卷三在基督內的生活 - 尊重人的生命 (第五誡/第六誡)/You shall not kill

第五條第五誡

不可殺人(出 20:13;申 5:17)。

 

 

你們一向聽過給古人說:「不可殺人!」誰若殺了人,應受裁判。我卻對你們說:凡向自己弟兄發怒的,就要受裁判;誰若向自己的弟兄說「傻子」,就要受議會的裁判;誰若說「瘋子」,就要受火獄的罰(瑪 5:21-22)。

2258. 「人的生命是神聖的,因為,生命自一開始就含有天主的創造行動,並與造物主亦即與人生命的唯一終向,常保持著特殊的關係。唯獨天主是生命的主宰,自生命的開始直到生命的終結:在任何情況之下,沒有人能夠聲稱自己擁有直接毀滅一個無辜者生命的權利」。

一、尊重人的生命

救恩歷史的見証

2259. 在亞伯爾被他的哥哥加音殺害的敘述裡,聖經揭示了,自人類有史之初,由於原罪的遺毒,忿怒和嫉妒就盤據在人的心中。人成了他同類的仇敵。天主譴責這殺害兄弟的惡行說:「你作了甚麼?聽!你弟弟的血由地上向我喊冤。你現在是地上所咒罵的人,地張口由你手中接收了你弟弟的血」(創 4:10-11)。

2260.天主與人類的盟約是由天主賜給人的生命召叫,和人兇殺施暴的呼聲交織而成的:
我要追討害你們生命的血債。……凡流人血的,他的血也要為人所流,因為人是照天主的肖象造的 (創 9:5-6)。

舊約常把血視為生命的一個神聖記號。這教導是任何時代所需要的。

2261. 聖經確定第五誡的禁令:「不可殺害無辜和正義的人」(出 23:7)。故意殺害無辜者嚴重地違反人的尊嚴、違反金科玉律以及違反天主的神聖性。此禁令有普遍的約束效力:不論何時何地,無人例外。

2262. 在山中聖訓裡,基督提醒「不可殺人」(瑪 5:21)的禁令,接著又禁止發怒,仇恨和報復。猶有甚者,基督要求他的門徒轉給另一面頰、愛自己的仇人。祂自己也不作自衛,並命令伯多祿把劍收回鞘內。

合法的自衛

2263. 個人和社會的合法自衛,並不是對禁止殺害無辜、故意殺人的一個例外。「自衛的行動能夠引起雙重的效果:一個是保存自己的生命,另一個是攻擊者的死亡。……前者是有意的;後者是無意的」。

2264. 愛自己常是倫理的基本原則。因此,讓別人尊重自己的生命權是合理的。誰保衛自己的生命,如果被迫對來襲的人給予致命的一擊,不算是殺人的罪犯:

聖多瑪斯,《神學大全》:如果,為了自衛,採用大於實際需要的暴力,這是不合法的。但是,如果採用適度的方法抗拒暴力,這是合法的。……為得救並不要求,為避免殺死他人而放棄適度的自衛;因為人應該保衛自己的生命,先於他人的生命。

2265.合法的自衛,為那些負責保護他人生命、家庭或國家公益的人,不單是權利,也是重大的責任。維護社會的公益,就要令不義的侵犯者喪失危害他人的能力。基於這種理由,合法的掌權者有權為自己負責保衛的社會,擊退進攻,甚至訴諸武力。
2266.相應於捍衛公益的責任,國家致力令那些危害人權和基本民法的活動,不得擴散。合法的掌權當局有權利和義務按罪行的嚴重性而施予懲罰。懲罰的首要目的是補償因罪行而引起的紛亂。當懲罰為罪犯自願接受時,就有贖罪的價值。其次,除了捍衛公共秩序和和保障人身安全外,懲罰有治療的效果價值,在可能的範圍內,有助於罪犯的改過遷善。 

2267.假設有罪一方的身份和責任已完全被確定,教會的傳統訓導並不排除訴諸死刑,但只要這是唯一的可行之道,藉以有效地保護人命,免受不義侵犯者之害。
如果非殺傷性的方法足以衛護人們的安全,免受侵犯者之害,掌權者只應採用這些方法,因為這些方法更符合公益的具體條件,也更合乎人性的尊嚴。
事實上,今日由於國家具有各種有效地防止犯案的可能性,使犯罪者不得再逞,而不至於決定性地剝奪其改過自新的機會,因此,絕對必須處決罪犯的個案就「十分罕見,即使並未完全絕跡」。

謀殺
2268.第五誡禁止直接和蓄意的殺人,視之為嚴重的罪行。殺人者以及那些自願的同謀殺人者,都犯了觸怒天譴的罪行。

殺害嬰兒、兄弟、父母和配偶是特別嚴重的罪行,由於這些罪行破壞人性親情自然的聯繫。為了優生和公共衛生,即使是出於政府的命令,也不能使任何謀殺成為正當的。

2269. 第五誡禁止,對意圖間接地引起一個人的死亡而袖手不管。道德律亦禁止,在無重大理由下,讓某人暴露於致命的危險中,以及拒絕對處在危險中的人伸出援手。

人類社會坐視造成大量死亡的飢荒,而不設法加以補救,是可恥的不義和嚴重的過錯。高利貸者和唯利是圖者的不正當交易,在人類大家庭中給兄弟手足造成饑饉和死亡,罪同間接謀殺。這類人確實難辭其咎。

意外意外殺人,在倫理上,不能歸咎於當事人。但若無相當的理由,當事人雖無殺人的意圖,但由於採取了足以致人於死的行動,他不能沒有嚴重的過錯。
墮胎

2270. 人的生命,自受孕的開始,就應該絕對的受到尊重和保護。人自開始存在的一刻,作為一個人的所有的權利就應該受到承認,無辜者對生命的不可侵犯的權利,便是其中之一。

我還沒有在母腹內形成你以前,我已認識了你;在你還沒有出離母胎以前,我已祝聖了你(耶 1:5)。
我何時在暗中構形,我何時在母胎造成,我的骨骸祢全知情 (詠 139:15)。
2271.自第一世紀,教會就對所有人工引發的墮胎,認定其為道德的邪惡。為目的或方法,嚴重地違反道德律:
《十二宗徒訓言》:不可以墮胎殺害胚胎,不可致新生嬰孩於死地。

生命之主天主,曾將保存生命的卓絕任務,委託於人,並令人以相稱人性尊嚴的方式,完成這任務。故此,由妊娠之初,生命即應受到極其謹慎的保護。墮胎和殺害嬰兒構成滔天的罪行。

2272. 正式參與墮胎的行動,構成嚴重的罪過。教會對於這違反生命的罪行,按法典施予絕罰。「犯罪成立後」,按法典所規定的條件,「凡設法墮胎而既遂者,應受自科絕罰」。教會並非有意減縮慈悲的空間,而是要表示此罪行的嚴重性,以及對無辜被殺害者、他的父母和整個社會,所造成的無可彌補的傷害。

2273.所有無辜者對個人生命的不可剝奪的權利,是公民社會及其立法的構成因素

信理部,《生命的禮物》訓令 3:「個人不可剝奪的權利應該受到公民社會和政府的承認和尊重。這些人權不取決於個人,不取決於父母,也不是來自社會和國家的施予;人權乃屬於人的本性,寓於個人之內,源自使他開始存在的創造行動。在這些基本權利中,應列出自受孕至死亡,每個人對生命的權利和對身體完整的權利」。

「當一條成文的法律,從立法所應給予的保障中,剔除某種人時,這時,國家就否定了在法律前眾人的平等。當國家不為全體公民,尤其那些最弱小者的權利出力服務時,則法治國家在基礎上便受到威脅……。因此,既然要確保嬰兒自受孕之始應享有的尊重和保障,對所有故意侵犯其權利者,法律應制定相當的刑罰」。

2274.胚胎既然在成孕之始已被視為人,那麼就應盡其所能,使胚胎的完整性受到保護。胚胎也該受到照顧和治療,如其他的人一樣。

產前診斷在倫理上是許可的,「只要尊重人的胚胎和胎兒的生命和完整,並為了維護或治療個體的目的……。 如果預料診斷的結果會引起墮胎的可能,這與道德律有嚴重的牴觸。一個診斷不應等於一次死亡的裁決」。

2275. 「只要尊重胚胎的生命和完整,不給胚胎引起過度的危險,加於胚胎的治療措施應視為許可的,這是為了使胚胎獲得痊癒,為了改善胚胎的健康,或為了胚胎個體的繼續生存」。

「培養人的胚胎,作為可利用的生物原料,是不道德的」。

「有些干預染色體干預染色體或遺傳基因或遺傳基因的嘗試不是為了治療,而是企圖依照性別或其他預設的品質,作人種選擇的生產。這類操縱乃違反人位格的尊嚴、人的完整性和人的獨一無二和不可重複的身分」。

