卷三在基督內的生活-恩寵與成義/GRACE AND JUSTIFICATION

天主教教理

卷三在基督內的生活

第一部分 人的召叫:在聖神內的生活

第三章

第二條恩寵與成義
一、成義

1987. 聖神的恩寵具有使我們成義的力量,就是洗淨我們的罪過,並傳送給我們「天主的正義,這正義是因信仰耶穌基督」,並藉著聖洗聖事而賜給的(羅 3:22):

如果我們與基督同死,我們相信也要與祂同生,因為我們知道:基督既從死者中復活,就不再死;死亡不再統治祂了,因為祂死,是死於罪惡,僅僅一次;祂活,是活於天主。你們也要這樣看自己是死於罪惡,在基督耶穌內活於天主的人(羅 6:8-11)。

1988. 由於聖神的德能, 我們藉著死於罪惡而參與基督的苦難,藉著獲得新生而分享祂的復活;我們是祂身體──教會──的肢體,移接在葡萄樹上,就是祂自身上的枝條:

聖亞大納修,《致賽拉標書》:因著聖神,我們有分於天主。因著有分於聖神,我們成了天主本性的分享者。因此,誰身內住有聖神,誰就分享天主的生命。

1989. 聖神恩寵的第一個效果便是皈依,而皈依使人成義,一如耶穌在傳播福音之初所宣布的:「你們悔改罷!因為天國臨近了」(瑪 4:17)。在恩寵的推動下,人轉向天主,遠離罪惡,於是領受來自上天的寬恕和義德。「因此,成義包括罪過的赦免,以及人內心的聖化與革新」。

1990. 成義使人與罪分離,因為罪是相反天主的愛。成義又淨化人的心靈。天主的仁慈主動施予寬恕,成義緊隨其後。成義使人與天主和好,從罪惡的奴役中解救人並治癒人。

1991.成義同時是藉著信耶穌基督而領受天主的正義。這裡,正義一詞乃指使我們服從天主的聖意。

1992. 成義是基督藉著苦難為我們賺得的。祂在十字架上自獻為生活的、神聖的、中悅天主的祭品,而祂的血,亦為眾人的罪過,成了贖罪的工具。成義是透過聖洗、信德的聖事,賜給我們的。成義使我們符合天主的正義,天主以祂仁慈的大能,使我們內在地成為義人。成義的目的是為了天主及基督的光榮,以及承受永生的恩賜:

但是如今,天主的正義,在法律之外已顯示出來;法律和先知也為此作証;就是天主的正義,因對耶穌基督的信德,毫無區別地,賜給了所有信仰的人,因為所有的人都犯了罪,都失掉了天主的光榮,所以眾人都因天主無條件施給的恩寵,在耶穌基督內蒙救贖,成為義人。這耶穌即是天主公開立定,使祂以自己的血,為信仰祂的人作贖罪祭的;如此,天主顯示了自己的正義,因為以前祂因寬容放過了人的罪,為的是在罪祭的;如此,天主顯示了自己的正義,因為以前祂因寬容放過了人的罪,為的是在 26)。

1993. 成義建立起天主的恩寵與人的自由兩者之間的合作。成義從人方面表達在對召請人皈依的天主聖言予以信德的同意,也表達在對聖神的推動予以愛德的合作,聖神先於人的同意並予以維持:

當天主藉聖神的光照,觸動人心的時候,人自己也不是完全一無所為,因為在他接納這啟發時,他也能予以抗拒;然而,若無天主的恩寵,他也不能以他的自由意志,在天主台前,歸向義德。

1994. 成義是天主仁愛最卓越的工程,天主的仁愛顯示於耶穌基督內,是經聖神所賜予的。聖奧思定認為「惡人的成義比創造天地的工程更為偉大」,因為「天地將要逝去,而救恩和被選者的成義卻萬世常存」。聖奧思定甚至認為,罪人的成義超越在正義中創造天使的工程,因為前者比後者顯示了更大的仁慈。

1995.聖神是內心的導師。在使「內在的人」誕生之際 (羅 7:22;弗 3:16),成義包括整個人的聖化

你們從前怎樣將你們的肢體當作奴隸,獻於不潔和不法,行不法的事;如今也要怎樣將你們的肢體當作奴隸,獻於正義,行聖善的事。……可是現在,你們脫離了罪惡,獲得了自由,作了天主的奴隸,你們所得的效果是使你們成聖,結局就是永生(羅 6:19,22)。

 Article 2

GRACE AND JUSTIFICATION

I. Justification

1987 The grace of the Holy Spirit has the power to justify us, that is, to cleanse us from our sins and to communicate to us "the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ" and through Baptism:34

But if we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him. For we know that Christ being raised from the dead will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. the death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God. So you also must consider yourselves as dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.35

1988 Through the power of the Holy Spirit we take part in Christ's Passion by dying to sin, and in his Resurrection by being born to a new life; we are members of his Body which is the Church, branches grafted onto the vine which is himself:36

(God) gave himself to us through his Spirit. By the participation of the Spirit, we become communicants in the divine nature.... For this reason, those in whom the Spirit dwells are divinized.37

1989 The first work of the grace of the Holy Spirit is conversion, effecting justification in accordance with Jesus' proclamation at the beginning of the Gospel: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand."38 Moved by grace, man turns toward God and away from sin, thus accepting forgiveness and righteousness from on high. "Justification is not only the remission of sins, but also the sanctification and renewal of the interior man.39

1990 Justification detaches man from sin which contradicts the love of God, and purifies his heart of sin. Justification follows upon God's merciful initiative of offering forgiveness. It reconciles man with God. It frees from the enslavement to sin, and it heals.

