卷三在基督內的生活-法律和恩寵/GOD'S SALVATION: LAW AND GRACE

卷三在基督內的生活

第一部分 人的召叫:在聖神內的生活
第三章 天主的救恩:法律和恩寵

1949.人被召享真福,但為罪所傷,需要天主的救恩。人在基督內藉著法律的領導,並在恩寵的支持下,才能得到天主的援助:
你們要懷著恐懼戰慄,努力成就你們得救的事,因為是天主在你們內工作,使你們願意,並使你們力行,為成就祂的善意 (斐 2:12-13)。
第一條

道德律

 

1950. 道德律是天主智慧的工程。按照聖經的意思,可定義為天主慈父的訓示,神性教育法。道德律規定人生的路途,行為的規範,為達到所許諾的真福;道德律禁止背離天主和祂聖愛的作惡行徑。道德律的誡命堅定嚴格,而其許諾卻和藹可親。

1951. 法律是行為的一套準則,由合格的權威,為了公益所頒布的。道德律的先決條件是受造物之間已有的理性秩序,而這秩序是由大能、智慧、美善的造物主,為了受造物的利益,並為了達到他們受造的終向而制定的。所有法律在永恆律中找到其原始的和最終的真理。由理性公佈和制定的法律,是分沾生活的天主、造物主和眾人救主的眷顧。「這源自理性的規則,就是人所稱的法律」:

戴都良,《駁斥馬西翁》:在一切有靈的生物中,唯有人能夠當得起從天主接受法律而感到光榮:身為賦有理性的動物,能夠理解和分辨,因此,人能夠藉著運用他的自 由和理性規範他的行動,而服從那把一切交付給他的天主。

1952. 道德律的表達有多種,彼此之間互相配合:永恆律,在天主內一切法律的泉源;自然律,啟示的法律,包括舊約的法律和新約的法律或福音的法律以及民法和教會法。

1953. 道德律在基督內達到圓滿並獲致統一。耶穌基督本人就是臻於至善的道路。祂是法律的終向,因為唯有祂教導且賜給人天主的正義:「因為法律的終向是基督,使凡信祂的人獲得正義」(羅 10:4)。

一、自然道德律

1954. 造物主賜給人作自己行為的主人,並為了真理和美善有管理自己的能力,人於是分享造物主的智慧和美善。自然道德律表達原始的道德意義,允許人以理性分辨,何者為善,何者為惡,何者為真理,何者為謊言:

良十三世, Libertas praestantissimum通諭:自然道德律是寫在、刻在全體及每一個人的心靈上,因為它就是人的理性,命令人行善,禁止人犯罪……。但這由人的理性發出的命令,如果不是有一個更高理性的呼聲和解釋者,便不能有法律的力量,對此更高的理性,我們的心神、我們的自由是應該俯首服從的。

1955. 「天主的法律和自然道德律」給人指點,為行善和達到他的終向,應循的途徑。自然道德律說明管理倫理生活的首要的和基本的命令。自然道德律以對天主的渴望及服從為核心,祂是一切美善的本原和裁判者,並使人意識到他人是與自己平等的。自然道德律,就其主要的命令,已在十誡中作了陳述。這道德律稱為自然的,並非因為該法律肇自無靈之物的本性,而是因為頒布該法律的理性,乃屬於人固有的本性:

聖奧思定,《論聖三》:這些規範寫在何處,難道不是在那本稱之為真理之光的書本裡?就在那裡,寫下了全部正義的法律,就從那裡,此法律進入實踐正義者的心裡,並非移植過去,而是在那裡留下印記,正如蓋章一般,圖紋從戒指刻在蠟上,但不脫離戒指。

聖多瑪斯,《論十誡》:自然律不是別的,乃是天主放在我們內的理性之光;藉著這光,我們認出何者應當奉行,何者應當躲避。這光或這法律,是天主在創造時賦予的。

1956. 自然道德律存在每一個人的心中,並由理性所奠定;就其命令來說,是普遍的,就其權威來說,及於所有的人。自然道德律表達人的尊嚴和確定人基本權利和義務的基礎:
境,作適當的反省,以便配合複雜的生活條件。然而,在不同的文化中,自然道德律始終是連繫人與人之間的規則,而且超越不可避免的差異,給人們指出共同的原則。

