; I mean that it was not a dictate, nor conveyed the notion of responsibility, of duty, of a threat and a promise.... [Conscience] is a messenger of him, who, both in nature and in grace, speaks to us behind a veil, and teaches and rules us by his representatives. Conscience is the aboriginal Vicar of Christ.50

1779 It is important for every person to be sufficiently present to himself in order to hear and follow the voice of his conscience. This requirement of interiority is all the more necessary as life often distracts us from any reflection, self-examination or introspection:

Return to your conscience, question it.... Turn inward, brethren, and in everything you do, see God as your witness.51

1780 The dignity of the human person implies and requires uprightness of moral conscience. Conscience includes the perception of the principles of morality (synderesis); their application in the given circumstances by practical discernment of reasons and goods; and finally judgment about concrete acts yet to be performed or already performed. the truth about the moral good, stated in the law of reason, is recognized practically and concretely by the prudent judgment of conscience. We call that man prudent who chooses in conformity with this judgment.

1781 Conscience enables one to assume responsibility for the acts performed. If man commits evil, the just judgment of conscience can remain within him as the witness to the universal truth of the good, at the same time as the evil of his particular choice. the verdict of the judgment of conscience remains a pledge of hope and mercy. In attesting to the fault committed, it calls to mind the forgiveness that must be asked, the good that must still be practiced, and the virtue that must be constantly cultivated with the grace of God:

We shall . . . reassure our hearts before him whenever our hearts condemn us; for God is greater than our hearts, and he knows everything.52

1782 Man has the right to act in conscience and in freedom so as personally to make moral decisions. "He must not be forced to act contrary to his conscience. Nor must he be prevented from acting according to his conscience, especially in religious matters."53

II. The Formation of Conscience

1783 Conscience must be informed and moral judgment enlightened. A well-formed conscience is upright and truthful. It formulates its judgments according to reason, in conformity with the true good willed by the wisdom of the Creator. the education of conscience is indispensable for human beings who are subjected to negative influences and tempted by sin to prefer their own judgment and to reject authoritative teachings.

1784 The education of the conscience is a lifelong task. From the earliest years, it awakens the child to the knowledge and practice of the interior law recognized by conscience. Prudent education teaches virtue; it prevents or cures fear, selfishness and pride, resentment arising from guilt, and feelings of complacency, born of human weakness and faults. the education of the conscience guarantees freedom and engenders peace of heart.

1785 In the formation of conscience the Word of God is the light for our path,54 we must assimilate it in faith and prayer and put it into practice. We must also examine our conscience before the Lord's Cross. We are assisted by the gifts of the Holy Spirit, aided by the witness or advice of others and guided by the authoritative teaching of the Church.55

III. To Choose in Accord With Conscience

1786 Faced with a moral choice, conscience can make either a right judgment in accordance with reason and the divine law or, on the contrary, an erroneous judgment that departs from them.

1787 Man is sometimes confronted by situations that make moral judgments less assured and decision difficult. But he must always seriously seek what is right and good and discern the will of God expressed in divine law.

1788 To this purpose, man strives to interpret the data of experience and the signs of the times assisted by the virtue of prudence, by the advice of competent people, and by the help of the Holy Spirit and his gifts.

1789 Some rules apply in every case: 
- One may never do evil so that good may result from it; 
- the Golden Rule: "Whatever you wish that men would do to you, do so to them."56 
- charity always proceeds by way of respect for one's neighbor and his conscience: "Thus sinning against your brethren and wounding their conscience . . . you sin against Christ."57 Therefore "it is right not to . . . do anything that makes your brother stumble."58

IV. Erroneous Judgment

1790 A human being must always obey the certain judgment of his conscience. If he were deliberately to act against it, he would condemn himself. Yet it can happen that moral conscience remains in ignorance and makes erroneous judgments about acts to be performed or already committed.

1791 This ignorance can often be imputed to personal responsibility. This is the case when a man "takes little trouble to find out what is true and good, or when conscience is by degrees almost blinded through the habit of committing sin."59 In such cases, the person is culpable for the evil he commits.

1792 Ignorance of Christ and his Gospel, bad example given by others, enslavement to one's passions, assertion of a mistaken notion of autonomy of conscience, rejection of the Church's authority and her teaching, lack of conversion and of charity: these can be at the source of errors of judgment in moral conduct.

1793 If - on the contrary - the ignorance is invincible, or the moral subject is not responsible for his erroneous judgment, the evil committed by the person cannot be imputed to him. It remains no less an evil, a privation, a disorder. One must therefore work to correct the errors of moral conscience.

1794 A good and pure conscience is enlightened by true faith, for charity proceeds at the same time "from a pure heart and a good conscience and sincere faith."60

The more a correct conscience prevails, the more do persons and groups turn aside from blind choice and try to be guided by objective standards of moral conduct.61

 

 撮要

1795.「良心是人最秘密的中樞、聖所。在此,人獨自與天主會晤,而聽到天主的聲音」。
質。
1797.為行了惡事的人,他良心的裁判仍可成為皈依和希望的保証。
1798.受過良好培育的良心是正直和真實的。它依循理性,符合造物主的智慧所願的真善而作出判斷。人人都應設法培育自己的良心。
1799.在必須作倫理的抉擇前,良心可按照理性和神律作出一個正確的判斷,或者剛好相反作出一個錯誤的判斷而與之背離。
1800.人常該聽從自己良心確定的判斷。
1801.道德的良心能處於無知中,或者作出錯誤的判斷。這種無知和錯誤並不時常免除人的罪責。
1802.天主聖言是我們路途上的一盞明燈。我們該在信德和祈禱中聽取聖言,同時要付諸實行。這樣才可培育自己的良心。
第七條

德行

 

1803. 「凡是真實的,凡是高尚的,凡是正義的,凡是純潔的,凡是可愛的,凡是榮譽的,不管是美德,不管是稱譽:這一切你們都該思念」 (斐 4:8)。

德行是一種習慣性的堅決行善的傾向。德行使人不但完成善行,更付出自己最好的一分。有德行的人,以他感性的和精神的全部力量奔向善;他在具體的行為中追求善並選擇善。

聖額我略•尼撒,《論真福講篇》:修德生活的目的是為肖似天主。

一、人性的德行

1804. 人性的德行乃屬理智和意志的堅決的態度、穩定的傾向、習慣性的完美。德行依照理性和信德,規範我們的行為,管理我們的情慾,引導我們的舉止。德行使我們容易地、自制地、愉快地度一個美好的道德生活。有德行的人就是自由地實踐善的人。
倫理的德行是以人力取得的。倫理的德行是道德良好行為的果實和種子;倫理的德行支配人的所有能力,為與天主的愛共融。