1991 Justification is at the same time the acceptance of God's righteousness through faith in Jesus Christ. Righteousness (or "justice") here means the rectitude of divine love. With justification, faith, hope, and charity are poured into our hearts, and obedience to the divine will is granted us.

1992 Justification has been merited for us by the Passion of Christ who offered himself on the cross as a living victim, holy and pleasing to God, and whose blood has become the instrument of atonement for the sins of all men. Justification is conferred in Baptism, the sacrament of faith. It conforms us to the righteousness of God, who makes us inwardly just by the power of his mercy. Its purpose is the glory of God and of Christ, and the gift of eternal life:40

But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from law, although the law and the prophets bear witness to it, the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction: since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, they are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus, whom God put forward as an expiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God's righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins; it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies him who has faith in Jesus.41

1993 Justification establishes cooperation between God's grace and man's freedom. On man's part it is expressed by the assent of faith to the Word of God, which invites him to conversion, and in the cooperation of charity with the prompting of the Holy Spirit who precedes and preserves his assent:

When God touches man's heart through the illumination of the Holy Spirit, man himself is not inactive while receiving that inspiration, since he could reject it; and yet, without God's grace, he cannot by his own free will move himself toward justice in God's sight.42

1994 Justification is the most excellent work of God's love made manifest in Christ Jesus and granted by the Holy Spirit. It is the opinion of St. Augustine that "the justification of the wicked is a greater work than the creation of heaven and earth," because "heaven and earth will pass away but the salvation and justification of the elect . . . will not pass away."43 He holds also that the justification of sinners surpasses the creation of the angels in justice, in that it bears witness to a greater mercy.

1995 The Holy Spirit is the master of the interior life. By giving birth to the "inner man,"44 justification entails the sanctification of his whole being:

Just as you once yielded your members to impurity and to greater and greater iniquity, so now yield your members to righteousness for sanctification.... But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves of God, the return you get is sanctification and its end, eternal life.45

二、恩寵

1996.我們的成義來自天主的恩寵。恩寵是天主的恩惠,,無條件地賜予的助佑
佑佑,為了使我們回應祂的召喚:成為天主的子女、義子、有分於天主的性體和永生。
1997.恩寵是分享天主的生命,引領我們進入聖三生活的內心:藉著聖洗,聖神給他注入愛德,聖神也形成教會。

1998. 這分享永生的召叫是超性的。這召叫全由天主無條件地採取主動,因為唯有天主能顯示自己,賜予自己。這召叫超越人理性的了解能力和意志的力量,就像超越所有受造物的能力一樣。

1999. 基督的恩寵是天主無條件地賜給我們的恩典,使我們分享祂由聖神注入我們靈魂的生命,為治療其罪惡,並予以聖化:這便是在聖洗聖事中所領受的聖化恩寵神化恩寵,這恩寵在我們內是聖化工程的泉源:

所以誰若在基督內,他就是一個新受造物,舊的已成過去,看,都成了新的。這一切都是出於天主,祂曾藉基督使我們與祂自己和好 (格後 5:17-18)。

2000. 聖化恩寵是一個常居的恩賜,一個穩定的、超性的傾向,使人靈本身臻於完美而能和天主共同生活,並以祂的愛而行事。要區分常居的恩 寵和現時的恩寵(寵愛和寵佑),前者是恆常的傾向,使人依照天主的召喚而生活和行動,後者則指在皈依的開始,或在聖化工程的過程中,天主的干預。

2001. 人準備接受恩寵,已經是一個恩寵的工程。我們需要這恩寵為激發和支持我們的合作,好使我們因信德而成義,藉愛德而聖化。天主在我們身上完成祂所開始的工程,「因為祂開始以祂的運作使我們願意:又與我們已經皈依的意願合作,而予以完成」:

聖奧思定,《論本性與天主的恩寵》:當然,我們自己也工作,但我們只是同工作的天主合作。因為天主的仁慈走在我們前面,為使我們獲得治癒,祂的仁慈仍伴隨我們,為使我們在獲得治癒之後富有生氣;祂的仁慈走在我們前面,為使我們蒙受召叫,伴隨著我們,為使我們受到光榮;走在我們前面,為使我們虔敬地生活,伴隨著我們,為使我們常和天主共同生活,因為沒有祂我們甚麼也不能做。

2002. 天主自由的主動要求人自由的回應,因為天主依照自己的肖象創造了人,賦給人自由及認識祂、愛慕祂的能力。靈魂唯有在自由狀態中才能進入愛的共融。天主逕自接觸,並直接感動人心。祂在人心中安置了對真理和美善的嚮往,只有天主才能使之滿足。「永生」的許諾,超過所有的期望,答覆了這個嚮往:

聖奧思定,《懺悔錄》:如果祢,在祢的大好工程告成之時……,祢在第七天休息,這是祢在藉著祢的經書發言,有意預先告訴我們,在我們的「大好」工程宣告結束之時,我們也要在永生的安息之日,在祢內休息,當然這還是祢所賜。

2003. 恩寵首先且主要是聖神的恩賜,祂使我們成義,並聖化我們。恩寵也包括聖神所賞的許多恩惠,為使我們能作為祂工程的合作者,致力於他人的得救,和發展基督的身體,即教會。這些恩惠是聖事的恩寵,是指向聖化恩寵的,其目的是為了教會的公益。神恩為愛德服務,愛德建樹教會。