西塞羅,《共和國》:確實有真正的法律存在,就是正直的理性;它符合本性,遍及眾人;它不可變更、永遠存在;它的命令要求盡職;它的禁令避免過錯。……若代之以相反的法律,便是一種褻瀆;這法律的規定,即使僅是其中的一條,也不允許忽略;至於要想把它全部廢止,誰也不能做到。

1958. 自然道德律是不可變更的,雖然經歷世代的變遷仍保持原貌;它是思潮和風氣激流中的中流砥柱,並作它們進步的支持。表達自然道德律的規律,在實質上也時常有效。即使有人連它的原則都加以否認,但不能把它摧毀,也不能自人心中把它剷除。在個人生活及社會生活中,它時常突然重新出現:

聖奧思定,《懺悔錄》:上主,偷竊肯定受到祢的法律,以及那寫在人心上的法律的懲罰,而且罪惡本身也擦不掉它(法律)。

1959. 自然道德律是造物主極其美好的工程,它給人提供堅實的基礎,以便在其上建築道德規律的大廈,為指導他作抉擇。自然道德律也安置了為建立人的團體不可或缺的道德根基。最後,自然道德律給民法提供不可缺少的基礎;民法或通過反省,從自然律的原則中抽取結論,或經過人為和法律性質的增添而與自然律連結起來。

1960. 自然道德律的命令,並非人人同樣地清楚和直接地知道。在現在的處境中,恩寵和啟示對有罪的人是必要的,為使宗教和道德的真理能夠「沒有困難地、不帶錯誤地、為眾人所確知」。自然道德律給啟示的法律和恩寵,提供一個天主所準備並由聖神的工程所配合的基礎。

二、舊約的法律

1961. 天主,我們的造物主和我們的救主,為自己擇選了以色列作為祂的民族,並給這民族啟示了祂的法律,藉此準備基督的來臨。梅瑟的法律表達許多理性可自然達到的真理。這些真理在救恩的盟約裡,曾予以宣布,並受到驗証。

1962. 舊約的法律是啟示法律的第一步。它的道德規範已濃縮在十誡中。十誡的誡命建立了人蒙召的基礎,而人是依照天主的肖象而受造旳;誡命禁止所有違反愛天主、愛近人的事,並命令為愛天主、愛近人所必要的事。十誡是一道光,光照眾人的良心,為給人顯示天主的召叫和道路,並為保護人對抗邪惡:

1963.天主在十誡石板上寫下了人在自己的心中沒有讀到的。

依照基督徒的傳統,舊約的法律雖是聖的、屬靈的、美好的,但是仍不圓滿。它好似一個啟蒙師,指點應該做甚麼,但它自身不賦予力量,也不賦予使人滿全法律的聖神的恩寵。由於它不能除掉罪過,所以仍是奴隸的法律。依照聖保祿的說法,它的主要功用是在揭發和顯 示罪惡,而罪惡是在人心中形成「肉性的法律」。不過,舊約的法律,在走向天國的路途上,是第一階段。它準備和安排選民和每一個基督徒,使他們在天主救主內皈依及接受信仰。舊約的法律由於是天主的話,提供一個常存的教導。

1964. 舊約的法律是為福音鋪路。「舊約法律是未來事件的預言和教誨」。它預言和預示解除罪惡的工程,這工程將由基督完成,它給新約提供形象、「預象」、象徵,為表達隨從聖神的生活。最後,舊約的法律藉著智慧書和先知書的教導,成為更完整的,並導向新約和天國。