四樞德的分辨

1805. 有四個德行扮演著樞紐的角色。因此被稱為「樞德」;其他一切德行環繞著這四個樞德而組合在一起。四樞德就是智德、義德、勇德和節德。「你愛慕正義嗎?應知道:德行是智慧工作的效果,因為她教訓人節制、明智、公義和勇敢」(智 8:7)。這四個樞德,在別的名稱之下,在聖經許多章節中,備受讚揚。

1806. 智德是支配理性之實踐的德行,使它在任何環境中辨別甚麼是我們的真善,並簡選適當的方法使之實現。「明智的人,步步謹慎」 (箴 14:15)。「你們應該慎重,應該醒寤祈禱」 (伯前 4:7)。聖多瑪斯隨從亞里斯多德寫道:智德是「行為的正直規則」。智德不和膽小或害怕,口是心非或虛偽相混。智德被稱為諸德的舵手:智德導引別的德行,為之指出規則和標準。智德直接引導良心的判斷。明智的人依照所作的判斷決定和處理他的言行舉止。因著智德,我們在個別的場合裡,無誤地運用倫理的原則,並在辨別當行的善和當避的惡時,克服遲疑不決。

1807. 義德是倫理的德行,在於依循恆久和堅定的意願,給予天主和近人所應得到的。對天主,義德又稱為「虔敬的德行」(virtue of religion)。對人,義德使人尊重每一個人的權利,奠定在人際關係中的和諧,因而促進人類之間的平等和公益。有義德的人經常在聖經中被提及,他們思念正直習以為常,對待近人公正不偏。「不可袒護窮人,也不可重視有權勢的人,只依正義審判你的同胞」(肋 19:15)。 「作主人的,要以正義公平對待奴僕,因為該知道,你們在天上也有一位主子」(哥 4:1)。

1808. 勇德是倫理的德行,它確保人在困境中有毅力,在追求善時有恆心。勇德堅定人的主意,在倫理生活中力拒誘惑,克服困難。勇德使人能夠克勝恐懼,視死如歸,冒險犯難,甘受迫害。勇德能夠使人為了維護正義的事,甘願放棄一切,甚至犧牲自己的生命。「上主是我的勇力與歌詠」(詠 118:14)。「在世界上你們要受苦難;然而你們放心,我已戰勝了世界」(若 16:33)。

1809. 節德是倫理的德行,它調節感性樂趣的吸引,並使人在運用世物時,保持平衡。節德確保意志對本能的自主能力,使人的慾望維持在合乎正理的範圍之內。有節德的人調節情慾以善作為取向,並保持著一種健全的審慎態度,「不要順從你的偏情和你的能力,去滿足你心中的慾望」 (德 5:2)。在舊約中,節德常受到讚揚:「不要順從你的慾情,要抑制你的慾望」(德 18:30)。在新約中,節德稱為「節制」或「有限度」。我們應當「有節地、公正地、虔敬地在今世生活」(鐸 2:12)。

聖奧思定,《論至公教會的習俗》:人若欲善生,自當全心、全靈、全力去愛至善的天主。人 (藉著節德)為主保持完整的愛,(藉著勇德)不為任何不幸所動搖,只服從唯一的主 (這就是義德),清醒辨別一切事物,以免受詭詐及謊言的侵害 (就是智德)。

德行與恩寵

1810. 人的德行是通過教育、自主的行為和努力不懈的恆心而逐漸修成的,因天主的恩寵而得到淨化和提昇。在天主的助佑之下,德行鍛鍊性格、使人易於行善。有德行的人視實踐德行為一樂事。

1811. 為罪惡所傷害的人,保持道德的平衡,不是一件易事。基督的救恩賜給我們為恆心追求德行必要的恩寵。每一個人應時常祈求這光明和勇毅的恩寵,領受聖事,並與聖神合作,隨從祂的召喚,熱愛美善,戒避邪惡。

二、超性的德行

1812. 人的德行植根於超性的德行。超性的德行使人的官能,能適於分享天主的性體。實際上超性的德行直接歸向天主。超性的德行促使基督徒活出與天主聖三的關係。這些德行以三位一體的天主為根源、動機和對象。

1813. 超性的德行奠定、激發基督徒的倫理行為,並顯示其特點。超性的德行激發所有倫理德行並使之定型而活躍起來。超性的德行是由天主注入信友靈魂的,為使他們能以天主子女的身分行事,並掙得永遠的生命。超性的德行是聖神在人的官能上臨在並行動的保証。超性的德行有三個:信德、望德和愛德。

信德

1814. 信德是超性的德行,藉著信德我們信天主,信祂所說過的和啟示給我們的一切,並且信聖教會為我們提出的當信的道理,因為天主自己就是真理。因著信德,「人自由地把自己整個託付給天主」。因此,信者尋求認識和實踐天主的聖意。「義人因信德而生活」(羅 1:17)。生活的信德「以愛德行事」(迦 5:6)。

1815. 誰不犯違反信德之罪,信德的恩寵就常存留在他內。但是「信德沒有行為也是死的」 (雅 2:26):缺少了望德和愛德,信德並不使信者與基督完全結合,也不使他成為基督身體上生活的肢體。

1816. 基督的門徒不該只是保持信德,活出信德,還該宣認信德,滿懷著信心為信德作証,並傳揚信德:「所有的人都要準備好在人前承認基督,並在教會屢屢遭遇的迫害之中,追隨基督走十字架苦路」。為信德服務,為信德作見証,是獲救的條件。「凡在人前承認我的,我在我天上的父前也必承認他;但誰若在人前否認我,我在我天上的父前也必否認他」 (瑪 10:32-33)。

望德

1817. 望德是超性的德行,藉著望德我們期盼天國和永生,視之為我們的幸福;我們所信靠的是基督的許諾,所依賴的不是我們自己的力量,而是聖神恩寵的助佑。「應該堅持所明認的望德,毫不動搖,因為應許的那位是忠信的」(希 10:23)。「這聖神是天主藉我們的救主耶穌基督,豐富地傾注在我們身上的,好使我們因祂的恩寵成義,本著希望成為永生的繼承人」(鐸 3:6-7)。

1818. 望德是回應人對幸福的嚮往,這嚮往是天主放置在人心內的;望德接受那激發人行動的各種希望,並予以淨化,使之導向天國;望德保護人不致陷於敗興;望德在無依無靠中給予支持;望德使期待永福的人心花怒放。望德的熱情奔放預防自私,導向愛德的幸福。

1819. 基督徒的望德重振並滿全選民的希望。這希望始於亞巴郎,並以亞巴郎的希望為典型,亞巴郎在依撒格身上蒙受天主很多的許諾,並因祭獻獨子的試探得到淨化。「他在絕望中仍懷著希望而相信了,因此便成了萬民之父」(羅 4:18)。