2004.在特殊的恩寵中,值得一提的是地位的恩寵;地位的恩寵伴同信友執行其基督徒生活中的職責,與教會內的職務:

按我們各人所受的聖寵,各有不同的恩賜:如果是說預言,就應與信德相符合;如果是服務,就應用在服務上;如果是教導,就應用在教導上;如果是勸勉,就應用在勸是服務,就應用在服務上;如果是教導,就應用在教導上;如果是勸勉,就應用在勸 8)。

2005. 恩寵既然屬於超性界,因而超越我們的經驗,只能透過信德才能認識。因此,我們不能根據我們的感覺,或經由我們的事工獲得結論,確定我們的成義和獲救。然而,依照主的話:「你們可憑他們的果實辨別他們」(瑪 7:20), 反省在我們的生活及聖賢的生活中, 天主的恩賜給我們提供了一個保証,即恩寵在我們內運作,並激勵我們邁向與日俱增的信德和充滿信賴的貧窮態度。

對這種態度,在聖女貞德身上可找到一個最美麗的例子:教會法庭的法官給聖女貞德設了一個圈套,「她被問及是否知道自己生活在天主的恩寵裡;聖女回答說:『如果我不在,願天主把我投入其內,如果我在,願天主留我活在其內』」。

 II. Grace

1996 Our justification comes from the grace of God. Grace is favor, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God, adoptive sons, partakers of the divine nature and of eternal life.46

1997 Grace is a participation in the life of God. It introduces us into the intimacy of Trinitarian life: by Baptism the Christian participates in the grace of Christ, the Head of his Body. As an "adopted son" he can henceforth call God "Father," in union with the only Son. He receives the life of the Spirit who breathes charity into him and who forms the Church.

1998 This vocation to eternal life is supernatural. It depends entirely on God's gratuitous initiative, for he alone can reveal and give himself. It surpasses the power of human intellect and will, as that of every other creature.47

1999 The grace of Christ is the gratuitous gift that God makes to us of his own life, infused by the Holy Spirit into our soul to heal it of sin and to sanctify it. It is the sanctifying or deifying grace received in Baptism. It is in us the source of the work of sanctification:48

Therefore if any one is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has passed away, behold, the new has come. All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself.49

2000 Sanctifying grace is an habitual gift, a stable and supernatural disposition that perfects the soul itself to enable it to live with God, to act by his love. Habitual grace, the permanent disposition to live and act in keeping with God's call, is distinguished from actual graces which refer to God's interventions, whether at the beginning of conversion or in the course of the work of sanctification.

2001 The preparation of man for the reception of grace is already a work of grace. This latter is needed to arouse and sustain our collaboration in justification through faith, and in sanctification through charity. God brings to completion in us what he has begun, "since he who completes his work by cooperating with our will began by working so that we might will it:"50

Indeed we also work, but we are only collaborating with God who works, for his mercy has gone before us. It has gone before us so that we may be healed, and follows us so that once healed, we may be given life; it goes before us so that we may be called, and follows us so that we may be glorified; it goes before us so that we may live devoutly, and follows us so that we may always live with God: for without him we can do nothing.51

2002 God's free initiative demands man's free response, for God has created man in his image by conferring on him, along with freedom, the power to know him and love him. the soul only enters freely into the communion of love. God immediately touches and directly moves the heart of man. He has placed in man a longing for truth and goodness that only he can satisfy. the promises of "eternal life" respond, beyond all hope, to this desire:

If at the end of your very good works . . ., you rested on the seventh day, it was to foretell by the voice of your book that at the end of our works, which are indeed "very good" since you have given them to us, we shall also rest in you on the sabbath of eternal life.52

2003 Grace is first and foremost the gift of the Spirit who justifies and sanctifies us. But grace also includes the gifts that the Spirit grants us to associate us with his work, to enable us to collaborate in the salvation of others and in the growth of the Body of Christ, the Church. There are sacramental graces, gifts proper to the different sacraments. There are furthermore special graces, also called charisms after the Greek term used by St. Paul and meaning "favor," "gratuitous gift," "benefit."53 Whatever their character - sometimes it is extraordinary, such as the gift of miracles or of tongues - charisms are oriented toward sanctifying grace and are intended for the common good of the Church. They are at the service of charity which builds up the Church.54

2004 Among the special graces ought to be mentioned the graces of state that accompany the exercise of the responsibilities of the Christian life and of the ministries within the Church:

Having gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, let us use them: if prophecy, in proportion to our faith; if service, in our serving; he who teaches, in his teaching; he who exhorts, in his exhortation; he who contributes, in liberality; he who gives aid, with zeal; he who does acts of mercy, with cheerfulness.55

2005 Since it belongs to the supernatural order, grace escapes our experience and cannot be known except by faith. We cannot therefore rely on our feelings or our works to conclude that we are justified and saved.56 However, according to the Lord's words "Thus you will know them by their fruits"57 - reflection on God's blessings in our life and in the lives of the saints offers us a guarantee that grace is at work in us and spurs us on to an ever greater faith and an attitude of trustful poverty.