聖依勒內•里昂,《駁斥異端》:在舊約體制下,有些人……,懷有聖神的愛德和恩寵,首先嚮往屬靈和永遠的許諾,因此而歸屬於新約的法律。反過來說,在新約之下,也有一些隨從肉性的人,與新約法律的完善尚有一段距離:雖已歸屬於新約的權下,但為了激勵他們從事修德的功夫,害怕受責罰和若干現世的許諾有其必要。無論如何,即使舊約的法律也要求愛德,但它未賜給使「天主的愛傾注在我們心中」的聖神 (羅 5:5)。

三、新約的法律或福音的法律

1965. 新約的法律或福音的法律是天主的法律、自然道德律、啟示的法律在今世的成全。它是基督的工程,它特別表達在山中聖訓裡。它也是聖神的工程,藉著聖神,它成了內在的愛德律:「我必要與以色列家訂立新約……。我要將我的法律放在他們的明悟中,寫在他們的心頭上;我要做他們的天主,他們要做我的人民」(希 8:8-10)。

1966. 新約的法律是聖神賜給信者的恩寵,藉著對基督的信德而領受的。它通過愛德而實施,借用主的聖訓教導我們應做甚麼,並藉聖事賦給我們實踐的恩寵:

聖奧思定,《論山中聖訓》:誰若虔敬而深入地默想我們的主在山上宣講的,也就是在瑪竇福音中我們讀到的聖訓,無疑地,必將找到基督徒生活的大憲章。…… 山中聖訓囊括了所有指導基督徒生活的適當規律。

1967. 福音的法律使舊約法律得以「完成」,淨化、超越並達致完美。在真福裡,它履行了天主的許諾,就是將許諾提升,步步導向「天國」。它是向那些妥作準備,願以信德接受此新希望的人說的,即:貧窮的、謙卑的、哀慟的、心裡潔淨的、為了基督而受迫害的人,如此規劃出通往天國的神奇道路。

1968. 福音的法律完成了舊約的誡命。主的山中聖訓,不但不廢止或貶抑舊 約法律的道德規範,更釋放深藏著的潛力,提出嶄新的要求;聖訓為 舊約法律啟發了天主的和人性的真理。它不外加新的規範,卻直接改 造行為的根,就是改革人心,是在那裡,人選擇潔與不潔,也是在那 裡,形成信、望、愛三德,並偕同此三德,修練其他的美德。這樣, 福音通過效法天父的完美,藉著寬恕仇人,為迫害者祈禱,並像天主 那樣寬宏大量,把舊約的法律導向圓滿。

 1969. 新約的法律實踐宗教的行為;使施捨、祈禱、禁食等行為指向那「在 暗中看見的天父」,而不是渴望「為叫人們看見」。新約法律的祈禱 是「我們的天父」。  

1970. 福音的法律包括「兩條道路」之間決定性的抉擇和實踐主的話;福音的法律濃縮於此金科玉律:「凡你們願意人給你們做的,你們也要照樣給人做:法律和先知即在於此」(瑪 7:12)全部福音的法律包括在耶穌的「新命令」裡(若 13:34),就是我們該彼此相愛,如同祂愛了我們。

1971. 傳自宗徒教導的道德教理宜於與主的聖訓相連接,如羅馬書十二至十五章;格林多前書十二至十三章;哥羅森書三至四章;厄弗所書四至五章,和其他章節。這道理以宗徒的權威傳授主的教導,特別在講解由對基督的信德所衍生的諸德時,這些德行由聖神的主要恩賜──愛德所激發。「你們的愛不可是虛偽的。……論兄弟之愛,要彼此相親相愛。……論望德,要喜樂;在困苦中,要忍耐;在祈禱上,要恆心;對聖者的急需,要分擔;對客人,要款待」(羅 12:9-13)。這教理也教導我們,根據我們與基督和教會的關係,處理良心的個案。

1972. 新約的法律稱為愛的法律,因為它更是由聖神所灌注的愛推動人行事,而非由怕懼之情;新約的法律又叫做恩寵的法律,因為它通過信德和聖事的途徑,賦給實踐的力量;新約的法律也叫自由的法律,因為它把我們自舊約禮儀和法律的規則中,解救出來,使我們在愛德的推動下自發地行事;最後,它使我們能越過僕人的地位──「不知道他主人所作的事」,成為基督的朋友──「因為凡由我父聽來的一切,我都顯示給你們了」(若 15:15),甚至達到享有繼承權的兒子的地位。