安樂死

2276. 生命萎縮或衰退的人,需要受到特殊的尊重。有病的或殘障的人應該得到支持,盡可能度正常的生活。
2277.直接的安樂死,不論有何動機或用任何方法,是結束殘障者、患病者或瀕死者的生命。安樂死在倫理上是不能接受的。

因此,若為了解除痛苦而造成死亡,一個行動或不行動,無論因其本身或其意圖,均構成一樁謀殺,嚴重地違反人的尊嚴和對生活的天主、他的造物主的失敬。在此事件中,人善意所犯的錯誤判斷,並不改變這謀殺行為的本質。安樂死常應在禁止和排除之列。

2278 .停止昂貴的、危險的、非常的、或與所期待的效果不成比例的療程,能是合法的。這是拒絕「過度堅持治療」。作此拒絕並不就是願意造成死亡;只是接受了不能阻止死亡。如果病人尚能勝任和有此能力的話,這決定要由病人自己作出,否則應由合法的代理人作出,不過,常應尊重病人的合理願望和合法利益。

2279. 即使認為死亡已迫在眉睫,對一個病人一般性的照料,不能合法地予以中止。為減輕垂死者的痛苦,使用止痛劑,即使有縮短生命的危險,能在道德上符合人性的尊嚴,如果死亡並非所願,就是不以死亡作為目標或方法,而只視為預料中的事和無可避免的。末期病人的安寧照顧構成一個實踐無私愛德的特優方式。就此,安寧照顧應該受到鼓勵。

自殺

2280. 每一個人在賜給他生命的天主台前,對自己的生命負責。天主才是生命的最高主宰。我們應該懷著感恩之情接受生命,並為了祂的尊榮和我們靈魂的得救而保持生命。天主把生命委託給我們,我們是生命的管理員,不是生命的所有人。我們不得處置生命。

2281. 自殺違反人性願意保存和延續生命的自然傾向。自殺嚴重地違反對自己應有的愛德。自殺同樣地傷害對近人的愛德,因為自殺不義地斷絕與家庭、國家和人類社會的關懷,而作為這些社團的一員是我們的責任。自殺違反對生活的天主的愛心。

2282.如果自殺者懷有作為榜樣的意思,尤其為年輕人,則自殺更增添了壞榜樣的嚴重性。故意幫助自殺,是違反道德律。

嚴重的心理錯亂、憂慮,或者對考驗、痛苦、折磨的巨大恐懼,均能減輕自殺者的責任。


2283.不應對一個自我了結生命者的永遠獲救失望。天主能夠運用唯有祂知道的方法,給他們安排懺悔得救的機會。教會為自殺者祈禱。


Article 5

THE FIFTH COMMANDMENT

You shall not kill.54 

You have heard that it was said to the men of old, "You shall not kill: and whoever kills shall be liable to judgment." But I say to you that every one who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment.55

2258 "Human life is sacred because from its beginning it involves the creative action of God and it remains for ever in a special relationship with the Creator, who is its sole end. God alone is the Lord of life from its beginning until its end: no one can under any circumstance claim for himself the right directly to destroy an innocent human being."56

I. Respect for Human Life

The witness of sacred history

2259 In the account of Abel's murder by his brother Cain,57 Scripture reveals the presence of anger and envy in man, consequences of original sin, from the beginning of human history. Man has become the enemy of his fellow man. God declares the wickedness of this fratricide: "What have you done? the voice of your brother's blood is crying to me from the ground. and now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand."58

2260 The covenant between God and mankind is interwoven with reminders of God's gift of human life and man's murderous violence:

For your lifeblood I will surely require a reckoning.... Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed; for God made man in his own image.59

The Old Testament always considered blood a sacred sign of life.60 This teaching remains necessary for all time.

2261 Scripture specifies the prohibition contained in the fifth commandment: "Do not slay the innocent and the righteous."61 The deliberate murder of an innocent person is gravely contrary to the dignity of the human being, to the golden rule, and to the holiness of the Creator. the law forbidding it is universally valid: it obliges each and everyone, always and everywhere.

2262 In the Sermon on the Mount, the Lord recalls the commandment, "You shall not kill,"62 and adds to it the proscription of anger, hatred, and vengeance. Going further, Christ asks his disciples to turn the other cheek, to love their enemies.63 He did not defend himself and told Peter to leave his sword in its sheath.64

Legitimate defense

2263 The legitimate defense of persons and societies is not an exception to the prohibition against the murder of the innocent that constitutes intentional killing. "The act of self-defense can have a double effect: the preservation of one's own life; and the killing of the aggressor.... the one is intended, the other is not."65

2264 Love toward oneself remains a fundamental principle of morality. Therefore it is legitimate to insist on respect for one's own right to life. Someone who defends his life is not guilty of murder even if he is forced to deal his aggressor a lethal blow:

If a man in self-defense uses more than necessary violence, it will be unlawful: whereas if he repels force with moderation, his defense will be lawful.... Nor is it necessary for salvation that a man omit the act of moderate self-defense to avoid killing the other man, since one is bound to take more care of one's own life than of another's.

2265 Legitimate defense can be not only a right but a grave duty for someone responsible for another's life. Preserving the common good requires rendering the unjust aggressor unable to inflict harm. To this end, those holding legitimate authority have the right to repel by armed force aggressors against the civil community entrusted to their charge.66

Capital Punishment

2266 The State's effort to contain the spread of behaviors injurious to human rights and the fundamental rules of civil coexistence corresponds to the requirement of watching over the common good. Legitimate public authority has the right and duty to inflict penalties commensurate with the gravity of the crime. the primary scope of the penalty is to redress the disorder caused by the offense. When his punishment is voluntarily accepted by the offender, it takes on the value of expiation. Moreover, punishment, in addition to preserving public order and the safety of persons, has a medicinal scope: as far as possible it should contribute to the correction of the offender.67

2267 The traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude, presupposing full ascertainment of the identity and responsibility of the offender, recourse to the death penalty, when this is the only practicable way to defend the lives of human beings effectively against the aggressor. 
"If, instead, bloodless means are sufficient to defend against the aggressor and to protect the safety of persons, public authority should limit itself to such means, because they better correspond to the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person. 
"Today, in fact, given the means at the State's disposal to effectively repress crime by rendering inoffensive the one who has committed it, without depriving him definitively of the possibility of redeeming himself, cases of absolute necessity for suppression of the offender 'today ... are very rare, if not practically non-existent.'[John Paul II, Evangelium vitae 56.]

Intentional homicide

2268 The fifth commandment forbids direct and intentional killing as gravely sinful. the murderer and those who cooperate voluntarily in murder commit a sin that cries out to heaven for vengeance.68

Infanticide,69 fratricide, parricide, and the murder of a spouse are especially grave crimes by reason of the natural bonds which they break. Concern for eugenics or public health cannot justify any murder, even if commanded by public authority.

2269 The fifth commandment forbids doing anything with the intention of indirectly bringing about a person's death. the moral law prohibits exposing someone to mortal danger without grave reason, as well as refusing assistance to a person in danger.

The acceptance by human society of murderous famines, without efforts to remedy them, is a scandalous injustice and a grave offense. Those whose usurious and avaricious dealings lead to the hunger and death of their brethren in the human family indirectly commit homicide, which is imputable to them.70

Unintentional killing is not morally imputable. But one is not exonerated from grave offense if, without proportionate reasons, he has acted in a way that brings about someone's death, even without the intention to do so.

Abortion

2270 Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception.

From the first moment of his existence, a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person - among which is the inviolable right of every innocent being to life.71

Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you.72 
My frame was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately wrought in the depths of the earth.73

2271 Since the first century the Church has affirmed the moral evil of every procured abortion. 
This teaching has not changed and remains unchangeable. 
Direct abortion, that is to say, abortion willed either as an end or a means, is gravely contrary to the moral law:

You shall not kill the embryo by abortion and shall not cause the newborn to perish.74 
God, the Lord of life, has entrusted to men the noble mission of safeguarding life, and men must carry it out in a manner worthy of themselves. 
Life must be protected with the utmost care from the moment of conception: abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes.75

2272 Formal cooperation in an abortion constitutes a grave offense. 
The Church attaches the canonical penalty of excommunication to this crime against human life. 
"A person who procures a completed abortion incurs excommunication latae sententiae,"76 "by the very commission of the offense,"77 and subject to the conditions provided by Canon Law.78 
The Church does not thereby intend to restrict the scope of mercy. 
Rather, she makes clear the gravity of the crime committed, the irreparable harm done to the innocent who is put to death, as well as to the parents and the whole of society.

2273 The inalienable right to life of every innocent human individual is a constitutive element of a civil society and its legislation:

"The inalienable rights of the person must be recognized and respected by civil society and the political authority. 
These human rights depend neither on single individuals nor on parents; nor do they represent a concession made by society and the state; they belong to human nature and are inherent in the person by virtue of the creative act from which the person took his origin. 
Among such fundamental rights one should mention in this regard every human being's right to life and physical integrity from the moment of conception until death."79

 

"The moment a positive law deprives a category of human beings of the protection which civil legislation ought to accord them, the state is denying the equality of all before the law. 
When the state does not place its power at the service of the rights of each citizen, and in particular of the more vulnerable, the very foundations of a state based on law are undermined.... 
As a consequence of the respect and protection which must be ensured for the unborn child from the moment of conception, the law must provide appropriate penal sanctions for every deliberate violation of the child's rights."80

2274 Since it must be treated from conception as a person, the embryo must be defended in its integrity, cared for, and healed, as far as possible, like any other human being.