A pleasing illustration of this attitude is found in the reply of St. Joan of Arc to a question posed as a trap by her ecclesiastical judges: "Asked if she knew that she was in God's grace, she replied: 'If I am not, may it please God to put me in it; if I am, may it please God to keep me there.'"58

三、功績

《羅馬彌撒經書》,「聖人彌撒頌謝詞」:祢在聖徒的聚會中享受讚頌;祢表揚他們的功績,就是表揚祢恩寵的成果。

2006. 「功績」一詞,一般指一個團體或一個社會,對其成員的行為,應給予的報應:若行為判定為善,應得賞報;若判定為惡,應受懲罰。功績屬於義德的範圍,且與義德的平等原則相符合。

2007. 對天主來說,按嚴格的法理而論,人沒有功績可言。在天主與人之間的不等是沒有限量的,因為我們所有的,都是從天主、我們的造物主那裡領受的。

2008. 在基督徒的生活中,人在天主那裡的功績,乃是因為天主自由地安排了人與其聖寵的工程合作。天主走第一步,以慈父般的行動推動人,接著,人才踏出第二步,以自由的行動,與天主的推動合作。這樣,善行的功績首先應歸屬於天主的恩寵,之後才輪到信徒。此外,人的功績自當回歸天主,因為其善行都是在基督內,並由聖神啟迪與幫助而進行的。

2009.蒙召為天主的義子,使我們藉著恩寵有分於天主的性體,依賴天主無寵推動在先,而後賜其所應得的。……功績都是天主的恩賜」。

2010. 在恩寵的領域裡,主動屬於天主,沒有人能夠在皈依的開始,獲得寬赦及成義的最初的恩寵。在聖神和愛德的推動之下,我們才能為我們自己並為他人賺得為成聖、為增加恩寵和愛德,一如為得到永生有用的恩寵。至於現世的事物,如健康、友誼,也可以依照天主的智慧賺得。這些恩寵和事物是基督徒祈禱的對象。祈禱給我們提供為有功績的行為所需要的恩寵。

2011. 在我們內在我們內,,基督的愛是我們在天主台前所有功績的泉源。恩寵以積極的愛,使我們與基督結合,確保我們的行為有超性的品質,因而也在天主和人面前確定了它們的功績。聖人們常真切地意識到,他們的功績純粹是天主的恩寵。

聖女小德蘭,《給仁慈大愛的奉獻》:現世流亡結束之後,我固然希望到天鄉享見祢,但我不願為天國在現世累積功績,我願意因祢唯一的愛愛而工作……。在我生命的末刻,我將出現在祢面前,兩手空空,因為我不要求祢,上主,計算我的事功。我們所有的義德,在祢的眼中,都有瑕疵。因此,我願穿上祢本身的義德義德,並從祢的愛中,領受祢自己,永遠擁有祢……。


 

 III. Merit

You are glorified in the assembly of your Holy Ones, for in crowning their merits you are crowning your own gifts.59

2006 The term "merit" refers in general to the recompense owed by a community or a society for the action of one of its members, experienced either as beneficial or harmful, deserving reward or punishment. Merit is relative to the virtue of justice, in conformity with the principle of equality which governs it.

2007 With regard to God, there is no strict right to any merit on the part of man. Between God and us there is an immeasurable inequality, for we have received everything from him, our Creator.

2008 The merit of man before God in the Christian life arises from the fact that God has freely chosen to associate man with the work of his grace. the fatherly action of God is first on his own initiative, and then follows man's free acting through his collaboration, so that the merit of good works is to be attributed in the first place to the grace of God, then to the faithful. Man's merit, moreover, itself is due to God, for his good actions proceed in Christ, from the predispositions and assistance given by the Holy Spirit.

2009 Filial adoption, in making us partakers by grace in the divine nature, can bestow true merit on us as a result of God's gratuitous justice. This is our right by grace, the full right of love, making us "co-heirs" with Christ and worthy of obtaining "the promised inheritance of eternal life."60 The merits of our good works are gifts of the divine goodness.61 "Grace has gone before us; now we are given what is due.... Our merits are God's gifts."62

2010 Since the initiative belongs to God in the order of grace, no one can merit the initial grace of forgiveness and justification, at the beginning of conversion. Moved by the Holy Spirit and by charity, we can then merit for ourselves and for others the graces needed for our sanctification, for the increase of grace and charity, and for the attainment of eternal life. Even temporal goods like health and friendship can be merited in accordance with God's wisdom. These graces and goods are the object of Christian prayer. Prayer attends to the grace we need for meritorious actions.

2011 The charity of Christ is the source in us of all our merits before God. Grace, by uniting us to Christ in active love, ensures the supernatural quality of our acts and consequently their merit before God and before men. the saints have always had a lively awareness that their merits were pure grace.

After earth's exile, I hope to go and enjoy you in the fatherland, but I do not want to lay up merits for heaven. I want to work for your love alone.... In the evening of this life, I shall appear before you with empty hands, for I do not ask you, Lord, to count my works. All our justice is blemished in your eyes. I wish, then, to be clothed in your own justice and to receive from your love the eternal possession of yourself.63

四、基督徒的聖德

2012. 「天主使一切協助那愛祂的人,獲得益處。……因為祂所預選的人,也預定他們與自己的兒子的肖象相同,好使祂在眾多弟兄中作長子。天主不但召叫了祂所預定的人,而且也使祂所召叫的人成義,並使成義的人,分享祂的光榮」(羅 8:28-30)。

2013. 「所有基督徒,不論身分與地位如何,都被號召走向基督徒生活的圓滿及愛德的完美境界」。 眾人都蒙召走向聖德:「你們應當是成全的,如同你們的天父是成全的一樣」(瑪 5:48)。

信友們要按照基督的恩賜,利用一切力量,以達到這一完美的境界,為使……在一切事上服從天父的旨意,全心獻身於光榮天主及服務他人。如此,天主子民的聖德將要結出豐富的果實,一如教會的歷史上許多聖人的生活,清楚地証明的。