1973. 誡命以外,新約的法律也包括福音勸諭。天主的誡命和福音的勸諭,兩者之間的傳統區分,就在於愛德,基督徒生活的完美:誡命旨在教人避免凡與愛德不能相容的一切,而勸諭更教人躲避,那些本身雖不違反愛德,卻能阻止愛德成長的一切。

1974. 福音勸諭顯示出愛德是活力充沛的,不作更多的付出,總不滿意。福音勸諭發揮其強大的衝力,激勵我們屬靈的敏捷。基本上新約法律的完美,在於愛天主和愛近人的誡命。勸諭則指出更直接的途徑,更方便的方法,要各人隨其召叫去實踐:

聖方濟•沙雷,《論天主的愛》:(天主)並不願意每一個人遵守所有的勸諭,但只遵守那些因符合不同的個人、時間、機會、能力以及愛德所要求的那些勸諭。因為愛德是一切德行、誡命、勸諭,總括一句,一切法律和基督徒行為的皇后,給它們各自的位置、秩序、時間和價值。

 

CHAPTER THREE

GOD'S SALVATION: LAW AND GRACE

1949 Called to beatitude but wounded by sin, man stands in need of salvation from God. Divine help comes to him in Christ through the law that guides him and the grace that sustains him:

Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for God is at work in you, both to will and to work for his good pleasure.1

Article 1

THE MORAL LAW

1950 The moral law is the work of divine Wisdom. Its biblical meaning can be defined as fatherly instruction, God's pedagogy. It prescribes for man the ways, the rules of conduct that lead to the promised beatitude; it proscribes the ways of evil which turn him away from God and his love. It is at once firm in its precepts and, in its promises, worthy of love.

1951 Law is a rule of conduct enacted by competent authority for the sake of the common good. the moral law presupposes the rational order, established among creatures for their good and to serve their final end, by the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Creator. All law finds its first and ultimate truth in the eternal law. Law is declared and established by reason as a participation in the providence of the living God, Creator and Redeemer of all. "Such an ordinance of reason is what one calls law."2

Alone among all animate beings, man can boast of having been counted worthy to receive a law from God: as an animal endowed with reason, capable of understanding and discernment, he is to govern his conduct by using his freedom and reason, in obedience to the One who has entrusted everything to him.3

1952 There are different expressions of the moral law, all of them interrelated: eternal law - the source, in God, of all law; natural law; revealed law, comprising the Old Law and the New Law, or Law of the Gospel; finally, civil and ecclesiastical laws.

1953 The moral law finds its fullness and its unity in Christ. Jesus Christ is in person the way of perfection. He is the end of the law, for only he teaches and bestows the justice of God: "For Christ is the end of the law, that every one who has faith may be justified."4

I. The Natural Moral Law

1954 Man participates in the wisdom and goodness of the Creator who gives him mastery over his acts and the ability to govern himself with a view to the true and the good.

The natural law expresses the original moral sense which enables man to discern by reason the good and the evil, the truth and the lie:

The natural law is written and engraved in the soul of each and every man, because it is human reason ordaining him to do good and forbidding him to sin . . . But this command of human reason would not have the force of law if it were not the voice and interpreter of a higher reason to which our spirit and our freedom must be submitted.5

1955 The "divine and natural" law6 shows man the way to follow so as to practice the good and attain his end. the natural law states the first and essential precepts which govern the moral life. It hinges upon the desire for God and submission to him, who is the source and judge of all that is good, as well as upon the sense that the other is one's equal. Its principal precepts are expressed in the Decalogue. This law is called "natural," not in reference to the nature of irrational beings, but because reason which decrees it properly belongs to human nature:

Where then are these rules written, if not in the book of that light we call the truth? In it is written every just law; from it the law passes into the heart of the man who does justice, not that it migrates into it, but that it places its imprint on it, like a seal on a ring that passes onto wax, without leaving the ring.7

The natural law is nothing other than the light of understanding placed in us by God; through it we know what we must do and what we must avoid. God has given this light or law at the creation.8

1956 The natural law, present in the heart of each man and established by reason, is universal in its precepts and its authority extends to all men. It expresses the dignity of the person and determines the basis for his fundamental rights and duties:

For there is a true law: right reason. It is in conformity with nature, is diffused among all men, and is immutable and eternal; its orders summon to duty; its prohibitions turn away from offense .... To replace it with a contrary law is a sacrilege; failure to apply even one of its provisions is forbidden; no one can abrogate it entirely.9

1957 Application of the natural law varies greatly; it can demand reflection that takes account of various conditions of life according to places, times, and circumstances. Nevertheless, in the diversity of cultures, the natural law remains as a rule that binds men among themselves and imposes on them, beyond the inevitable differences, common principles.

1958 The natural law is immutable and permanent throughout the variations of history;10 it subsists under the flux of ideas and customs and supports their progress. the rules that express it remain substantially valid. Even when it is rejected in its very principles, it cannot be destroyed or removed from the heart of man. It always rises again in the life of individuals and societies:

Theft is surely punished by your law, O Lord, and by the law that is written in the human heart, the law that iniquity itself does not efface.11

1959 The natural law, the Creator's very good work, provides the solid foundation on which man can build the structure of moral rules to guide his choices. It also provides the indispensable moral foundation for building the human community. Finally, it provides the necessary basis for the civil law with which it is connected, whether by a reflection that draws conclusions from its principles, or by additions of a positive and juridical nature.

1960 The precepts of natural law are not perceived by everyone clearly and immediately. In the present situation sinful man needs grace and revelation so moral and religious truths may be known "by everyone with facility, with firm certainty and with no admixture of error."12 The natural law provides revealed law and grace with a foundation prepared by God and in accordance with the work of the Spirit.

II. The Old Law

1961 God, our Creator and Redeemer, chose Israel for himself to be his people and revealed his Law to them, thus preparing for the coming of Christ. the Law of Moses expresses many truths naturally accessible to reason. These are stated and authenticated within the covenant of salvation.

1962 The Old Law is the first stage of revealed Law. Its moral prescriptions are summed up in the Ten Commandments. the precepts of the Decalogue lay the foundations for the vocation of man fashioned in the image of God; they prohibit what is contrary to the love of God and neighbor and prescribe what is essential to it. the Decalogue is a light offered to the conscience of every man to make God's call and ways known to him and to protect him against evil:

God wrote on the tables of the Law what men did not read in their hearts.13

1963 According to Christian tradition, the Law is holy, spiritual, and good,14 yet still imperfect. Like a tutor15 it shows what must be done, but does not of itself give the strength, the grace of the Spirit, to fulfill it. Because of sin, which it cannot remove, it remains a law of bondage. According to St. Paul, its special function is to denounce and disclose sin, which constitutes a "law of concupiscence" in the human heart.16 However, the Law remains the first stage on the way to the kingdom. It prepares and disposes the chosen people and each Christian for conversion and faith in the Savior God. It provides a teaching which endures for ever, like the Word of God.

1964 The Old Law is a preparation for the Gospel. "The Law is a pedagogy and a prophecy of things to come."17 It prophesies and presages the work of liberation from sin which will be fulfilled in Christ: it provides the New Testament with images, "types," and symbols for expressing the life according to the Spirit. Finally, the Law is completed by the teaching of the sapiential books and the prophets which set its course toward the New Covenant and the Kingdom of heaven.