Prenatal diagnosis is morally licit, "if it respects the life and integrity of the embryo and the human fetus and is directed toward its safe guarding or healing as an individual.... 
It is gravely opposed to the moral law when this is done with the thought of possibly inducing an abortion, depending upon the results: a diagnosis must not be the equivalent of a death sentence."81

2275 "One must hold as licit procedures carried out on the human embryo which respect the life and integrity of the embryo and do not involve disproportionate risks for it, but are directed toward its healing the improvement of its condition of health, or its individual survival."82 
"It is immoral to produce human embryos intended for exploitation as disposable biological material."83 
"Certain attempts to influence chromosomic or genetic inheritance are not therapeutic but are aimed at producing human beings selected according to sex or other predetermined qualities. 
Such manipulations are contrary to the personal dignity of the human being and his integrity and identity"84 which are unique and unrepeatable.

Euthanasia

2276 Those whose lives are diminished or weakened deserve special respect. Sick or handicapped persons should be helped to lead lives as normal as possible.

2277 Whatever its motives and means, direct euthanasia consists in putting an end to the lives of handicapped, sick, or dying persons. 
It is morally unacceptable.

Thus an act or omission which, of itself or by intention, causes death in order to eliminate suffering constitutes a murder gravely contrary to the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God, his Creator. 
The error of judgment into which one can fall in good faith does not change the nature of this murderous act, which must always be forbidden and excluded.

2278 Discontinuing medical procedures that are burdensome, dangerous, extraordinary, or disproportionate to the expected outcome can be legitimate; it is the refusal of "over-zealous" treatment. 
Here one does not will to cause death; one's inability to impede it is merely accepted.
The decisions should be made by the patient if he is competent and able or, if not, by those legally entitled to act for the patient, whose reasonable will and legitimate interests must always be respected.

2279 Even if death is thought imminent, the ordinary care owed to a sick person cannot be legitimately interrupted. 
The use of painkillers to alleviate the sufferings of the dying, even at the risk of shortening their days, can be morally in conformity with human dignity if death is not willed as either an end or a means, but only foreseen and tolerated as inevitable 
Palliative care is a special form of disinterested charity. 
As such it should be encouraged.

Suicide

2280 Everyone is responsible for his life before God who has given it to him. 
It is God who remains the sovereign Master of life. 
We are obliged to accept life gratefully and preserve it for his honor and the salvation of our souls. 
We are stewards, not owners, of the life God has entrusted to us. 
It is not ours to dispose of.

2281 Suicide contradicts the natural inclination of the human being to preserve and perpetuate his life. 
It is gravely contrary to the just love of self. 
It likewise offends love of neighbor because it unjustly breaks the ties of solidarity with family, nation, and other human societies to which we continue to have obligations. 
Suicide is contrary to love for the living God.

2282 If suicide is committed with the intention of setting an example, especially to the young, it also takes on the gravity of scandal.
Voluntary co-operation in suicide is contrary to the moral law. 
Grave psychological disturbances, anguish, or grave fear of hardship, suffering, or torture can diminish the responsibility of the one committing suicide.

2283 We should not despair of the eternal salvation of persons who have taken their own lives. By ways known to him alone, God can provide the opportunity for salutary repentance. the Church prays for persons who have taken their own lives.

二、尊重人的尊嚴

尊重他人的靈魂::不立壞榜樣
2284.壞榜樣是誘使他人作惡的態度或舉止。樹立壞榜樣者成為近人的引誘或失職的方式,故意引人犯重大罪過,則構成嚴重的罪過。

2285. 因著樹立壞榜樣者的威信,或由於承受壞榜樣者的軟弱,壞榜樣具有特殊的嚴重性。這促使我們的主發出了這個詛咒:「無論誰,使這些信我的小子中的一個跌倒,倒不如拿一塊驢拉的磨石,繫在他的頸上,沉在海的深處更好」(瑪 18:6)。由於自然身分或職務,負責訓導和教育他人的人,所立的壞榜樣是嚴重的,耶穌曾以此責備經師和法利塞人:把他們比做偽裝羔羊的豺狼。

2286.壞榜樣能來自法律或體制,也能來自時尚或輿論。

據此,以下的人負有壞榜樣的罪責:制定一些法律或社會制度,足以導致道德的墮落或宗教生活的腐敗,或造成「一些社會環境,不論有意無意,使一個符合誡命的基督徒的操守變得十分困難,甚至在實際上成為不可能」。這也包括那些制定欺騙條例的企業首腦、那些招致學子「憤慨」的老師,或那些操縱公眾輿論,使其脫離道德價值的人士。

2287. 凡使用本身的權柄慫恿別人作惡,就是立壞榜樣的罪人,並應對他直接或間接促成的惡負責。「引人跌倒的事是免不了的;但是,引人跌倒的人是有禍的」(路 17:1)。

重視健康
2288.生命和身體健康是天主委託給人的珍貴寶物。我們應該合理地小心照料,同時顧及他人的需要和公益。
公民的健康維護要求社會的協助,以獲得公民得以成長和成熟的生存條件:衣食,住所,保健,基本教育,就業,社會保險。

2289. 道德固然要求尊重身體的生命,但並沒有把身體捧成是一個絕對的價值。道德反對新偶像崇拜:想要促進身體的崇拜,為它奉獻一切,把身體的健美和體育的成就當偶像來崇拜。這樣的觀念,因著在強者與弱者之間作淘汰性選擇的運作,能夠導致人際關係的反常。

2290. 節德使人避免各式各樣過度的行為,如過度飲食,濫用煙、酒和藥物等。凡在酒醉的狀態下或由於過分的喜好快速,在路上、海中或空中使他人和自己的安全陷於危險的行為,都構成嚴重的罪過。

2291. 使用毒品使人的健康和生命蒙受十分嚴重的損害,除非在嚴格治療的指定下,是一個嚴重的過錯。私造和販賣毒品是可恥的行為,因為促使人作出嚴重違反道德的行為,也構成一種直接的幫凶。

對人的尊重和科學研究
學的,能促進疾病的治療和公共衛生的進步。

2293. 基礎的和應用的科學研究,構成一個意義深長的標記,顯示人主宰萬物。科學和技術,若用於為人服務,並促進眾人的整體發展,是珍貴的資源;但科技本身,不能指出人的存在和人類進步的意義。科學和技術是為了人,由人而開始,靠人而發展;因此,科學和技術在人性和人的道德價值內,得到它們的目的並意識到自身的限度。

2294. 在科學研究及其應用上,宣稱道德中立,是一種不切實際的幻想。從另一方面說,科學研究取向的標準不能只取決於科技的效率,也不能為了給某些人帶來好處,而犧牲另一些人,更不能取決於流行的意識型態。科學和技術,由其自身的內在意義,要求無條件地尊重道德的基本原則;科學和技術應該依照天主的計劃和旨意,為人、為其不可轉讓的權利、以及為其真正和整體的利益服務。

2295. 以人作為對象的研究和實驗,不能使在本質上違反人之尊嚴和道德律的行為成為合法。接受研究和實驗者即使同意也不能使這樣的行為成為正當的。對人的實驗,若使接受實驗者的生命或身體及心理的完整性,承受不相稱的或可避免的危險,在道德上是不合法的。再者,對人的實驗,若沒有接受實驗者本人,或他的合法代理人的明確同意的話,有違人性的尊嚴。

2296. 器官的移植器官的移植,若沒有取得捐贈者或合法代理人的明確同意,在道德上,是不可接受的。如果器官捐贈者,在身體和心理上所冒的危險和傷害,與受贈者所企求的利益成正比例,則器官的移植不只合乎道德的法律,而且能是一個功績。若為了延緩他人的死亡,而直接引發另一個人的傷殘,或者死亡,在道德上,是不能接受的。

尊重身體的完整

2297.誘拐綁架擄人作人質是一種製造恐怖的手段,並因其威脅給受害者帶來無法忍受的折磨。在道德上,是不合法的。恐嚇威脅、不分青紅皂白地製造傷亡的恐怖主義,是嚴重地違反正義和愛德。採取對身體和對精神施暴,為迫使招供、為懲罰罪犯、為使異己分子懼怕、為發洩仇恨等所施的酷刑,都是蔑視人性和人性尊嚴。除了屬於嚴格治療範團的醫療指示以外,對無辜者直接故意進行切除肢體,,損毀肢體損毀肢體,,或絕 育手術,都違反道德律。