2014. 靈修的進步趨向與基督日益親密的結合。這結合被稱為「奧秘的」,因為藉著聖事──「神聖的奧秘」──分享基督的奧秘,而且又在基督內,分享聖三的奧秘。天主召叫眾人與祂親密的結合,雖然此奧秘生活的一些特殊恩寵或出奇記號,只賜給某一些人,目的是為了顯示眾人得到的恩寵,都是天主無條件地賞賜的。

2015. 走向完美的道路是通過十字架。沒有犧牲、沒有屬靈的戰鬥,就沒有聖德可言。靈性的進步要求靈修功夫與克己,這些會逐漸引領人生活在真福的平安與喜樂中:

聖額我略•尼撒,《有關雅歌的道理》:
上升的人,總不停止前進,周而復始,藉著永無終期的開始,前進不息。
上升的人,想望那已經認識的事物,總不停止。

2016. 慈母教會的子女, 在與基督共融之下,藉著天主的恩寵所完成的善工,希冀恆心到底的恩寵及天主父的賞報,是合情合理的。持守著同樣的生活規範,信者們與那些因天主仁慈一同集合在新耶路撒冷的人,分享「有福的希望」,這新耶路撒冷正「從天上由天主那裡降下,就如一位裝飾好迎接自己丈夫的新娘」(默 21:2)。

撮要
2017.聖神的恩寵賦予我們天主的正義。祂使我們藉著信德和聖洗,與基督的苦難和復活相結合,而使我們分享祂的生命。
2018.成義猶如皈依,包含兩方面:人藉著恩寵的推動,轉向天主,遠離罪惡,如此接受罪赦和由上而來的義德。
2019.成義包括罪赦、聖化和人內在的更新。

2020. 成義是藉著基督的苦難為我們賺得的。成義是透過聖洗而賜予我們,令我們符合天主的正義,是祂使我們成為義人。成義的目的是為光榮天主及基督,並為承受永生的恩賜。這是天主慈愛最卓越的工程。

2021.恩寵是天主賜予我們的助佑,為使我們回應天主的召叫成為祂的義子。恩寵引領我們進入聖三生活的親密關係中。

2022. 在恩寵的工程裡,天主首先採取主動,預備和激發人的自由回應。恩寵滿足人的自由的深切渴求。它邀請人自由地與它合作,並使自由達到完美的境界。

2023.聖化恩寵(寵愛)是天主無條件地施予我們的,使我們分享祂的生命,它經由聖神,傾注在我們的靈魂上,為治療其罪惡並予以聖化。

2024. 聖化恩寵使我們「蒙主喜悅」。「神恩」,即聖神特殊的恩寵,是為導向聖化恩寵和為教會的公益而賦予的。天主也藉著多種現時的恩寵 (寵佑)行事,這與經常在我們內的常居的恩寵(寵愛)有別。

2025. 只有隨從天主自由計劃的安排,而與其恩寵的工程合作,人在天主前才有功績可言。功績首先是屬於天主的恩寵,其次才是屬於人的合作。人的功績也就是天主的。

2026.聖神的恩寵,基於我們的義子關係,並依照天主無條件地所賞賜的義主要泉源。

2027. 沒有人可賺得最初的恩寵,這恩寵是皈依的原動力。在聖神的推動下,我們能為自己和為別人賺得一切有用的恩寵,為到達永生,和得到必須的世物。

2028.「所有基督徒……都被號召走向基督徒生活的圓滿及愛德的完美境界」。「基督徒的完美只有一個止境:那就是永無止境」。
2029.「誰若願意跟隨我,該棄絕自己,背著自己的十字架來跟隨我」 (瑪 16:24)。

 IV. Christian Holiness

2012 "We know that in everything God works for good with those who love him . . . For those whom he fore knew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren. and those whom he predestined he also called; and those whom he called he also justified; and those whom he justified he also glorified."64

2013 "All Christians in any state or walk of life are called to the fullness of Christian life and to the perfection of charity."65 All are called to holiness: "Be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect."66

In order to reach this perfection the faithful should use the strength dealt out to them by Christ's gift, so that . . . doing the will of the Father in everything, they may wholeheartedly devote themselves to the glory of God and to the service of their neighbor. Thus the holiness of the People of God will grow in fruitful abundance, as is clearly shown in the history of the Church through the lives of so many saints.67

2014 Spiritual progress tends toward ever more intimate union with Christ. This union is called "mystical" because it participates in the mystery of Christ through the sacraments - "the holy mysteries" - and, in him, in the mystery of the Holy Trinity. God calls us all to this intimate union with him, even if the special graces or extraordinary signs of this mystical life are granted only to some for the sake of manifesting the gratuitous gift given to all.

2015 The way of perfection passes by way of the Cross. There is no holiness without renunciation and spiritual battle.68 Spiritual progress entails the ascesis and mortification that gradually lead to living in the peace and joy of the Beatitudes:

He who climbs never stops going from beginning to beginning, through beginnings that have no end. He never stops desiring what he already knows.69

2016 The children of our holy mother the Church rightly hope for the grace of final perseverance and the recompense of God their Father for the good works accomplished with his grace in communion with Jesus.70 Keeping the same rule of life, believers share the "blessed hope" of those whom the divine mercy gathers into the "holy city, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband."71

IN BRIEF

2017 The grace of the Holy Spirit confers upon us the righteousness of God. Uniting us by faith and Baptism to the Passion and Resurrection of Christ, the Spirit makes us sharers in his life.

2018 Like conversion, justification has two aspects. Moved by grace, man turns toward God and away from sin, and so accepts forgiveness and righteousness from on high.