1820. 基督徒的望德自耶穌傳道之初,即在宣告真福之時,就開始展開。真福 引起我們對天鄉的盼望,一如嚮往新的預許之地;真福為耶穌的門徒指出到達天鄉之路,他們須經歷各種試探。但是,因著耶穌基督的功績和苦難,天主在望德中保護我們,「望德不叫人蒙羞」(羅 5:5)。望德是「靈魂的鐵錨」,既穩妥又堅固,「深深地拋入了……作前驅的耶穌已為我們進入了的那帳幔的內部」(希 6:19-20)。望德也是一種武器,在爭取救恩的戰鬥之中保護我們:「穿上信德和愛德作甲,戴上得救的望德作盔」(得前 5:8)。即使在試探中,望德也帶給我們喜樂:「論望德,要喜樂;在困苦中,要忍耐」(羅 12:12)。望德在祈禱中得以表達並獲得滋養,尤其在主禱文(天主經)中,「我們的天父」是望德教我們想望的一切的綱要。

1821. 因此,我們可以期盼天主對那些愛衪,並承行衪旨意者所應許的天上的光榮。在任何情況下,每一個人應依賴天主的恩寵,期盼「恆心到底」和獲得天上的喜樂,作為天主對那些因基督的恩寵所完成的善功,所給予的永遠賞報。在望德中,教會祈求「所有的人都得救」(弟前 2:4)。教會渴望在天上的光榮中,與其淨配基督結合為一:

聖女大德蘭,《靈魂向天主的呼喊》:希望吧!我的靈魂啊,希望吧!你不知那日子和那時間。你要悉心注意,一切會很快地過去,雖然你的不耐把確實的認為可疑,把短促的當作長久。請想一想,你越戰鬥,越能對你的天主証實你的愛,有一天你就越能與你的「至愛」,生活在幸福中,在欣喜若狂中,永無盡期。

愛德
1822.愛德是超性的德行,藉著愛德我們為了天主自身,愛祂在萬有之上,又為愛天主的緣故,愛人如己。

1823. 耶穌把愛德作為新的誡命。耶穌愛那屬於祂的人,「愛他們到底」(若 13:1),藉此顯示祂由父所領受的愛。門徒們藉彼此相愛,效法他們由耶穌所領受的愛。因此,耶穌說:「正如父愛了我,同樣我也愛了你們;你們應存在我的愛內」(若 15:9)。又說:「這是我的命令:你們該彼此相愛,如同我愛了你們一樣」(若 15:12)。

1824. 愛德是聖神的效果及法律的滿全,愛德遵守天主和祂的基督的命令:「你們應存在我的愛內。如果你們遵守我的命令,便存在我的愛內」 (若 15:9-10)。

1825. 當我們還是「仇敵」的時候,基督為愛我們而死(羅 5:10)。主要求我們如同祂一樣去愛人,甚至愛仇人,把最疏遠的人視為近人,愛孩童和窮人,如同祂一樣。

聖保祿宗徒繪出了一張無與倫比的愛德素描:「愛是含忍的,愛是慈祥的,愛不嫉妒,不誇張,不自大,不作無禮的事,不求己益,不動怒,不圖謀惡事,不以不義為樂,卻與真理同樂;凡事包容,凡事相信,凡事盼望,凡事忍耐」(格前 13:4-7)。

1826. 聖保祿宗徒又說:「若沒有愛德,我甚麼也不算……」。所有蒙受的特恩、所作的服務、甚至所有的德行……「我若沒有愛德,為我毫無益處」(格前 13:1-4)。愛德超越所有德行。愛德在超性的德行中佔著首位:「現今存在的,有信、望、愛這三樣,但其中最大的是愛」(格前 13:13)。

1827. 所有德行的操練都由愛德激發和啟迪。愛德是「全德的聯繫」(哥 3:14);愛德是諸德的模式;愛德連接諸德,安排它們的順序;愛德是基督信徒修德的泉源和終點。愛德確保和淨化我們愛的能力。愛德提昇人的愛到達天主之愛那超性的完美境界。

1828. 實踐由愛德所激發的倫理生活,使基督徒享有天主子女的靈性自由。在天主台前,他不再像一個滿懷恐懼的奴隸,也不再像一個為賺薪酬的傭工,但像一個兒子,只為還愛「首先愛了我們」的那一位 (若一 4:19):

聖巴西略•凱撒里亞,《細談會規》:或者為了怕受懲罰,我們躲避罪惡,這是一種奴隸的心態。或者我們為酬報所引誘,這時我們形同商賈。最後,或者為了善的本身,為了愛那給我們出命者,我們服從命令……,這時我們有的是子女的心態。

1829. 愛德的果實是喜樂、平安和憐憫;愛德要求樂善好施和弟兄般的規勸;愛德是一腔善意,激發互相關懷,保持大公無私及慷慨大方;愛德是友誼和共融:

聖奧思定,《致巴特人論若望書信》:我們所有事功的完成是愛,愛是目標;為了得到愛,我們奔馳,為了嚮往愛,我們奔馳;一旦抵達,就在愛中安息。

 IN BRIEF

1795 "Conscience is man's most secret core, and his sanctuary. There he is alone with God whose voice echoes in his depths" (GS 16).

1796 Conscience is a judgment of reason by which the human person recognizes the moral quality of a concrete act.

1797 For the man who has committed evil, the verdict of his conscience remains a pledge of conversion and of hope.

1798 A well-formed conscience is upright and truthful. It formulates its judgments according to reason, in conformity with the true good willed by the wisdom of the Creator. Everyone must avail himself of the means to form his conscience.

1799 Faced with a moral choice, conscience can make either a right judgment in accordance with reason and the divine law or, on the contrary, an erroneous judgment that departs from them.

1800 A human being must always obey the certain judgment of his conscience.

1801 Conscience can remain in ignorance or make erroneous judgments. Such ignorance and errors are not always free of guilt.

1802 The Word of God is a light for our path. We must assimilate it in faith and prayer and put it into practice. This is how moral conscience is formed.

Article 7

THE VIRTUES

1803 "Whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is gracious, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things."62 
A virtue is an habitual and firm disposition to do the good. It allows the person not only to perform good acts, but to give the best of himself. the virtuous person tends toward the good with all his sensory and spiritual powers; he pursues the good and chooses it in concrete actions.

The goal of a virtuous life is to become like God.63

I. The Human Virtues

1804 Human virtues are firm attitudes, stable dispositions, habitual perfections of intellect and will that govern our actions, order our passions, and guide our conduct according to reason and faith. They make possible ease, self-mastery, and joy in leading a morally good life. the virtuous man is he who freely practices the good. 
The moral virtues are acquired by human effort. They are the fruit and seed of morally good acts; they dispose all the powers of the human being for communion with divine love.

The cardinal virtues

1805 Four virtues play a pivotal role and accordingly are called "cardinal"; all the others are grouped around them. They are: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. "If anyone loves righteousness, [Wisdom's] labors are virtues; for she teaches temperance and prudence, justice, and courage."64 These virtues are praised under other names in many passages of Scripture.