2298. 在過去,有些殘酷的做法,曾是合法政權,為了維護法律和秩序,一般應用的方法,而當時教會的牧者,多不提出抗議;事實上,牧者自身在自己的法庭裡,也採用了羅馬法的逼供刑法。在這些遺憾的事件以外,教會始終教導寬大和仁慈的責任;教會禁止聖職人員流人的血。在近代,這些殘酷的做法,為維持公共秩序,既無必要,也不符合人的合法權利,已是明顯的事實。相反,這些做法反而導致最壞的墮落,應該設法予以廢除。應為受害者和他們的劊子手祈禱。

尊重亡者
2299. 對臨終者應給予關懷與照顧,為協助他們在尊嚴和平安中,度過他們 人生最後的時刻。他們應當得到親人祈禱的幫助。他們的親人應留 意,使病人在適當的時刻領受聖事,為準備他們去會見生活的天主。

2300. 對亡者遺體應以尊敬和愛德看待,相信並希望他的復活。埋葬死者是一件對身體的慈悲工作;埋葬死者是對天主的子女──天主聖神宮殿的尊敬。

2301.為了法律的調查,或為了科學的研究,屍體的解剖,在道德上是可以接受的。死後器官的免費捐贈是合法的,且能是一個功績。
教會准許火葬,只要火葬並非對身體復活的信仰表示爭議。

 II. Respect for the Dignity of Persons

Respect for the souls of others: scandal

2284 Scandal is an attitude or behavior which leads another to do evil. the person who gives scandal becomes his neighbor's tempter. He damages virtue and integrity; he may even draw his brother into spiritual death. Scandal is a grave offense if by deed or omission another is deliberately led into a grave offense.

2285 Scandal takes on a particular gravity by reason of the authority of those who cause it or the weakness of those who are scandalized. It prompted our Lord to utter this curse: "Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened round his neck and to be drowned in the depth of the sea."85 Scandal is grave when given by those who by nature or office are obliged to teach and educate others. Jesus reproaches the scribes and Pharisees on this account: he likens them to wolves in sheep's clothing.86

2286 Scandal can be provoked by laws or institutions, by fashion or opinion.

 

Therefore, they are guilty of scandal who establish laws or social structures leading to the decline of morals and the corruption of religious practice, or to "social conditions that, intentionally or not, make Christian conduct and obedience to the Commandments difficult and practically impossible."87 This is also true of business leaders who make rules encouraging fraud, teachers who provoke their children to anger,88 or manipulators of public opinion who turn it away from moral values.

2287 Anyone who uses the power at his disposal in such a way that it leads others to do wrong becomes guilty of scandal and responsible for the evil that he has directly or indirectly encouraged. "Temptations to sin are sure to come; but woe to him by whom they come!"89

Respect for health

2288 Life and physical health are precious gifts entrusted to us by God. 
We must take reasonable care of them, taking into account the needs of others and the common good. 
Concern for the health of its citizens requires that society help in the attainment of living-conditions that allow them to grow and reach maturity: food and clothing, housing, health care, basic education, employment, and social assistance.

2289 If morality requires respect for the life of the body, it does not make it an absolute value. 
It rejects a neo-pagan notion that tends to promote the cult of the body, to sacrifice everything for it's sake, to idolize physical perfection and success at sports. 
By its selective preference of the strong over the weak, such a conception can lead to the perversion of human relationships.

2290 The virtue of temperance disposes us to avoid every kind of excess: the abuse of food, alcohol, tobacco, or medicine. Those incur grave guilt who, by drunkenness or a love of speed, endanger their own and others' safety on the road, at sea, or in the air.

2291 The use of drugs inflicts very grave damage on human health and life. Their use, except on strictly therapeutic grounds, is a grave offense. Clandestine production of and trafficking in drugs are scandalous practices. They constitute direct co-operation in evil, since they encourage people to practices gravely contrary to the moral law.

Respect for the person and scientific research

2292 Scientific, medical, or psychological experiments on human individuals or groups can contribute to healing the sick and the advancement of public health.

2293 Basic scientific research, as well as applied research, is a significant expression of man's dominion over creation. Science and technology are precious resources when placed at the service of man and promote his integral development for the benefit of all. By themselves however they cannot disclose the meaning of existence and of human progress. Science and technology are ordered to man, from whom they take their origin and development; hence they find in the person and in his moral values both evidence of their purpose and awareness of their limits.

2294 It is an illusion to claim moral neutrality in scientific research and its applications. On the other hand, guiding principles cannot be inferred from simple technical efficiency, or from the usefulness accruing to some at the expense of others or, even worse, from prevailing ideologies. Science and technology by their very nature require unconditional respect for fundamental moral criteria. They must be at the service of the human person, of his inalienable rights, of his true and integral good, in conformity with the plan and the will of God.

2295 Research or experimentation on the human being cannot legitimate acts that are in themselves contrary to the dignity of persons and to the moral law. the subjects' potential consent does not justify such acts. Experimentation on human beings is not morally legitimate if it exposes the subject's life or physical and psychological integrity to disproportionate or avoidable risks. Experimentation on human beings does not conform to the dignity of the person if it takes place without the informed consent of the subject or those who legitimately speak for him.

2296 Organ transplants are in conformity with the moral law if the physical and psychological dangers and risks incurred by the donor are proportionate to the good sought for the recipient. Donation of organs after death is a noble and meritorious act and is to be encouraged as a manifestation of generous solidarity. It is not morally acceptable if the donor or those who legitimately speak for him have not given their explicit consent.
It is furthermore morally inadmissible directly to bring about the disabling mutilation or death of a human being, even in order to delay the death of other persons.

Respect for bodily integrity

2297 Kidnapping and hostage taking bring on a reign of terror; by means of threats they subject their victims to intolerable pressures. They are morally wrong. Terrorism threatens, wounds, and kills indiscriminately; it is gravely against justice and charity.
Torture which uses physical or moral violence to extract confessions, punish the guilty, frighten opponents, or satisfy hatred is contrary to respect for the person and for human dignity. Except when performed for strictly therapeutic medical reasons, directly intended amputations, mutilations, and sterilizations performed on innocent persons are against the moral law.90

2298 In times past, cruel practices were commonly used by legitimate governments to maintain law and order, often without protest from the Pastors of the Church, who themselves adopted in their own tribunals the prescriptions of Roman law concerning torture. Regrettable as these facts are, the Church always taught the duty of clemency and mercy. She forbade clerics to shed blood. In recent times it has become evident that these cruel practices were neither necessary for public order, nor in conformity with the legitimate rights of the human person. On the contrary, these practices led to ones even more degrading. It is necessary to work for their abolition. We must pray for the victims and their tormentors.

Respect for the dead

2299 The dying should be given attention and care to help them live their last moments in dignity and peace. They will be helped by the prayer of their relatives, who must see to it that the sick receive at the proper time the sacraments that prepare them to meet the living God.

2300 The bodies of the dead must be treated with respect and charity, in faith and hope of the Resurrection. the burial of the dead is a corporal work of mercy;91 it honors the children of God, who are temples of the Holy Spirit.

2301 Autopsies can be morally permitted for legal inquests or scientific research. the free gift of organs after death is legitimate and can be meritorious. 
The Church permits cremation, provided that it does not demonstrate a denial of faith in the resurrection of the body.92

三、維護和平

和平
2302.我們的主在提出「不可殺人」的誡命(瑪 5:21)時,要求內心的和平,並譴責導致殺人的憤怒和仇恨為不道德。

憤怒 是復仇的願望。「願對應受懲罰者施以報復」是不許可的;但是,「為了糾正惡習,並為了維護正義」,要求補償是值得讚揚的。如果憤怒的程度,致使他堅決願意殺害近人或嚴重地傷害對方,則是嚴重地違反愛德;也是大罪。主說:「凡向自己弟兄發怒的,就要受裁判」(瑪 5:22)。

2303. 故意的仇恨相反愛德。故意希望對方遭遇不幸的仇恨是罪過。而故意希望對方遭到重大不幸時,罪過更為嚴重。「我對你們說:你們當愛你們的仇人,當為迫害你們的人祈禱,好使你們成為你們在天之父的子女……」(瑪 5:44-45)。

2304. 尊重人性生命及其成長有賴和平。和平不是單指沒有戰爭,也不只限於保証敵對雙方武力上的均衡。如無對人們財產的保護、人與人之間的自由交流、對民族和個人的尊嚴的尊重,弟兄情誼的經常實施,和平不可能在人間實現。和平是「秩序的和諧」。和平是正義的工程,愛德的成果。

2305. 世間的和平是「和平之王」(依 9:5),默西亞、基督的和平的肖象和果實。基督以其在十字架上傾流的血,「在自己的身上誅滅了仇恨」(弗 2:16),基督使人與天主和好,使祂的教會成了人類的合一及與天主結合的聖事。「他是我們的和平」(弗 2:14)。祂宣稱「締造和平的人是有福的」(瑪 5:9)。