2019 Justification includes the remission of sins, sanctification, and the renewal of the inner man.

2020 Justification has been merited for us by the Passion of Christ. It is granted us through Baptism. It conforms us to the righteousness of God, who justifies us. It has for its goal the glory of God and of Christ, and the gift of eternal life. It is the most excellent work of God's mercy.

2021 Grace is the help God gives us to respond to our vocation of becoming his adopted sons. It introduces us into the intimacy of the Trinitarian life.

2022 The divine initiative in the work of grace precedes, prepares, and elicits the free response of man. Grace responds to the deepest yearnings of human freedom, calls freedom to cooperate with it, and perfects freedom.

2023 Sanctifying grace is the gratuitous gift of his life that God makes to us; it is infused by the Holy Spirit into the soul to heal it of sin and to sanctify it.

2024 Sanctifying grace makes us "pleasing to God." Charisms, special graces of the Holy Spirit, are oriented to sanctifying grace and are intended for the common good of the Church. God also acts through many actual graces, to be distinguished from habitual grace which is permanent in us.

2025 We can have merit in God's sight only because of God's free plan to associate man with the work of his grace. Merit is to be ascribed in the first place to the grace of God, and secondly to man's collaboration. Man's merit is due to God.

2026 The grace of the Holy Spirit can confer true merit on us, by virtue of our adoptive filiation, and in accordance with God's gratuitous justice. Charity is the principal source of merit in us before God.

2027 No one can merit the initial grace which is at the origin of conversion. Moved by the Holy Spirit, we can merit for ourselves and for others all the graces needed to attain eternal life, as well as necessary temporal goods.

2028 "All Christians . . . are called to the fullness of Christian life and to the perfection of charity" (LG 40 # 2). "Christian perfection has but one limit, that of having none" (St. Gregory of Nyssa, De vita Mos.: PG 44, 300D).

2029 "If any man would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me" ( Mt 16:24).

第三條

教會 ──── 慈母與導師

2030. 基督徒是在教會內,在與諸受洗者的共融中,完成其召叫,從教會領受天主的話,其中含有「基督之律」(迦 6:2)的教導。基督徒從教會領受聖事的恩寵,以便在「道路」上支持他們。基督徒從教會學習聖德的典範,在至聖童貞聖母瑪利亞身上,認出聖德的模範和泉源;在真實見証者的生活中,辨別出聖德;在靈修的傳統中,在前輩聖賢的漫長歷史中,基督徒發現聖德,並在禮儀中按照聖人年曆加以慶祝。

2031. 道德生活是屬神的敬禮。在基督徒組成的基督的身體中,並與祂奉獻的感恩祭中,我們「獻上我們的身體,當作生活、聖潔和悅樂天主的祭品」。在禮儀和舉行聖事時,祈禱和教導,偕同基督的恩寵,光照並滋養基督徒的行為。道德生活一如基督徒的整個生活,在感恩祭中,找到它的泉源並達到高峰。

一、道德生活與教會的道德生活與教會的訓導

2032. 教會,「真理的柱石和基礎」(弟前 3:15),「由宗徒們接受了宣布基督救世真道的莊嚴命令」。「無論在何時何地,教會有權宣布倫理的原則,包括有關社會秩序在內的,對人的事務,在基本人權和人靈的得救有所要求時,亦有權審斷」。

2033. 教會牧者有關道德的訓導,借助於神學家和靈修學家的著作,通常是在教理講授及講道中行使。這樣,基督徒道德的「寶庫」,在牧者的保護和監督之下,才能代代傳遞下來。這道德的寶庫是一套具有特色的集成,包括規律、誡命和發自對基督的信仰、因愛德而活躍的德行。在傳統上,這種教理的講授,除信經和天主經外,以十誡為根基,因為十誡宣示為所有的人都有效的道德生活的原則。眾宣講當信的和應在生活中實踐的信仰」。教宗以及與教宗共融的主教們,以通常和普遍的訓導,教導信友當信的真理、當實踐的愛德、當希望的真福。

2035. 分享基督的權威最高的等級,藉不能錯誤的特恩予以保証。這不能錯誤的範圍,與「天主啟示的寶庫範圍相等」;而且延伸到所有教義的要素,包括道德在內,若缺乏了這些要素,就不能維護、宣示或遵守信德的救恩真理。

2036. 訓導的權威也伸展到自然律的特殊規範,因為造物主要求遵守的這些規範,為得救是必要的。提醒人們注意自然律的規範,乃屬教會訓導的一個基本任務。這是一個先知性的任務:向人們宣告他們真正是甚麼,提醒人們在天主台前他們應該是甚麼。

2037. 託付給教會的天主法律,教授給信徒,作為生命與真理的道路。因此,信徒有權利對神聖的救恩規範,獲得教導,藉以淨化判斷,並以恩寵治療人理性的創傷。他們也有義務遵守教會合法權威訂定的憲章和法令。即使這些只是紀律性的規定,也要求在愛德內的順從。

2038. 在教導及實行基督徒的道德方面,教會需要牧者的獻身、神學家的知識、所有基督徒以及善心人士的貢獻。信德和實踐福音給每一個人提供生活「在基督內」的經驗,使他得到光照,並使他能夠藉著天主聖神,明辨天主和人的事理。這樣,天主聖神能用最微末者,光照那些智者和身居高位的人。