1806 Prudence is the virtue that disposes practical reason to discern our true good in every circumstance and to choose the right means of achieving it; "the prudent man looks where he is going."65 "Keep sane and sober for your prayers."66 Prudence is "right reason in action," writes St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle.67 It is not to be confused with timidity or fear, nor with duplicity or dissimulation. It is called auriga virtutum (the charioteer of the virtues); it guides the other virtues by setting rule and measure. It is prudence that immediately guides the judgment of conscience. the prudent man determines and directs his conduct in accordance with this judgment. With the help of this virtue we apply moral principles to particular cases without error and overcome doubts about the good to achieve and the evil to avoid.

1807 Justice is the moral virtue that consists in the constant and firm will to give their due to God and neighbor. Justice toward God is called the "virtue of religion." Justice toward men disposes one to respect the rights of each and to establish in human relationships the harmony that promotes equity with regard to persons and to the common good. the just man, often mentioned in the Sacred Scriptures, is distinguished by habitual right thinking and the uprightness of his conduct toward his neighbor. "You shall not be partial to the poor or defer to the great, but in righteousness shall you judge your neighbor."68 "Masters, treat your slaves justly and fairly, knowing that you also have a Master in heaven."69

1808 Fortitude is the moral virtue that ensures firmness in difficulties and constancy in the pursuit of the good. It strengthens the resolve to resist temptations and to overcome obstacles in the moral life. the virtue of fortitude enables one to conquer fear, even fear of death, and to face trials and persecutions. It disposes one even to renounce and sacrifice his life in defense of a just cause. "The Lord is my strength and my song."70 "In the world you have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world."71

1809 Temperance is the moral virtue that moderates the attraction of pleasures and provides balance in the use of created goods. It ensures the will's mastery over instincts and keeps desires within the limits of what is honorable. the temperate person directs the sensitive appetites toward what is good and maintains a healthy discretion: "Do not follow your inclination and strength, walking according to the desires of your heart."72 Temperance is often praised in the Old Testament: "Do not follow your base desires, but restrain your appetites."73 In the New Testament it is called "moderation" or "sobriety." We ought "to live sober, upright, and godly lives in this world."74

To live well is nothing other than to love God with all one's heart, with all one's soul and with all one's efforts; from this it comes about that love is kept whole and uncorrupted (through temperance). No misfortune can disturb it (and this is fortitude). It obeys only (God) (and this is justice), and is careful in discerning things, so as not to be surprised by deceit or trickery (and this is prudence).75

The virtues and grace

1810 Human virtues acquired by education, by deliberate acts and by a perseverance ever-renewed in repeated efforts are purified and elevated by divine grace. With God's help, they forge character and give facility in the practice of the good. the virtuous man is happy to practice them.

1811 It is not easy for man, wounded by sin, to maintain moral balance. Christ's gift of salvation offers us the grace necessary to persevere in the pursuit of the virtues. Everyone should always ask for this grace of light and strength, frequent the sacraments, cooperate with the Holy Spirit, and follow his calls to love what is good and shun evil.

II. The Theological Virtues

1812 The human virtues are rooted in the theological virtues, which adapt man's faculties for participation in the divine nature:76 for the theological virtues relate directly to God. They dispose Christians to live in a relationship with the Holy Trinity. They have the One and Triune God for their origin, motive, and object.

1813 The theological virtues are the foundation of Christian moral activity; they animate it and give it its special character. They inform and give life to all the moral virtues. They are infused by God into the souls of the faithful to make them capable of acting as his children and of meriting eternal life. They are the pledge of the presence and action of the Holy Spirit in the faculties of the human being. There are three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity.77

Faith

1814 Faith is the theological virtue by which we believe in God and believe all that he has said and revealed to us, and that Holy Church proposes for our belief, because he is truth itself. By faith "man freely commits his entire self to God."78 For this reason the believer seeks to know and do God's will. "The righteous shall live by faith." Living faith "work(s) through charity."79

1815 The gift of faith remains in one who has not sinned against it.80 But "faith apart from works is dead":81 when it is deprived of hope and love, faith does not fully unite the believer to Christ and does not make him a living member of his Body.

1816 The disciple of Christ must not only keep the faith and live on it, but also profess it, confidently bear witness to it, and spread it: "All however must be prepared to confess Christ before men and to follow him along the way of the Cross, amidst the persecutions which the Church never lacks."82 Service of and witness to the faith are necessary for salvation: "So every one who acknowledges me before men, I also will acknowledge before my Father who is in heaven; but whoever denies me before men, I also will deny before my Father who is in heaven."83

Hope

1817 Hope is the theological virtue by which we desire the kingdom of heaven and eternal life as our happiness, placing our trust in Christ's promises and relying not on our own strength, but on the help of the grace of the Holy Spirit. "Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who promised is faithful."84 "The Holy Spirit . . . he poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior, so that we might be justified by his grace and become heirs in hope of eternal life."85

1818 The virtue of hope responds to the aspiration to happiness which God has placed in the heart of every man; it takes up the hopes that inspire men's activities and purifies them so as to order them to the Kingdom of heaven; it keeps man from discouragement; it sustains him during times of abandonment; it opens up his heart in expectation of eternal beatitude. Buoyed up by hope, he is preserved from selfishness and led to the happiness that flows from charity.

1819 Christian hope takes up and fulfills the hope of the chosen people which has its origin and model in the hope of Abraham, who was blessed abundantly by the promises of God fulfilled in Isaac, and who was purified by the test of the sacrifice.86 "Hoping against hope, he believed, and thus became the father of many nations."87

1820 Christian hope unfolds from the beginning of Jesus' preaching in the proclamation of the beatitudes. the beatitudes raise our hope toward heaven as the new Promised Land; they trace the path that leads through the trials that await the disciples of Jesus. But through the merits of Jesus Christ and of his Passion, God keeps us in the "hope that does not disappoint."88 Hope is the "sure and steadfast anchor of the soul . . . that enters . . . where Jesus has gone as a forerunner on our behalf."89 Hope is also a weapon that protects us in the struggle of salvation: "Let us . . . put on the breastplate of faith and charity, and for a helmet the hope of salvation."90 It affords us joy even under trial: "Rejoice in your hope, be patient in tribulation."91 Hope is expressed and nourished in prayer, especially in the Our Father, the summary of everything that hope leads us to desire.

1821 We can therefore hope in the glory of heaven promised by God to those who love him and do his will.92 In every circumstance, each one of us should hope, with the grace of God, to persevere "to the end"93 and to obtain the joy of heaven, as God's eternal reward for the good works accomplished with the grace of Christ. In hope, the Church prays for "all men to be saved."94 She longs to be united with Christ, her Bridegroom, in the glory of heaven:

Hope, O my soul, hope. You know neither the day nor the hour. Watch carefully, for everything passes quickly, even though your impatience makes doubtful what is certain, and turns a very short time into a long one. Dream that the more you struggle, the more you prove the love that you bear your God, and the more you will rejoice one day with your Beloved, in a happiness and rapture that can never end.95

Charity

1822 Charity is the theological virtue by which we love God above all things for his own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God.