2306.那些為了維護人的權利,放棄血腥和暴力,而甘願採取弱者的自衛方生的毀滅與死亡,是多麼嚴重。
避免戰爭

2307. 第五誡禁止故意毀滅人性生命。因為任何戰爭都招致一些災禍與不義,教會懇切地催促每一個人祈禱和採取行動,好使天主的聖善把我們從戰爭的古老奴役中解救出來。

2308.每一位國民和執政者均應為避免戰爭而努力。

然而,幾時「出現戰爭危機,而又沒有擁有管轄權及足夠能力的國際組織,在一切和平方法用盡之後,不應否認政府有合法的自衛權利」。

2309. 應以嚴謹態度,考慮訴諸武力的合法自衛的嚴格條件。此種決定的嚴重性,應使此種自衛受到道德合法性的嚴格條件的規範,即須同時兼有下列條件:

──侵略者所加予國家或國際社會的傷害應是持續的、嚴重的和確定的;
──除訴諸武力以外的其他一切辦法均顯示不切實際或無效;
──有成功的可靠條件;
──訴諸武力不會招致比應剷除的惡,有更大的惡及混亂。現代武器的毀滅威力,在此種狀況的評估中,要求極度的明智。
這些是在所謂「正義戰爭」的道理中例舉的傳統要素。 負責公益者,應該審慎評估其道德合法性的條件。
2310.政府在此情況下,有權利和義務加予國民為國防必要的職責
獻身於軍旅生活為祖國服務者,是人民安全和自由的公僕。如果他們能忠於職守, 他們真的有助於國家的公益與和平的維繫。
2311.基於良心的動機而拒絕使用武器的人,仍有義務以其他方式服務人群。公權力應予以公平的安排。
2312.教會和人的理性肯定,在武裝衝突中道德律的效力不變。「不是因為戰爭不幸地爆發, 作戰的雙方就因此可以為所欲為」。

2313. 應以人道來尊重和對待非戰鬥人員,傷兵和戰俘。均是罪行。盲目的服從不足使那些順從者得以免罪。因此對殲滅一個民族,一個國家或一個少數種族的行為,應加以譴責,視為大罪。人們有道德義務反抗種族滅絕的命令。

2314. 「任何戰爭行為,毫不辨別地消滅整個都市或廣闊地區及其居民,是反對天主及人類的罪行,應堅決而不猶豫地加以譴責」。現代戰爭的危機是對持有科學武器,尤其是原子武器、生物或化學武器者,提供觸犯這類罪行的機會。

2315. 囤積武器,在許多人看來,是使可能的敵人,放棄戰爭的似是而非的辦法。他們認為這可能是保証國際間和平最有效的方法。這嚇阻方法,在道德上十分值得商榷。武器競賽不能保証和平。它不但無法消除戰爭原因,反而增加戰爭危險。為追求不斷有新的武器,而花費龐大的資源,阻礙為貧困的人民提供援助也延遲了各民族的發展。軍備競賽增多衝突的理由,也增加擴展衝突的危險。

2316. 武器生產及交易,觸及國家和國際社會的公益。因此,公權力有權利與義務予以管制。為了短期私人的或集體的利益,不能使煽動國際間的暴力與衝突,而又危害國際公法秩序的企業合法化。

2317. 不義、經濟或社會制度的過度失衡、嫉妒、不信任及傲慢,在人與人之間、國與國之間蔓延,便不斷威脅和平並引發戰爭。為剷除這些失序而作的任何努力,有助於建設和平及避免戰爭:

如果以人類都是罪人而言,常有戰爭的危險在威脅著,直到基督再來,常是一樣。但以人類在愛中合一而言,則將戰勝罪惡,並戰勝暴力,直到實現這句預言:「人們將把自己的刀劍鑄成鋤頭,將自己的槍矛製成鐮刀;民族與民族不再持刀相向,人們也不再學習戰鬥」(依 2:4)。

 III. Safeguarding Peace

Peace

2302 By recalling the commandment, "You shall not kill,"93 our Lord asked for peace of heart and denounced murderous anger and hatred as immoral. 
Anger is a desire for revenge. "To desire vengeance in order to do evil to someone who should be punished is illicit," but it is praiseworthy to impose restitution "to correct vices and maintain justice."94 If anger reaches the point of a deliberate desire to kill or seriously wound a neighbor, it is gravely against charity; it is a mortal sin. the Lord says, "Everyone who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment."95

2303 Deliberate hatred is contrary to charity. Hatred of the neighbor is a sin when one deliberately wishes him evil. Hatred of the neighbor is a grave sin when one deliberately desires him grave harm. "But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven."96

2304 Respect for and development of human life require peace. Peace is not merely the absence of war, and it is not limited to maintaining a balance of powers between adversaries. Peace cannot be attained on earth without safeguarding the goods of persons, free communication among men, respect for the dignity of persons and peoples, and the assiduous practice of fraternity. Peace is "the tranquillity of order."97 Peace is the work of justice and the effect of charity.98

2305 Earthly peace is the image and fruit of the peace of Christ, the messianic "Prince of Peace."99 By the blood of his Cross, "in his own person he killed the hostility,"100 he reconciled men with God and made his Church the sacrament of the unity of the human race and of its union with God. "He is our peace."101 He has declared: "Blessed are the peacemakers."102

2306 Those who renounce violence and bloodshed and, in order to safeguard human rights, make use of those means of defense available to the weakest, bear witness to evangelical charity, provided they do so without harming the rights and obligations of other men and societies. They bear legitimate witness to the gravity of the physical and moral risks of recourse to violence, with all its destruction and death.103

Avoiding war

2307 The fifth commandment forbids the intentional destruction of human life. Because of the evils and injustices that accompany all war, the Church insistently urges everyone to prayer and to action so that the divine Goodness may free us from the ancient bondage of war.104

2308 All citizens and all governments are obliged to work for the avoidance of war. 
However, "as long as the danger of war persists and there is no international authority with the necessary competence and power, governments cannot be denied the right of lawful self-defense, once all peace efforts have failed."105

2309 The strict conditions for legitimate defense by military force require rigorous consideration. the gravity of such a decision makes it subject to rigorous conditions of moral legitimacy. At one and the same time: 
- the damage inflicted by the aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave, and certain; 
- all other means of putting an end to it must have been shown to be impractical or ineffective; 
- there must be serious prospects of success; 
- the use of arms must not produce evils and disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated. the power of modem means of destruction weighs very heavily in evaluating this condition.

These are the traditional elements enumerated in what is called the "just war" doctrine. 
The evaluation of these conditions for moral legitimacy belongs to the prudential judgment of those who have responsibility for the common good.

2310 Public authorities, in this case, have the right and duty to impose on citizens the obligations necessary for national defense. 
Those who are sworn to serve their country in the armed forces are servants of the security and freedom of nations. If they carry out their duty honorably, they truly contribute to the common good of the nation and the maintenance of peace.106

2311 Public authorities should make equitable provision for those who for reasons of conscience refuse to bear arms; these are nonetheless obliged to serve the human community in some other way.107

2312 The Church and human reason both assert the permanent validity of the moral law during armed conflict. "The mere fact that war has regrettably broken out does not mean that everything becomes licit between the warring parties."108

2313 Non-combatants, wounded soldiers, and prisoners must be respected and treated humanely. 
Actions deliberately contrary to the law of nations and to its universal principles are crimes, as are the orders that command such actions. Blind obedience does not suffice to excuse those who carry them out. Thus the extermination of a people, nation, or ethnic minority must be condemned as a mortal sin. One is morally bound to resist orders that command genocide.

2314 "Every act of war directed to the indiscriminate destruction of whole cities or vast areas with their inhabitants is a crime against God and man, which merits firm and unequivocal condemnation."109 A danger of modern warfare is that it provides the opportunity to those who possess modern scientific weapons especially atomic, biological, or chemical weapons - to commit such crimes.

2315 The accumulation of arms strikes many as a paradoxically suitable way of deterring potential adversaries from war. They see it as the most effective means of ensuring peace among nations. This method of deterrence gives rise to strong moral reservations. the arms race does not ensure peace. Far from eliminating the causes of war, it risks aggravating them. Spending enormous sums to produce ever new types of weapons impedes efforts to aid needy populations;110 it thwarts the development of peoples. Over-armament multiplies reasons for conflict and increases the danger of escalation.

2316 The production and the sale of arms affect the common good of nations and of the international community. Hence public authorities have the right and duty to regulate them. the short-term pursuit of private or collective interests cannot legitimate undertakings that promote violence and conflict among nations and compromise the international juridical order.