2039. 所有職務,應本著服務弟兄及忠於教會的精神,因著主的名義去執行。同時,每個人的良心,在對其個人的行為作倫理判斷時,應避免受限於個人的想法。他應盡其所能,敞開心胸,念及眾人的利益,依照道德律,即自然的和啟示的道德律,同時也應按教會的法律,以及教會訓導當局有關倫理問題的權威性教導,所表示的意思。個人的良心和理性不宜與道德律或教會的訓導背道而馳。

2040. 如此,在基督徒中間,一種真正的孝愛教會的精神,得以發展出來。這是聖洗恩寵的正常成長,它使我們出生於教會的懷中,並使我們成為基督身體的肢體。教會以慈母的關懷,施予我們天主的仁慈,天主的慈悲勝過我們的罪過,尤其在修好聖事中顯示出來。教會猶如一個關懷備至的母親,在每天的禮儀中,她毫不吝嗇地供給我們主的聖言和聖體,作為我們的食糧。


 Article 3

THE CHURCH, MOTHER AND TEACHER

2030 It is in the Church, in communion with all the baptized, that the Christian fulfills his vocation. From the Church he receives the Word of God containing the teachings of "the law of Christ."72 From the Church he receives the grace of the sacraments that sustains him on the "way." From the Church he learns the example of holiness and recognizes its model and source in the all-holy Virgin Mary; he discerns it in the authentic witness of those who live it; he discovers it in the spiritual tradition and long history of the saints who have gone before him and whom the liturgy celebrates in the rhythms of the sanctoral cycle.

2031 The moral life is spiritual worship. We "present (our) bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God,"73 within the Body of Christ that we form and in communion with the offering of his Eucharist. In the liturgy and the celebration of the sacraments, prayer and teaching are conjoined with the grace of Christ to enlighten and nourish Christian activity. As does the whole of the Christian life, the moral life finds its source and summit in the Eucharistic sacrifice.

I. Moral Life and the Magisterium of the Church

2032 The Church, the "pillar and bulwark of the truth," "has received this solemn command of Christ from the apostles to announce the saving truth."74 "To the Church belongs the right always and everywhere to announce moral principles, including those pertaining to the social order, and to make judgments on any human affairs to the extent that they are required by the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls."75

2033 The Magisterium of the Pastors of the Church in moral matters is ordinarily exercised in catechesis and preaching, with the help of the works of theologians and spiritual authors. Thus from generation to generation, under the aegis and vigilance of the pastors, the "deposit" of Christian moral teaching has been handed on, a deposit composed of a characteristic body of rules, commandments, and virtues proceeding from faith in Christ and animated by charity. Alongside the Creed and the Our Father, the basis for this catechesis has traditionally been the Decalogue which sets out the principles of moral life valid for all men.

2034 The Roman Pontiff and the bishops are "authentic teachers, that is, teachers endowed with the authority of Christ, who preach the faith to the people entrusted to them, the faith to be believed and put into practice."76 The ordinary and universal Magisterium of the Pope and the bishops in communion with him teach the faithful the truth to believe, the charity to practice, the beatitude to hope for.

2035 The supreme degree of participation in the authority of Christ is ensured by the charism of infallibility. This infallibility extends as far as does the deposit of divine Revelation; it also extends to all those elements of doctrine, including morals, without which the saving truths of the faith cannot be preserved, explained, or observed.77

2036 The authority of the Magisterium extends also to the specific precepts of the natural law, because their observance, demanded by the Creator, is necessary for salvation. In recalling the prescriptions of the natural law, the Magisterium of the Church exercises an essential part of its prophetic office of proclaiming to men what they truly are and reminding them of what they should be before God.78

2037 The law of God entrusted to the Church is taught to the faithful as the way of life and truth. the faithful therefore have the right to be instructed in the divine saving precepts that purify judgment and, with grace, heal wounded human reason.79 They have the duty of observing the constitutions and decrees conveyed by the legitimate authority of the Church. Even if they concern disciplinary matters, these determinations call for docility in charity.

2038 In the work of teaching and applying Christian morality, the Church needs the dedication of pastors, the knowledge of theologians, and the contribution of all Christians and men of good will. Faith and the practice of the Gospel provide each person with an experience of life "in Christ," who enlightens him and makes him able to evaluate the divine and human realities according to the Spirit of God.80 Thus the Holy Spirit can use the humblest to enlighten the learned and those in the highest positions.

2039 Ministries should be exercised in a spirit of fraternal service and dedication to the Church, in the name of the Lord.81 At the same time the conscience of each person should avoid confining itself to individualistic considerations in its moral judgments of the person's own acts. As far as possible conscience should take account of the good of all, as expressed in the moral law, natural and revealed, and consequently in the law of the Church and in the authoritative teaching of the Magisterium on moral questions. Personal conscience and reason should not be set in opposition to the moral law or the Magisterium of the Church.

2040 Thus a true filial spirit toward the Church can develop among Christians. It is the normal flowering of the baptismal grace which has begotten us in the womb of the Church and made us members of the Body of Christ. In her motherly care, the Church grants us the mercy of God which prevails over all our sins and is especially at work in the sacrament of reconciliation. With a mother's foresight, she also lavishes on us day after day in her liturgy the nourishment of the Word and Eucharist of the Lord.