There were . . . under the regimen of the Old Covenant, people who possessed the charity and grace of the Holy Spirit and longed above all for the spiritual and eternal promises by which they were associated with the New Law. Conversely, there exist carnal men under the New Covenant still distanced from the perfection of the New Law: the fear of punishment and certain temporal promises have been necessary, even under the New Covenant, to incite them to virtuous works. In any case, even though the Old Law prescribed charity, it did not give the Holy Spirit, through whom "God's charity has been poured into our hearts."18

III. The New Law or the Law of the Gospel

1965 The New Law or the Law of the Gospel is the perfection here on earth of the divine law, natural and revealed. It is the work of Christ and is expressed particularly in the Sermon on the Mount. It is also the work of the Holy Spirit and through him it becomes the interior law of charity: "I will establish a New Covenant with the house of Israel. . . . I will put my laws into their hands, and write them on their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people."19

1966 The New Law is the grace of the Holy Spirit given to the faithful through faith in Christ. It works through charity; it uses the Sermon on the Mount to teach us what must be done and makes use of the sacraments to give us the grace to do it:

If anyone should meditate with devotion and perspicacity on the sermon our Lord gave on the mount, as we read in the Gospel of Saint Matthew, he will doubtless find there . . . the perfect way of the Christian life.... This sermon contains ... all the precepts needed to shape one's life.20

1967 The Law of the Gospel "fulfills," refines, surpasses, and leads the Old Law to its perfection.21 In the Beatitudes, the New Law fulfills the divine promises by elevating and orienting them toward the "kingdom of heaven." It is addressed to those open to accepting this new hope with faith - the poor, the humble, the afflicted, the pure of heart, those persecuted on account of Christ and so marks out the surprising ways of the Kingdom.

1968 The Law of the Gospel fulfills the commandments of the Law. the Lord's Sermon on the Mount, far from abolishing or devaluing the moral prescriptions of the Old Law, releases their hidden potential and has new demands arise from them: it reveals their entire divine and human truth. It does not add new external precepts, but proceeds to reform the heart, the root of human acts, where man chooses between the pure and the impure,22 where faith, hope, and charity are formed and with them the other virtues. the Gospel thus brings the Law to its fullness through imitation of the perfection of the heavenly Father, through forgiveness of enemies and prayer for persecutors, in emulation of the divine generosity.23

1969 The New Law practices the acts of religion: almsgiving, prayer and fasting, directing them to the "Father who sees in secret," in contrast with the desire to "be seen by men."24 Its prayer is the Our Father.25

1970 The Law of the Gospel requires us to make the decisive choice between "the two ways" and to put into practice the words of the Lord.26 It is summed up in the Golden Rule, "Whatever you wish that men would do to you, do so to them; this is the law and the prophets."27 
The entire Law of the Gospel is contained in the "new commandment" of Jesus, to love one another as he has loved us.28

1971 To the Lord's Sermon on the Mount it is fitting to add the moral catechesis of the apostolic teachings, such as Romans 12-15, 1 Corinthians 12-13, Colossians 3-4, Ephesians 4-5, etc. This doctrine hands on the Lord's teaching with the authority of the apostles, particularly in the presentation of the virtues that flow from faith in Christ and are animated by charity, the principal gift of the Holy Spirit. "Let charity be genuine.... Love one another with brotherly affection.... Rejoice in your hope, be patient in tribulation, be constant in prayer. Contribute to the needs of the saints, practice hospitality."29 This catechesis also teaches us to deal with cases of conscience in the light of our relationship to Christ and to the Church.30

1972 The New Law is called a law of love because it makes us act out of the love infused by the Holy Spirit, rather than from fear; a law of grace, because it confers the strength of grace to act, by means of faith and the sacraments; a law of freedom, because it sets us free from the ritual and juridical observances of the Old Law, inclines us to act spontaneously by the prompting of charity and, finally, lets us pass from the condition of a servant who "does not know what his master is doing" to that of a friend of Christ - "For all that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you" - or even to the status of son and heir.31

1973 Besides its precepts, the New Law also includes the evangelical counsels. the traditional distinction between God's commandments and the evangelical counsels is drawn in relation to charity, the perfection of Christian life. the precepts are intended to remove whatever is incompatible with charity. the aim of the counsels is to remove whatever might hinder the development of charity, even if it is not contrary to it.32