2317 Injustice, excessive economic or social inequalities, envy, distrust, and pride raging among men and nations constantly threaten peace and cause wars. Everything done to overcome these disorders contributes to building up peace and avoiding war:

Insofar as men are sinners, the threat of war hangs over them and will so continue until Christ comes again; but insofar as they can vanquish sin by coming together in charity, violence itself will be vanquished and these words will be fulfilled: "they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more."111

撮要


2318.「一切活動的生魂,一切血肉之人的靈魂都握在祂的手中」(約 12:10)。

2319.所有人的生命,自受孕的一刻,直到死亡,是神聖的,因為天主是為了人自己而愛人,使他成為生活的和神聖的天主的肖象。

2320.殺人嚴重地違反人的尊嚴和造物主的神聖。

2321.殺人的禁令並不廢止另一權利,就是使不義的攻擊者無法再害人。合法的自衛是負責他人生命及公益的人的重大責任。

2322. 嬰兒自受孕之初,就有生存的權利。直接墮胎,就是故意墮胎,不論 是作為目的或方法,都是「罪惡的勾當」,嚴重地違反道德律。教會 按教會法以絕罰處分這違反生命的罪行。

2323. 既然胚胎自受孕之初就該像人一樣看待,那麼也該像任何人一樣受到 完整的保護、照顧和治療。 

2324.刻意的安樂死,不論是屬何種形式或何種動機,都構成兇殺,它嚴重地違反人的尊嚴,並對生活的天主、造物主不敬。

2325.自殺是嚴重地違反義德、望德和愛德。這是第五誡所禁止的。

2326.壞榜樣以行動或缺失壞榜樣以行動或缺失,,故意引人犯罪故意引人犯罪,,是嚴重的罪過是嚴重的罪過。

2327.所有的戰爭引來災禍和不義,我們應該用一切合理的方法,避免戰爭。教會祈禱:「主啊,從飢餓、瘟疫和戰爭中拯救我們」。

2328.在武裝衝突中,教會以及人的理智都聲明,道德律仍恆常有效。故意違反人權及其普遍原則的行動,均是罪行。

2329.「軍備競賽是人類極大的創傷,無情地傷害窮人」。

2330.「締造和平的人是有福的,因為他們要稱為天主的子女」(瑪 5:9)。

IN BRIEF

2318 "In [God's] hand is the life of every living thing and the breath of all mankind" ( Job 12:10).

2319 Every human life, from the moment of conception until death, is sacred because the human person has been willed for its own sake in the image and likeness of the living and holy God.

2320 The murder of a human being is gravely contrary to the dignity of the person and the holiness of the Creator.

2321 The prohibition of murder does not abrogate the right to render an unjust aggressor unable to inflict harm. Legitimate defense is a grave duty for whoever is responsible for the lives of others or the common good.

2322 From its conception, the child has the right to life. Direct abortion, that is, abortion willed as an end or as a means, is a "criminal" practice (GS 27 # 3), gravely contrary to the moral law. the Church imposes the canonical penalty of excommunication for this crime against human life.

2323 Because it should be treated as a person from conception, the embryo must be defended in its integrity, cared for, and healed like every other human being.

2324 Intentional euthanasia, whatever its forms or motives, is murder. It is gravely contrary to the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God, his Creator.

2325 Suicide is seriously contrary to justice, hope, and charity. It is forbidden by the fifth commandment.

2326 Scandal is a grave offense when by deed or omission it deliberately leads others to sin.

2327 Because of the evils and injustices that all war brings with it, we must do everything reasonably possible to avoid it. the Church prays: "From famine, pestilence, and war, O Lord, deliver us."

2328 The Church and human reason assert the permanent validity of the moral law during armed conflicts. Practices deliberately contrary to the law of nations and to its universal principles are crimes.

2329 "The arms race is one of the greatest curses on the human race and the harm it inflicts on the poor is more than can be endured" (GS 81 # 3).

2330 "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God" ( Mt 5:9).

第六條

第六誡

不可姦淫(出 20:14;申 5:17)。
你們一向聽人說過「不可姦淫」,而我對你們說:「凡注視婦女,有意貪戀她的,他已在心裏姦淫了她」(瑪 5:27-28)。

 

一 、「 天主造了男人女人……」

2331. 「天主是愛,在祂內有一種相愛共融的奧跡。祂依照自己的肖象造了人類男女……在其內銘刻了愛與共融的召叫,也賦予他們相稱的能力和責任」。

「天主照自己的肖象造了人……造了男人、女人」(創 1:27);「你們要生育繁殖」(創 1:28);「天主造人的時候,是按自己肖象造的,造了男人、女人,造他們的那一天,祝福了他們,稱他們為人」(創 5:1-2)。

2332. 在肉身與靈魂合一之下,人在各方面都受到性的影響。性特別牽涉到感情、相愛和生育的能力,也更廣泛地關係到與別人建立共融的連繫的能力。
差異互補性,都是導向婚姻的福祉和家庭生活的發展。夫婦的和諧與社會的和諧,部分有賴於怎樣活出兩性之間的互補、互賴與互相支持。

2334. 「在創造男人和女人時,天主給予男女平等的位格尊嚴」「人有位格,同樣,男人和女人都有位格,因為二者都是依照有位格的天主的肖象和模樣造成的」。

2335. 兩性的每一方面,尊嚴相等,雖則方式不同,都是天主大能及溫柔的肖象。男女在婚姻中的結合,就是在肉體方面,效法造物主的慷慨與多產:「人應離開自己的父母,依附自己的妻子,二人成為一體」(創 2:24)。人類的世世代代均由此結合而來。

2336. 耶穌來,是為恢復受造界原有的純潔。在山中聖訓裡,祂嚴格地解釋天主的計劃:「你們一向聽說過:『不可姦淫』!我卻對你們說:凡注視婦女,有意貪戀她的,他已在心裏姦淫了她」(瑪 5:27-28)。天主所結合的,人不可拆散。

教會的聖傳領會到,第六誡涵蓋有關人類「性」的全部內容。

Article 6

THE SIXTH COMMANDMENT

You shall not commit adultery.112 
You have heard that it was said, "You shall not commit adultery." 
But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.113

I. "Male and Female He Created Them . . ."

2331 "God is love and in himself he lives a mystery of personal loving communion. Creating the human race in his own image . . .. God inscribed in the humanity of man and woman the vocation, and thus the capacity and responsibility, of love and communion."114

"God created man in his own image . . . male and female he created them";115 He blessed them and said, "Be fruitful and multiply";116 "When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. Male and female he created them, and he blessed them and named them Man when they were created."117

2332 Sexuality affects all aspects of the human person in the unity of his body and soul. It especially concerns affectivity, the capacity to love and to procreate, and in a more general way the aptitude for forming bonds of communion with others.

2333 Everyone, man and woman, should acknowledge and accept his sexual identity. Physical, moral, and spiritual difference and complementarity are oriented toward the goods of marriage and the flourishing of family life. the harmony of the couple and of society depends in part on the way in which the complementarity, needs, and mutual support between the sexes are lived out.

2334 "In creating men 'male and female,' God gives man and woman an equal personal dignity."118 "Man is a person, man and woman equally so, since both were created in the image and likeness of the personal God."119

2335 Each of the two sexes is an image of the power and tenderness of God, with equal dignity though in a different way. the union of man and woman in marriage is a way of imitating in the flesh the Creator's generosity and fecundity: "Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and cleaves to his wife, and they become one flesh."120 All human generations proceed from this union.121

2336 Jesus came to restore creation to the purity of its origins. In the Sermon on the Mount, he interprets God's plan strictly: "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.' But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart."122 What God has joined together, let not man put asunder.123 
The tradition of the Church has understood the sixth commandment as encompassing the whole of human sexuality.

二、貞潔的聖召

2337. 貞潔是性在人身上成功的整合,由此人在肉體與靈性方面得到內在的合一。性表示人是屬於肉體的與生物的世界,但當男女完全地和終身地彼此交付,使性整合於人與人的關係時,性便屬於個人的和真正地合乎人性。

所以,貞潔的德行包括著人的完整和自我交付的全部。
人的完整
2338.貞潔的人保存那在他內的生命與愛之力量的完整。這種完整確保人位格的一體性,反對任何傷害它的行為,因此不容雙重的生活及語言。

2339. 貞潔需要學習自制,就是人性自由的訓練。二者的取捨是明顯的:人控制其情慾,則得平安;如果受制於它,則不愉快。「人性尊嚴要求人以有意識的自由抉擇行事,意即出於個人的心悅誠服而行事,而非出於內在的盲目衝動,或出於外在的脅迫而行事。人將自己由私慾的奴役中解放出來,並以自由選擇為善的方式,追求其宗旨,同時又辛勤而又有效地運用合宜的方法,這樣的人才算達到其尊嚴」。

2340.誰願意忠於洗禮誓願,並願抵抗誘惑,應注意下列方法:認識自己、失落的一體性」。
2341.貞潔的德行由樞德中的節制之德所推動,其目的在於以理性滲透人的情感和感官的貪求。

2342. 自制是一項長期努力的工作。不可認為一次獲得即永遠獲得。它假定生命中每一階段都得重新努力。在某一時期可能需要更大的努力,比如,在人格形成期、在童年及青春期。

2343. 貞潔有成長的規律,在不同階段的過程中,會出現不完美甚至罪過的情況。「有操守及貞潔的人,經由許多自由的決定,日復一日地建立自己,因此他根據成長的階段,認識、喜愛並完成倫理的美德」。