二、教會的規條


教會的規條
2041.教會的規條列於道德生活的範圍,與禮儀生活相連,並自禮儀生活取得滋養。由牧職當局所頒布的成文法,有強制性,乃是為了給基督信徒,確保在祈禱的精神、倫理的努力、愛天主愛近人的成長中,一個最低而不可再少的限度。

2042 .第一規條 (「主日及當守的法定慶節應參與彌撒,不從事辛勞的工作」)要求信徒參與慶祝紀念主復活的日子,以及敬禮主的奧蹟、榮福童貞瑪利亞,和諸聖人的主要禮儀慶節;首先,要參與基督徒團體團聚一起的感恩慶典,並且要停止一切阻礙聖化這些日子的工作和操勞,從而得到休息。

第二規條 (「應至少每年一次告明你的罪」)藉著領受和好聖事,繼續聖洗聖事的皈依和赦免的工程,為領受聖體妥作準備。

第三規條 (「應謙卑地至少在逾越慶節時領受你的造物主」), 保証最低限度的領受主的聖體聖血,要在逾越節期中領受,這是基督徒禮儀的原始和中心。

2043.第四規條 (「應在法定日子上遵守大齋和小齋」),…… 獲得控制本能的力量和心靈的自由。
第五規條 (「應支援教會的需要」),意指信徒尚有義務,各盡自己的能力,支援教會物質的需要。


 II. The Precepts of the Church

2041 The precepts of the Church are set in the context of a moral life bound to and nourished by liturgical life. the obligatory character of these positive laws decreed by the pastoral authorities is meant to guarantee to the faithful the indispensable minimum in the spirit of prayer and moral effort, in the growth in love of God and neighbor:

2042 The first precept (“You shall attend Mass on Sundays and holy days of obligation.") requires the faithful to participate in the Eucharistic celebration when the Christian community gathers together on the day commemorating the Resurrection of the Lord.82

 

The second precept (“You shall confess your sins at least once a year.") ensures preparation for the Eucharist by the reception of the sacrament of reconciliation, which continues Baptism's work of conversion and forgiveness.83

The third precept (“You shall humbly receive your Creator in Holy Communion at least during the Easter season.") guarantees as a minimum the reception of the Lord's Body and Blood in connection with the Paschal feasts, the origin and center of the Christian liturgy.84

2043 The fourth precept (“You shall keep holy the holy days of obligation.") completes the Sunday observance by participation in the principal liturgical feasts which honor the mysteries of the Lord, the Virgin Mary, and the saints.85

The fifth precept (“You shall observe the prescribed days of fasting and abstinence.") ensures the times of ascesis and penance which prepare us for the liturgical feasts; they help us acquire mastery over our instincts and freedom of heart.86

The faithful also have the duty of providing for the material needs of the Church, each according to his abilities.87

三、道德生活與傳教的見証

2044. 受過洗的人的忠信是傳播福音和教會在世使命的首要條件。為使救恩的訊息,在人面前顯示出真理和光輝的力量,應有基督徒的生活作真實的見証。「基督徒生活的見証及以超性精神所行的善事,有吸引人信仰和皈依天主的力量」。

2045. 因為基督徒是基督身體的肢體,而基督是頭, 基督徒以他們堅定的信念和品行,有助於建樹教會。教會因著信徒的聖德而日益茁壯、成長、發展,直到「成為成年人,達到基督圓滿年齡的程度」(弗 4:13)。

2046. 由於按基督的心意而生活,基督徒加速天主神國的來臨,那就是「正義、真理與和平的神國」。他們卻不因此而鬆懈現世的工作;忠於他們的師傅,信徒以正直、耐心與愛心執行現世的事務。

撮要
2047.道德生活是屬神的敬禮。基督徒的行為在禮儀和聖事的舉行中獲得滋養。
禮儀得到滋養。
2049.教會牧人有關道德的訓導權通常是在教理講授及講道中行使,而以天主十誡為根基,因為十誡宣示為每個人都有效的道德生活原則。

2050. 羅馬教宗和主教們,以真正導師的身分,向天主子民宣講當信和在生活中當實行的道理。對有關自然律及理性的道德問題表示立場,也屬於他們的職權。

2051.牧人的訓導權的不能錯誤,涵蓋道理的一切要素,包括道德的問題,若沒有這些要素,信德的救恩真理就無法維護、宣示或遵守。

 III. Moral Life and Missionary Witness

2044 The fidelity of the baptized is a primordial condition for the proclamation of the Gospel and for the Church's mission in the world. In order that the message of salvation can show the power of its truth and radiance before men, it must be authenticated by the witness of the life of Christians. "The witness of a Christian life and good works done in a supernatural spirit have great power to draw men to the faith and to God."88

2045 Because they are members of the Body whose Head is Christ,89 Christians contribute to building up the Church by the constancy of their convictions and their moral lives. the Church increases, grows, and develops through the holiness of her faithful, until "we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ."90

2046 By living with the mind of Christ, Christians hasten the coming of the Reign of God, "a kingdom of justice, love, and peace."91 They do not, for all that, abandon their earthly tasks; faithful to their master, they fulfill them with uprightness, patience, and love.

IN BRIEF

2047 The moral life is a spiritual worship. Christian activity finds its nourishment in the liturgy and the celebration of the sacraments.

2048 The precepts of the Church concern the moral and Christian life united with the liturgy and nourished by it.

2049 The Magisterium of the Pastors of the Church in moral matters is ordinarily exercised in catechesis and preaching, on the basis of the Decalogue which states the principles of moral life valid for every man.

2050 The Roman Pontiff and the bishops, as authentic teachers, preach to the People of God the faith which is to be believed and applied in moral life. It is also encumbent on them to pronounce on moral questions that fall within the natural law and reason.

2051 The infallibility of the Magisterium of the Pastors extends to all the elements of doctrine, including

moral doctrine, without which the saving truths of the faith cannot be preserved, expounded, or observed.

   
   
   
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