1823 Jesus makes charity the new commandment.96 By loving his own "to the end,"97 he makes manifest the Father's love which he receives. By loving one another, the disciples imitate the love of Jesus which they themselves receive. Whence Jesus says: "As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you; abide in my love." and again: "This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you."98

1824 Fruit of the Spirit and fullness of the Law, charity keeps the commandments of God and his Christ: "Abide in my love. If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love."99

1825 Christ died out of love for us, while we were still "enemies."100 The Lord asks us to love as he does, even our enemies, to make ourselves the neighbor of those farthest away, and to love children and the poor as Christ himself.101

The Apostle Paul has given an incomparable depiction of charity: "charity is patient and kind, charity is not jealous or boastful; it is not arrogant or rude. Charity does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; it does not rejoice at wrong, but rejoices in the right. Charity bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things."102

1826 "If I . . . have not charity," says the Apostle, "I am nothing." Whatever my privilege, service, or even virtue, "if I . . . have not charity, I gain nothing."103 Charity is superior to all the virtues. It is the first of the theological virtues: "So faith, hope, charity abide, these three. But the greatest of these is charity."104

1827 The practice of all the virtues is animated and inspired by charity, which "binds everything together in perfect harmony";105 it is the form of the virtues; it articulates and orders them among themselves; it is the source and the goal of their Christian practice. Charity upholds and purifies our human ability to love, and raises it to the supernatural perfection of divine love.

1828 The practice of the moral life animated by charity gives to the Christian the spiritual freedom of the children of God. He no longer stands before God as a slave, in servile fear, or as a mercenary looking for wages, but as a son responding to the love of him who "first loved us":106

If we turn away from evil out of fear of punishment, we are in the position of slaves. If we pursue the enticement of wages, . . . we resemble mercenaries. Finally if we obey for the sake of the good itself and out of love for him who commands . . . we are in the position of children.107

1829 The fruits of charity are joy, peace, and mercy; charity demands beneficence and fraternal correction; it is benevolence; it fosters reciprocity and remains disinterested and generous; it is friendship and communion: 
Love is itself the fulfillment of all our works. There is the goal; that is why we run: we run toward it, and once we reach it, in it we shall find rest.108

 

三、、聖神的恩賜與果實

1830.基督徒的倫理生活是由聖神的恩賜所支持。聖神的恩賜是持久的傾向,使人溫順良善,隨從聖神的推動。

1831. 聖神的七恩是:上智、聰敏、超見、剛毅、明達、孝愛和敬畏天主。七恩的圓滿乃歸屬於基督、達味之子。七恩使領受的人德行完備,並達致完美的境界。七恩使信徒溫順良善,爽快地隨從天主的啟發。

願祢的善神時常引導我,走上平坦的樂土 (詠 143:10)。
凡受天主聖神引導的,都是天主的子女……。我們既是子女,便是繼承者,是天主的繼承者,是基督的同繼承者 (羅 8:14,17)。

1832. 聖神的果實是聖神在我們身上形成的美德,作為永遠光榮的初果。教會傳統列出十二個:「仁愛、喜樂、平安、忍耐、容忍、良善、厚道、溫和、忠信、端莊、節制、貞潔」(迦 5:22-23拉丁通行本)。

撮要
1833.德行是一個習慣性的堅決行善傾向。

1834. 人性的德行乃屬理智和意志上的穩定傾向,這些德行依照理性和信德,規範我們的行為,調適我們的情慾,指導我們的操行。人性的德行可環繞四個樞德予以組合,就是智德、義德、勇德和節德。

1835.智德支配理性的實踐,在任何環境中辨別甚麼是我們的真善,並揀選適當的方法使之實現。
1836.義德在於依循恆久和堅定的意願,給予天主和近人所應該得到的。
1837.勇德確保人在困境中的毅力,在追求善時有恒心。
1838.節德調節感性快樂的吸引,並使人在運用世物時能保持平衡。
1839.倫理的德行是通過教育、自主的行為和努力不懈的恆心,逐漸成長。天主的恩寵淨化和提昇它們。
1840.超性之德促使基督徒活出與天主聖三的關係。這些德行以天主為根源、動機和對象,在信德中認識天主,我們因祂本身期盼祂、愛慕祂。
1841.超性之德有三個:信德、望德和愛德。它們使各種倫理德行定型,並使之活躍起來。
1842.藉著信德我們信天主,並信祂啟示給我們的一切,信聖教會為我們提出的當信的道理。
1843.藉著望德我們以堅定的信心渴求和期盼天主賜予我們永生,和那承受永生的恩寵。
1844.藉著愛德我們愛慕天主在萬有之上,又為天主的緣故愛人如己。愛德是「全德的聯繫」(哥 3:14)和諸德的模式。
1845.聖神賜予基督徒的七恩是:上智、聰敏、超見、剛毅、明達、孝愛和敬畏天主。

 III. The Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Spirit

1830 The moral life of Christians is sustained by the gifts of the Holy Spirit. These are permanent dispositions which make man docile in following the promptings of the Holy Spirit.

1831 The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord. They belong in their fullness to Christ, Son of David.109 They complete and perfect the virtues of those who receive them. They make the faithful docile in readily obeying divine inspirations.

Let your good spirit lead me on a level path.110

For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God . . . If children, then heirs, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ.111

1832 The fruits of the Spirit are perfections that the Holy Spirit forms in us as the first fruits of eternal glory. the tradition of the Church lists twelve of them: "charity, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, generosity, gentleness, faithfulness, modesty, self-control, chastity."112

IN BRIEF

1833 Virtue is a habitual and firm disposition to do good.

1834 The human virtues are stable dispositions of the intellect and the will that govern our acts, order our passions, and guide our conduct in accordance with reason and faith. They can be grouped around the four cardinal virtues: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance.

1835 Prudence disposes the practical reason to discern, in every circumstance, our true good and to choose the right means for achieving it.

1836 Justice consists in the firm and constant will to give God and neighbor their due.

1837 Fortitude ensures firmness in difficulties and constancy in the pursuit of the good.

1838 Temperance moderates the attraction of the pleasures of the senses and provides balance in the use of created goods.

1839 The moral virtues grow through education, deliberate acts, and perseverance in struggle. Divine grace purifies and elevates them.

1840 The theological virtues dispose Christians to live in a relationship with the Holy Trinity. They have God for their origin, their motive, and their object - God known by faith, God hoped in and loved for his own sake.

1841 There are three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity. They inform all the moral virtues and give life to them.

1842 By faith, we believe in God and believe all that he has revealed to us and that Holy Church proposes for our belief.

1843 By hope we desire, and with steadfast trust await from God, eternal life and the graces to merit it.

1844 By charity, we love God above all things and our neighbor as ourselves for love of God. Charity, the form of all the virtues, "binds everything together in perfect harmony" ( Col 3:14).