1974 The evangelical counsels manifest the living fullness of charity, which is never satisfied with not giving more. They attest its vitality and call forth our spiritual readiness. the perfection of the New Law consists essentially in the precepts of love of God and neighbor. the counsels point out the more direct ways, the readier means, and are to be practiced in keeping with the vocation of each:

(God) does not want each person to keep all the counsels, but only those appropriate to the diversity of persons, times, opportunities, and strengths, as charity requires; for it is charity, as queen of all virtues, all commandments, all counsels, and, in short, of all laws and all Christian actions that gives to all of them their rank, order, time, and value.33

 

撮要
1975.按照聖經,法律是天主慈父的訓示,它指引人生活的道路,為達到許諾的真福並阻止作惡的行徑。
1976.「法律是為了公益,基於理性而訂定的規則,由一個團體的負責人予以公布」。
1977.基督是法律的終向,只有祂教誨並賜予天主的正義。

1978. 自然道德律,是人分沾天主的智慧和善良,因為人是按他的造物主天主的肖象而塑造的。自然道德律表達人的尊嚴,並構成人的基本權利和義務的基礎。

1979. 自然道德律是不變的,歷經世代仍保持原貌。表達自然道德律的規則,在實質上也時常有效。為建立道德規則及民法,自然道德律是不可缺少的基礎。

1980.舊約的法律是啟示的法律的第一步,它的道德規範已濃縮在十誡中。
1981.梅瑟的法律包括的許多真理,可通過理性自然地得知。天主曾啟示這些真理,是因為人在自己心裡不去讀它們。
1982.舊約的法律是為福音作準備。
1983.新約的法律是聖神的恩寵,藉著對基督的信德而領受,通過愛德而行動。它在主的山中聖訓裡特別表達出來,並藉聖事將恩寵賦予我們。

1984. 福音的法律使舊約的法律得以完成、超越並達至完美:舊約的許諾是藉著天國的真福得以完成,舊約的誡命是藉著改變人心——行為的根源而達至完美。

1985.新約的法律是愛的法律、恩寵的法律、自由的法律。

1986.誡命以外,新約的法律也包括福音勸諭:「教會的聖德特別由許多的勸諭所培養,這就是主在福音內建議祂的門徒遵守的勸諭」。 
 IN BRIEF

1975 According to Scripture the Law is a fatherly instruction by God which prescribes for man the ways that lead to the promised beatitude, and proscribes the ways of evil.

1976 "Law is an ordinance of reason for the common good, promulgated by the one who is in charge of the community" (St. Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 90, 4).

1977 Christ is the end of the law (cf  Rom 10:4); only he teaches and bestows the justice of God.

1978 The natural law is a participation in God's wisdom and goodness by man formed in the image of his Creator. It expresses the dignity of the human person and forms the basis of his fundamental rights and duties.

1979 The natural law is immutable, permanent throughout history. the rules that express it remain substantially valid. It is a necessary foundation for the erection of moral rules and civil law.

1980 The Old Law is the first stage of revealed law. Its moral prescriptions are summed up in the Ten Commandments.

1981 The Law of Moses contains many truths naturally accessible to reason. God has revealed them because men did not read them in their hearts.

1982 The Old Law is a preparation for the Gospel.

1983 The New Law is the grace of the Holy Spirit received by faith in Christ, operating through charity. It finds expression above all in the Lord's Sermon on the Mount and uses the sacraments to communicate grace to us.

1984 The Law of the Gospel fulfills and surpasses the Old Law and brings it to perfection: its promises, through the Beatitudes of the Kingdom of heaven; its commandments, by reforming the heart, the root of human acts.

1985 The New Law is a law of love, a law of grace, a law of freedom.

1986 Besides its precepts the New Law includes the evangelical counsels. "The Church's holiness is fostered in a special way by the manifold counsels which the Lord proposes to his disciples in the Gospel" (LG 42 # 2).

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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