2344. 貞潔特別顯出個人的功夫,也包括文化方面的努力,因為「個人的發展和社會的進步,是互相依屬的」。貞潔假定尊重人的權利,尤其是接受資訊和教育的權利。此資訊與教育該尊重人類生命中道德與精神的幅度。

2345.貞潔是一種道德方面的美德。貞潔也是天主的禮物、恩寵、屬靈工作的結果。聖神賜給領洗而重生的人,效法基督的純潔。
完整的自我交付

2346. 愛德是一切美德的典型。在愛德的影響下,貞潔就像學習自我交付的學校。自制導向自我交付。貞潔使實踐它的人,在近人面前,變成天主信實和仁愛的見証。

2347. 貞潔之德在友情中開展。貞潔指給門徒,如何追隨並效法基督,祂選擇了我們作祂的朋友,祂把自己完全交付給我們,並使我們分享祂的天主性。貞潔是不朽的許諾。

貞潔明顯地表達於對近人的友愛中。無論是同性或異性中間所發展的友情,對大家都是一大好處。友情導向靈性的共融。
不同形式的貞潔

2348. 所有受洗的人都被召守貞潔。基督徒「穿上了基督」(迦 3:27)、各種貞潔的模範。基督的所有信徒,都被召叫,按照他們個別的生活方式,度貞潔的生活。在洗禮時,基督徒就已承諾要以貞潔引導自己的感情。

2349.「每人按照不同的生活方式,而有不同的修練貞潔的方式:有些人守妻間的貞潔,其餘的人須以節制實行貞潔:
聖安博,《論寡婦》:貞潔之德有三種形式:就是夫婦、寡居者及童貞者三種。我們不應讚美其一,而排斥其它。這就是教會的紀律豐富之處。

2350. 已訂婚者被召以節制持守貞潔。他們受此考驗,將發現彼此的敬重,並將學習在忠信與希望中,從天主那裡彼此接納。他們將把夫妻之愛特有的溫存,保留到婚姻時。他們要彼此幫助在貞潔中成長。

違反貞潔的罪
2351.邪淫是錯亂的慾念,或性快感不羈的取樂。每當人排除生育和結合的目的,而只求性快感,在道德上是錯亂的。

2352. 所謂手淫的意思是故意刺激生殖器官,從而得到性的快感。「在一脈相傳、恆久不變的傳統中,無論是教會訓導當局,或是信友的道德意識,都毫不猶豫地肯定,手淫是一個本質上嚴重的錯亂行為」。「無論其動機為何,在正規的夫妻關係以外,故意使用性功能,都違反其目的」。手淫是在性關係以外尋求性的享受,而「性關係為了道德的要求,是應在真正相愛的情況下,實踐彼此交付及人類生育的完整意義」。

為對當事人應負的道德責任作出一個公允的判斷,也為指點牧民的行動,應考慮其感情上的不成熟、沾染惡習的影響、焦慮以及其他心理和社會的因素,可減輕道得罪責,也可減到最低的程道。

2353. 行淫是指有自由身分(未結婚)的男女之性交行為。它嚴重地違反人的尊嚴,並違反人的性,因為性自然地導向夫妻的幸福及兒女的生育與教育。此外,如果行淫造成青少年敗壞,便是嚴重的壞榜樣。

2354. 色情產品是把伴侶表達親密之性行為,無論是真實的或偽裝的,故意展示在第三者眼前。色情產品違反貞潔,因為它使夫婦行為變質,這原是夫妻彼此親密的交付。色情產品嚴重地傷害參與的人(表演者、商人及社會大眾)之尊嚴,因為每一個人為另一個人,變成低級快樂及不法營利的對象。色情產品使大家沉浸在幻覺的世界中,是嚴重的罪過。政府應阻止色情資料的生產與擴散。

2355. 賣淫傷害當事者的尊嚴,使其淪為肉慾快樂的工具。嫖客嚴重地犯罪相反自己:違反在洗禮時曾經承諾的貞潔,玷污自己的身體,聖神的宮殿。賣淫構成社會的大患。受害者通常涉及婦女,但也有男人、兒童及少年 (在最後二者情況中,又增加了壞榜樣的罪)。賣淫固然常是嚴重的罪過,但是窮困、壓榨及社會的壓力,可能減輕罪責。 2356.強姦是指以暴力強行與一個人有性關係。它破壞正義與愛德。強姦深

害,能終生烙在受害者身上。強姦常是一項本質上邪惡的行為。如果是由父母所犯 (亂倫),或是由師長對託付給他們教養的孩子所犯,則強姦更為嚴重。

貞潔與同性戀

2357. 同性戀是指在男人間,或女人間,對同一性別的人,體驗著一種獨佔的或佔優勢的性吸引力。歷經各世代及不同文化,它具有不同的形式。其心理方面的起因大部分仍不可解釋。根據聖經,同性戀的行為顯示嚴重的腐敗,聖傳常聲明「同性戀的行為是本質的錯亂」,是違反自然律的行為,排除生命的賜予,不是來自一種感情上及性方面的真正互補。在任何情形下同性戀行為是不許可的。

2358.有為數不少的男女,呈現著天生的同性戀傾向。同性戀並非他們刻意的選擇;正是這事實為他們大多數人構成了一種考驗。對他們應該以尊重、同情和體貼相待。應該避免對他們有任何不公平的歧視。這些人被召在他們身上實行天主的旨意,如果他們是基督徒,應把他們由於此種情形可能遭遇的困難,與基督十字架上的犧牲結合在一起。

2359. 同性戀者被召守貞潔。藉著訓練人內心自由的自制諸德行,有時藉著無私友情的支持,藉著祈禱和聖事的恩寵,他們可以,也應該,漸次地並決心地,走向基督徒的成全。

II. The Vocation to Chastity

2337 Chastity means the successful integration of sexuality within the person and thus the inner unity of man in his bodily and spiritual being. Sexuality, in which man's belonging to the bodily and biological world is expressed, becomes personal and truly human when it is integrated into the relationship of one person to another, in the complete and lifelong mutual gift of a man and a woman. 
The virtue of chastity therefore involves the integrity of the person and the integrality of the gift.

The integrity of the person

2338 The chaste person maintains the integrity of the powers of life and love placed in him. This integrity ensures the unity of the person; it is opposed to any behavior that would impair it. It tolerates neither a double life nor duplicity in speech.124

2339 Chastity includes an apprenticeship in self-mastery which is a training in human freedom. the alternative is clear: either man governs his passions and finds peace, or he lets himself be dominated by them and becomes unhappy.125 "Man's dignity therefore requires him to act out of conscious and free choice, as moved and drawn in a personal way from within, and not by blind impulses in himself or by mere external constraint. Man gains such dignity when, ridding himself of all slavery to the passions, he presses forward to his goal by freely choosing what is good and, by his diligence and skill, effectively secures for himself the means suited to this end."126

2340 Whoever wants to remain faithful to his baptismal promises and resist temptations will want to adopt the means for doing so: self-knowledge, practice of an ascesis adapted to the situations that confront him, obedience to God's commandments, exercise of the moral virtues, and fidelity to prayer. "Indeed it is through chastity that we are gathered together and led back to the unity from which we were fragmented into multiplicity."127

2341 The virtue of chastity comes under the cardinal virtue of temperance, which seeks to permeate the passions and appetites of the senses with reason.

2342 Self-mastery is a long and exacting work. One can never consider it acquired once and for all. It presupposes renewed effort at all stages of life.128 The effort required can be more intense in certain periods, such as when the personality is being formed during childhood and adolescence.

2343 Chastity has laws of growth which progress through stages marked by imperfection and too often by sin. "Man . . . day by day builds himself up through his many free decisions; and so he knows, loves, and accomplishes moral good by stages of growth."129

2344 Chastity represents an eminently personal task; it also involves a cultural effort, for there is "an interdependence between personal betterment and the improvement of society."130 Chastity presupposes respect for the rights of the person, in particular the right to receive information and an education that respect the moral and spiritual dimensions of human life.

2345 Chastity is a moral virtue. It is also a gift from God, a grace, a fruit of spiritual effort.131 The Holy Spirit enables one whom the water of Baptism has regenerated to imitate the purity of Christ.132

The integrality of the gift of self

2346 Charity is the form of all the virtues. Under its influence, chastity appears as a school of the gift of the person. Self-mastery is ordered to the gift of self. Chastity leads him who practices it to become a witness to his neighbor of God's fidelity and loving kindness.

2347 The virtue of chastity blossoms in friendship. It shows the disciple how to follow and imitate him who has chosen us as his friends,133 who has given himself totally to us and allows us to participate in his divine estate. Chastity is a promise of immortality. 
Chastity is expressed notably in friendship with one's neighbor. Whether it develops between persons of the same or opposite sex, friendship represents a great good for all. It leads to spiritual communion.