1845 The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit bestowed upon Christians are wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord.

 

 第八條

罪過
一、慈悲與罪過

 

1846. 福音是在耶穌基督內,天主對罪人慈悲的啟示。天使向若瑟宣告說:「你要給祂起名叫耶穌,因為祂要把自己的民族,由他們的罪惡中拯救出來」(瑪 1:21)。感恩祭、救贖的聖事,也是這樣:「這是我的血,新約的血,為大眾傾流,以赦免罪過」(瑪 26:28)。

1847. 「天主創造我們,不需要我們,但祂為救贖我們,不願沒有我們」。若要獲得天主的仁慈,我們必須承認我們的過錯。「如果我們說:『我們沒有罪過』,就是欺騙自己,真理也不在我們內。但若我們明認我們的罪過,天主既是忠信正義的,必赦免我們的罪過,並洗淨我們的種種不義」(若一 1:8-9)。

1848. 如聖保祿所肯定的:「罪惡在哪裡越多,恩寵在那裡也越格外豐富」。但是為進行它的工作,恩寵必須指証罪惡,以便改變我們的心靈,並給我們「正義,使人藉著我們的主耶穌基督獲得永生」(羅 5:20-21)。天主就如良醫,在治療傷口之前,必先深入探測,就是藉著祂的聖言和聖神,對罪惡投射強烈的神光:

皈依要求對罪的認清對罪的認清,包括良心內在的判斷,這是真理之神在人心靈深處行動的証明,同時也成為獲得新賜予的恩寵和愛的開始:「你們領受聖神罷」。因此,從「關於罪過的認清」來看,我們發現雙重恩典雙重恩典:良心的真理之恩,及救贖的確定之恩。真理之神就是護慰者。

二、罪過的定義

 

1849. 罪過是一個違反理性、真理、正直良心的過錯;罪過是因了對某些事物反常的依戀,而欠缺了對天主和近人的真愛。罪過傷害人的本性並傷害人的連帶責任。罪過定義為「違反永恆法律的一句話,一個行動,或一個願望」。

1850. 罪過是一個冒犯天主的行為:「我得罪了祢,唯獨得罪了祢,因為我作了祢視為惡的事」(詠 51:6)。罪過是起來違反天主對我們的愛,並使我們的心背向天主。如同第一個罪,罪過是違命,反抗天主,願意成為「如同天主一樣」,要認識和決定善和惡(創 3:5)。如此,罪過是「自私自愛,竟致輕衊天主」。 因這自傲自大的高舉自己,罪過與救主耶穌的順命完成救恩,背道而馳。

1851. 正是在苦難中,基督的仁慈克勝罪惡,也在苦難中,罪惡十分清楚地顯示了它的兇猛及其多面的邪惡:首長和民眾的無信、殺人的仇恨、排斥、嘲笑,比拉多的怯懦,兵士們的殘暴,猶達斯對耶穌如此無情的背叛,伯多祿的否認以及門徒們的遺棄。然而,就在這黑暗和今世首領的時辰,基督的奉獻隱秘地成了寬恕我們罪過的源源不絕的泉源。


 Article 8

SIN

I. Mercy and Sin

1846 The Gospel is the revelation in Jesus Christ of God's mercy to sinners.113 The angel announced to Joseph: "You shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins."114 The same is true of the Eucharist, the sacrament of redemption: "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins."115

1847 "God created us without us: but he did not will to save us without us."116 To receive his mercy, we must admit our faults. "If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just, and will forgive our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness."117

1848 As St. Paul affirms, "Where sin increased, grace abounded all the more."118 But to do its work grace must uncover sin so as to convert our hearts and bestow on us "righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ ourLord."119 Like a physician who probes the wound before treating it, God, by his Word and by his Spirit, casts a living light on sin:

Conversion requires convincing of sin; it includes the interior judgment of conscience, and this, being a proof of the action of the Spirit of truth in man's inmost being, becomes at the same time the start of a new grant of grace and love: "Receive the Holy Spirit." Thus in this "convincing concerning sin" we discover a double gift: the gift of the truth of conscience and the gift of the certainty of redemption. the Spirit of truth is the Consoler.120

II. The Definition of Sin

1849 Sin is an offense against reason, truth, and right conscience; it is failure in genuine love for God and neighbor caused by a perverse attachment to certain goods. It wounds the nature of man and injures human solidarity. It has been defined as "an utterance, a deed, or a desire contrary to the eternal law."121

1850 Sin is an offense against God: "Against you, you alone, have I sinned, and done that which is evil in your sight."122 Sin sets itself against God's love for us and turns our hearts away from it. Like the first sin, it is disobedience, a revolt against God through the will to become "like gods,"123 knowing and determining good and evil. Sin is thus "love of oneself even to contempt of God."124 In this proud self-exaltation, sin is diametrically opposed to the obedience of Jesus, which achieves our salvation.125

1851 It is precisely in the Passion, when the mercy of Christ is about to vanquish it, that sin most clearly manifests its violence and its many forms: unbelief, murderous hatred, shunning and mockery by the leaders and the people, Pilate's cowardice and the cruelty of the soldiers, Judas' betrayal - so bitter to Jesus, Peter's denial and the disciples' flight. However, at the very hour of darkness, the hour of the prince of this world,126 The sacrifice of Christ secretly becomes the source from which the forgiveness of our sins will pour forth inexhaustibly.

 

 

三、罪過的不同種類

1852. 罪過有許多種類。聖經列出了一些罪過的清單。致迦拉達人書把肉體的作為和聖神的效果互相對立:「本性私慾的作為是顯而易見的:即淫亂、不潔、放蕩、崇拜偶像、施行邪法、仇恨、競爭、嫉妒、忿怒、爭吵、不睦、分黨、妒恨、醉酒、宴樂,以及與這些相類似的事。我以前勸戒過你們,如今再說一次:做這種事的人,決不能承受天主的國」 (迦 5:19-21)。

1853. 罪過的分類可按其對象,一如人的任何行為,可按其相反的德行,不論過分或不及,也可按其所違反的誡命而分類。罪過也可按對天主,對近人,對自身的關係來加以區分;可分為屬靈和肉慾的罪過,還可分為思想、言語、行動或缺失的罪過。依照主的教導,罪惡的根源發自人的內心,發自人的自由意志:「因為由心裡發出來的是惡念、凶殺、姦淫、邪淫、盜竊、妄証、毀謗。這些都使人污穢」(瑪 15:19-20)。在心內也有愛德存在,這是美善和純潔事工的本原,但為罪惡所擊傷。

 
 III. The Different Kinds of Sins

1852 There are a great many kinds of sins. Scripture provides several lists of them. the Letter to the Galatians contrasts the works of the flesh with the fruit of the Spirit: "Now the works of the flesh are plain: fornication, impurity, licentiousness, idolatry, sorcery, enmity, strife, jealousy, anger, selfishness, dissension, factions, envy, drunkenness, carousing, and the like. I warn you, as I warned you before, that those who do such things shall not inherit the Kingdom of God."127

 

 

1853 Sins can be distinguished according to their objects, as can every human act; or according to the virtues they oppose, by excess or defect; or according to the commandments they violate. They can also be classed according to whether they concern God, neighbor, or oneself; they can be divided into spiritual and carnal sins, or again as sins in thought, word, deed, or omission. the root of sin is in the heart of man, in his free will, according to the teaching of the Lord: "For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, fornication, theft, false witness, slander. These are what defile a man."128 But in the heart also resides charity, the source of the good and pure works, which sin wounds.

 

 

四、罪過的嚴重性:大罪和小罪

1854.按嚴重性來審斷罪過是適宜的。把罪過分為大罪和小罪,這在聖經中早已有跡可尋,也成為教會的傳統。人們的經驗也証實如此。

1855.大罪是嚴重地違反天主的法律,摧毀在我們心內的愛德;大罪是人把低 小罪雖然觸犯和傷害愛德,但仍讓愛德留在我們之內。


1856.由於大罪攻擊在我們內生命的基礎,那就是愛德,因此需要一個來自天主仁慈的新主動和一個心靈的皈依,這通常於修好聖事內完成:

聖多瑪斯,《神學大全》:當意志導向一件事物,若這事物在本質上違反人生終向的愛德,這時,就其對象而言,即構成了大罪……,不論是反對愛天主,如褻瀆、發虛誓等等,或者是反對愛近人,如殺人、姦淫等等……。反過來說,有時罪人的意志趨向的一事一物,其本身是一種錯亂,但並不反對愛天主和愛近人,如無益的廢話、多餘的嘻笑等等,這一類的罪,便是小罪。

1857.一個罪罪成為大罪,必須同時具備三個條件:「大罪是指其對象是嚴重的事情,又是明知而故犯的罪」。

1858. 嚴重的事情,依照耶穌答覆富少年的話,是經由十誡所確定:「不可殺人,不可姦淫,不可偷盜,不可做假見証,不可欺詐,應孝敬你的父母」(谷 10:19)。罪過的嚴重性有輕重的分別:殺人比偷盜更為嚴重。受害人的身分也在考慮之列:向父母施暴,就事情本身來說,比對外人施暴更加嚴重。

1859. 大罪必須是知道清楚,又是完全同意的。這假定事先知道該行為是有罪的,是違反天主法律的。這也包括同意經過足夠的考慮,可以稱得上是個人的抉擇。偽裝的無知和冷酷無情的心地不但不減輕,反而增加罪過明知故犯的程度。

1860. 非故意的無非故意的無知能減輕,甚至免除嚴重過錯的歸咎性。但是人人應該知道銘刻在每一個人良心中的道德律原則。感性的衝動和情慾,一如外來的壓力和病理學的困擾,同樣能夠減輕故意和自由的程度。惡意的罪過,存心選擇邪惡的罪過,是最嚴重的。

1861. 大罪,一如愛本身,是人自由的根本抉擇。大罪導致愛德的失落和聖化恩寵的喪失,就是恩寵狀態的喪失。人若不藉著悔改和天主的寬恕蒙受救贖,他將招致被擯棄在基督的神國之外,和地獄的永死,因為我們的自由有能力作出永久而無可挽回的抉擇。然而,就一個行為本身而言,我們固然能夠斷定是一個嚴重的過錯,但是對人的判斷,我們應該信賴天主的公義和仁慈。

1862.犯小罪是人在輕微的事情上,不遵守道德律的規定,或在嚴重的事情上,違反道德的規律,但不是清楚知道,或不是完全故意的。

1863.小罪使愛德衰弱;流露出對受造物錯亂的愛慕;阻礙靈魂修德行善的進步;招致暫罰。故意的小罪,若不懺悔,將使我們漸漸傾向於犯大罪。不過,小罪並不使我們違反天主的旨意和友誼;也不中斷與天主的盟約。依人性來說,小罪是可寵,也不剝奪愛德,因而也不剝奪永遠的真福」。

聖奧思定,《致巴特人論若望書信》:沒有一個人帶著自己的肉身,在此世度生,能連輕微的罪都沒有犯過;這裡所謂的輕微的罪,你卻不可視為微不足道,因為分別衡量,微不足道,合計起來,心驚肉跳。積沙成塔;滴水成河;粒米成丘。這樣,我們還有甚麼希望呢?首先,就是懺悔……。

1864.「為此,我告訴你們,一切罪過和褻瀆,人都好得赦;但是褻瀆聖神的罪,必不得赦免」(瑪 12:31)。天主的仁慈固然無限無量,但誰若故意拒絕天主的仁慈,不願悔改,就是不接受罪過的寬恕和聖神所提供的救援)。這樣的固執頑強能夠導致死不悔改,永遠喪亡。

 IV. The Gravity of Sin: Mortal and Venial Sin

1854 Sins are rightly evaluated according to their gravity. the distinction between mortal and venial sin, already evident in Scripture,129 became part of the tradition of the Church. It is corroborated by human experience.

1855 Mortal sin destroys charity in the heart of man by a grave violation of God's law; it turns man away from God, who is his ultimate end and his beatitude, by preferring an inferior good to him. 
Venial sin allows charity to subsist, even though it offends and wounds it.

1856 Mortal sin, by attacking the vital principle within us - that is, charity - necessitates a new initiative of God's mercy and a conversion of heart which is normally accomplished within the setting of the sacrament of reconciliation:

When the will sets itself upon something that is of its nature incompatible with the charity that orients man toward his ultimate end, then the sin is mortal by its very object . . . whether it contradicts the love of God, such as blasphemy or perjury, or the love of neighbor, such as homicide or adultery.... But when the sinner's will is set upon something that of its nature involves a disorder, but is not opposed to the love of God and neighbor, such as thoughtless chatter or immoderate laughter and the like, such sins are venial.130

1857 For a sin to be mortal, three conditions must together be met: "Mortal sin is sin whose object is grave matter and which is also committed with full knowledge and deliberate consent."131

1858 Grave matter is specified by the Ten Commandments, corresponding to the answer of Jesus to the rich young man: "Do not kill, Do not commit adultery, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Do not defraud, Honor your father and your mother."132 The gravity of sins is more or less great: murder is graver than theft. One must also take into account who is wronged: violence against parents is in itself graver than violence against a stranger.

1859 Mortal sin requires full knowledge and complete consent. It presupposes knowledge of the sinful character of the act, of its opposition to God's law. It also implies a consent sufficiently deliberate to be a personal choice. Feigned ignorance and hardness of heart133 do not diminish, but rather increase, the voluntary character of a sin.

1860 Unintentional ignorance can diminish or even remove the imputability of a grave offense. But no one is deemed to be ignorant of the principles of the moral law, which are written in the conscience of every man. the promptings of feelings and passions can also diminish the voluntary and free character of the offense, as can external pressures or pathological disorders. Sin committed through malice, by deliberate choice of evil, is the gravest.

1861 Mortal sin is a radical possibility of human freedom, as is love itself. It results in the loss of charity and the privation of sanctifying grace, that is, of the state of grace. If it is not redeemed by repentance and God's forgiveness, it causes exclusion from Christ's kingdom and the eternal death of hell, for our freedom has the power to make choices for ever, with no turning back. However, although we can judge that an act is in itself a grave offense, we must entrust judgment of persons to the justice and mercy of God.

1862 One commits venial sin when, in a less serious matter, he does not observe the standard prescribed by the moral law, or when he disobeys the moral law in a grave matter, but without full knowledge or without complete consent.

1863 Venial sin weakens charity; it manifests a disordered affection for created goods; it impedes the soul's progress in the exercise of the virtues and the practice of the moral good; it merits temporal punishment. Deliberate and unrepented venial sin disposes us little by little to commit mortal sin. However venial sin does not set us in direct opposition to the will and friendship of God; it does not break the covenant with God. With God's grace it is humanly reparable. "Venial sin does not deprive the sinner of sanctifying grace, friendship with God, charity, and consequently eternal happiness."134

While he is in the flesh, man cannot help but have at least some light sins. But do not despise these sins which we call "light": if you take them for light when you weigh them, tremble when you count them. A number of light objects makes a great mass; a number of drops fills a river; a number of grains makes a heap. What then is our hope? Above all, confession.135

1864 "Whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin."136 There are no limits to the mercy of God, but anyone who deliberately refuses to accept his mercy by repenting, rejects the forgiveness of his sins and the salvation offered by the Holy Spirit.137 Such hardness of heart can lead to final impenitence and eternal loss.

 
 

五、罪過的擴散

1865. 罪造成犯罪的傾向。若重複同樣行為,就滋生惡習。結果造成邪惡的傾向,蒙蔽良心,腐蝕具體鑑別善與惡的能力。因此罪過有繁殖和加強的傾向,但是不能根除道德的意識。

1866. 各種惡習能夠針對其所違反的德行來排列,或各自歸屬於為首的罪宗,這就是基督徒歷來隨從聖若望‧加祥和聖大額我略劃分的罪宗。稱之為宗,因為是其他罪過和其他惡習的製造者。罪宗就是驕傲、慳吝、嫉妒、忿怒、迷色、貪饕、懶惰。

1867. 教理傳統也提及存在著「向天喊冤的罪過」。向天喊冤即:亞伯爾的血;索多瑪的罪;以色列子民因埃及人壓迫而發出的哀號;外僑、寡婦和孤兒的呼號;對僱員的不義。

1868.罪過是個人的行為。再者,在別人犯的罪過中,如果我們給予合作,我們也要負責,如:
──直接地、故意地參與犯罪的行動;
──下命令、出主意、給予讚揚或認可;
──當人犯罪時,雖有義務而不揭發,或不阻止;
──袒護作惡者。

1869. 於是罪過使人們互為同謀,促使私慾、暴力和不義在他們中間為王。罪過引起反對天主美善的社會處境和制度。「罪惡的結構」是許多個人的罪過的表現和結果。罪惡的結構反過來又引誘受害者自己去作惡。就類比的意義說,它構成「社會的罪惡」。

 

V. The Proliferation of Sin

1865 Sin creates a proclivity to sin; it engenders vice by repetition of the same acts. This results in perverse inclinations which cloud conscience and corrupt the concrete judgment of good and evil. Thus sin tends to reproduce itself and reinforce itself, but it cannot destroy the moral sense at its root.

1866 Vices can be classified according to the virtues they oppose, or also be linked to the capital sins which Christian experience has distinguished, following St. John Cassian and St. Gregory the Great. They are called "capital" because they engender other sins, other vices.138 They are pride, avarice, envy, wrath, lust, gluttony, and sloth or acedia.

1867 The catechetical tradition also recalls that there are "sins that cry to heaven": the blood of Abel,139 The sin of the Sodomites,140 The cry of the people oppressed in Egypt,141 The cry of the foreigner, the widow, and the orphan,142 injustice to the wage earner.143

1868 Sin is a personal act. Moreover, we have a responsibility for the sins committed by others when we cooperate in them: 
- by participating directly and voluntarily in them; 
- by ordering, advising, praising, or approving them; 
- by not disclosing or not hindering them when we have an obligation to do so; 
- by protecting evil-doers.

1869 Thus sin makes men accomplices of one another and causes concupiscence, violence, and injustice to reign among them. Sins give rise to social situations and institutions that are contrary to the divine goodness. "Structures of sin" are the expression and effect of personal sins. They lead their victims to do evil in their turn. In an analogous sense, they constitute a "social sin."144

 

撮要

1870.「天主把眾人都禁錮在背叛之中,是為要憐憫眾人」(羅 11:32)。

1871. 罪過是「違反永恆法律的一句話,一個行動或一個願望」它是一個得罪天主的行為,亦即人在一個逆命的行為上,起來反抗天主,與基督的服從背道而馳。

1872.罪過是一個與理性相反的行為,它傷害人性和傷害人的連帶責任。


1873.一切罪過的根源發自內心。罪過的類別和嚴重程度,主要是取決於罪過的對象。

1874. 犯大罪就是刻意地,亦即明知和故意地,選擇一件嚴重地違反天主法律和人終向的事情。它摧毀在我們之內的愛德,缺乏這愛德就不可能承受永生。為此,若不對此悔改,就導致永死。

1875.小罪是指一種道德的錯亂,但可藉愛德來補救,因為小罪仍讓愛德留在我們之內。


1876.若重複地犯罪,即使是小罪,就滋生惡習,其中首推七罪宗。

 IN BRIEF

1870 "God has consigned all men to disobedience, that he may have mercy upon all" ( Rom 11:32).

1871 Sin is an utterance, a deed, or a desire contrary to the eternal law (St. Augustine, Faust 22: PL 42, 418). It is an offense against God. It rises up against God in a disobedience contrary to the obedience of Christ.

1872 Sin is an act contrary to reason. It wounds man's nature and injures human solidarity.

1873 The root of all sins lies in man's heart. the kinds and the gravity of sins are determined principally by their objects.

1874 To choose deliberately - that is, both knowing it and willing it - something gravely contrary to the divine law and to the ultimate end of man is to commit a mortal sin. This destroys in us the charity without which eternal beatitude is impossible. Unrepented, it brings eternal death.

1875 Venial sin constitutes a moral disorder that is reparable by charity, which it allows to subsist in us.

1876 The repetition of sins - even venial ones - engenders vices, among which are the capital sins.

   
   
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