The various forms of chastity

2348 All the baptized are called to chastity. the Christian has "put on Christ,"134 The model for all chastity. All Christ's faithful are called to lead a chaste life in keeping with their particular states of life. At the moment of his Baptism, the Christian is pledged to lead his affective life in chastity.

2349 "People should cultivate [chastity] in the way that is suited to their state of life. Some profess virginity or consecrated celibacy which enables them to give themselves to God alone with an undivided heart in a remarkable manner. Others live in the way prescribed for all by the moral law, whether they are married or single."135 Married people are called to live conjugal chastity; others practice chastity in continence:

There are three forms of the virtue of chastity: the first is that of spouses, the second that of widows, and the third that of virgins. We do not praise any one of them to the exclusion of the others.... This is what makes for the richness of the discipline of the Church.136

2350 Those who are engaged to marry are called to live chastity in continence. They should see in this time of testing a discovery of mutual respect, an apprenticeship in fidelity, and the hope of receiving one another from God. They should reserve for marriage the expressions of affection that belong to married love. They will help each other grow in chastity.

Offenses against chastity

2351 Lust is disordered desire for or inordinate enjoyment of sexual pleasure. Sexual pleasure is morally disordered when sought for itself, isolated from its procreative and unitive purposes.

2352 By masturbation is to be understood the deliberate stimulation of the genital organs in order to derive sexual pleasure. "Both the Magisterium of the Church, in the course of a constant tradition, and the moral sense of the faithful have been in no doubt and have firmly maintained that masturbation is an intrinsically and gravely disordered action."137 "The deliberate use of the sexual faculty, for whatever reason, outside of marriage is essentially contrary to its purpose." For here sexual pleasure is sought outside of "the sexual relationship which is demanded by the moral order and in which the total meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of true love is achieved."138 
To form an equitable judgment about the subjects' moral responsibility and to guide pastoral action, one must take into account the affective immaturity, force of acquired habit, conditions of anxiety, or other psychological or social factors that lessen or even extenuate moral culpability.

2353 Fornication is carnal union between an unmarried man and an unmarried woman. It is gravely contrary to the dignity of persons and of human sexuality which is naturally ordered to the good of spouses and the generation and education of children. Moreover, it is a grave scandal when there is corruption of the young.

2354 Pornography consists in removing real or simulated sexual acts from the intimacy of the partners, in order to display them deliberately to third parties. It offends against chastity because it perverts the conjugal act, the intimate giving of spouses to each other. It does grave injury to the dignity of its participants (actors, vendors, the public), since each one becomes an object of base pleasure and illicit profit for others. It immerses all who are involved in the illusion of a fantasy world. It is a grave offense. Civil authorities should prevent the production and distribution of pornographic materials.

2355 Prostitution does injury to the dignity of the person who engages in it, reducing the person to an instrument of sexual pleasure. the one who pays sins gravely against himself: he violates the chastity to which his Baptism pledged him and defiles his body, the temple of the Holy Spirit.139 Prostitution is a social scourge. It usually involves women, but also men, children, and adolescents (The latter two cases involve the added sin of scandal.). While it is always gravely sinful to engage in prostitution, the imputability of the offense can be attenuated by destitution, blackmail, or social pressure.

2356 Rape is the forcible violation of the sexual intimacy of another person. It does injury to justice and charity. Rape deeply wounds the respect, freedom, and physical and moral integrity to which every person has a right. It causes grave damage that can mark the victim for life. It is always an intrinsically evil act. Graver still is the rape of children committed by parents (incest) or those responsible for the education of the children entrusted to them.

Chastity and homosexuality

2357 Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex. It has taken a great variety of forms through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis remains largely unexplained. Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity,140tradition has always declared that "homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered."141 They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.

2358 The number of men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies is not negligible. This inclination, which is objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial. They must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard should be avoided. These persons are called to fulfill God's will in their lives and, if they are Christians, to unite to the sacrifice of the Lord's Cross the difficulties they may encounter from their condition.

2359 Homosexual persons are called to chastity. By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at times by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection.

三、夫妻之愛

2360.性是導向男人和女人的夫妻之愛的。在婚姻中夫婦身體的親密,變成心靈共融的記號和保証。為領過洗的人,婚姻的關係因聖事而聖化。

2361. 「男人和女人藉著夫婦本有而又獨特的行為,彼此互相給予的性,不 純粹是生理的事,而是關係到人最內在之處。真正合乎人性的性行 為,必須包含著男人和女人彼此相許、至死不變的全部的愛」。 多俾亞從床上坐起來,對撒辣說:「妹妹,起來!我倆一同祈禱,祈求我們的上主, 在我們身上施行仁慈和保佑」。她便起來,於是一起祈禱,祈求上主保佑他們。他們 開始祈禱說:「我們祖宗的天主,祢是應受讚美的!……是祢造了亞當,是祢造了厄 娃作他的妻子,作他的輔助和依靠,好從他們二人傳生人類。祢曾說過:「男人獨處 不好,要給他造一個相稱的助手」。上主,現在我娶這個妹妹,並不是由於情慾,而 是出於真心真意。求祢憐憫我和她,賜我們白頭偕老!」。他們和聲答說:「阿們! 阿們!」隨後便睡了一夜(多 8:4-9)。 

2362. 「夫妻親密而聖潔的結合是正當且高貴的行為。以合乎人性方式將之 活出來,可表達並有助於夫妻的互相交付,使二人以愉快感激的心情 彼此充實」。性是喜悅和快樂的泉源: 比約十二世,1951 年 10 月 29 日講詞:造物主自己……建立,使在彼此[生育的]功能 中,夫妻體驗到一種身體及心靈的快樂與滿足。所以夫妻在追求此快樂與享受時,並 沒有犯任何罪過。他們接受造物主願意他們作的事。不過,夫妻應該知道適可而止。

2363. 藉著夫妻的結合,婚姻的雙重目的得以實現:夫妻的幸福及生命的傳遞。婚姻的這雙重意義及價值,不能分開,同時既不歪曲夫妻的靈性生活,也不危及婚姻的幸福,及家庭的未來。

男女夫妻之愛,因此置於忠貞與生育的雙重要求之下。
夫妻的忠貞

2364. 夫婦雙方形成「生活及恩愛的密切結合,此結合由造物主所建立,並由祂賦予固有的法則。這結合藉婚姻盟約,就是由當事人無可撤回的合意所成立」。二人決定性地、全部地彼此互相交託。他們不再是兩個人,而是形成一個身體。由夫妻自由締結的盟約,要求他們維持婚姻的專一性及不可拆散性。「天主所結合的,人不可拆散」(谷 10:9)。

2365.忠貞表示言出必行。天主是信實的。婚姻聖事使男女二人進入基督對教會的信實。藉著夫妻的貞潔,他們為此奧跡向世界作証。

金口聖若望提醒年輕新婚丈夫,要對他們的妻子這樣說:「我以手臂擁抱你,我愛你,我更喜愛你勝過我自己的生命。因為現在的生命不算甚麼,我最切望的夢想是與你共度這生命,使能保証將來在那為我們保留的生命中永不會彼此分離……我把你的愛放在一切之上,我沒有比這更痛苦的事,那就是我的想法不是你的想法」。

婚姻與生育

2366.生育是一個恩賜,是婚姻的一個目的,因為夫妻的愛自然地傾向於生育。孩子不是夫婦之愛的外在附加品,而是從夫婦彼此交付的核心而來的結晶與實現。因此,教會「站在生命的一邊」。教會教導「任何婚姻行為都應該對生命的傳遞保持開放」。「教會訓導當局多次講的這端道理,是基於天主所要而人不可擅自破壞的關係,不可拆散的關係把夫妻行為的兩種意義連在一起:結合和生育」。

2367. 夫妻奉召傳衍生命,他們分享天主的創造能力及父性。「夫妻應將傳 生和教育子女,視為他們固有的使命。他們應當知道,在履行這使命 時,他們是造物主的合作者,又是解釋者。因此,他們應以人性的及 基督徒的責任感,滿全其任務」。  

2368. 此責任的一個特點關乎調節生育。為了正當的理由,夫妻可以計劃子 女出生的相隔時間。他們應查証自己的意願,不是出於自私,而是出 於慷慨,此慷慨符合負責的生育計劃。再者,他們應按照道德的客觀 標準,來規範他們的行為: 對調和夫妻之愛及負責的傳生人類的問題,其實際行動的道德性,並不僅以個人的誠 意及其動機的評估為標準,而應以人的本性及其行為作客觀的標準;在真正夫妻之愛 裡,要尊重互相交付及傳生人類的整個意義。要做到這點,人們非誠心潛修夫妻的貞 潔不可。 

2369.「在保持結合和生育這兩個主要觀點後,夫婦性行為才完整地保全彼此真正的愛的意義,以及指向人類最高尚的作父母的聖召」。

2370. 週期的節制, 即建基於自我觀察和借助於不孕期的節育方法,是符合道德的客觀標準的。這些方法尊重夫婦的身體,鼓勵他們之間的恩愛,並有助於他們學習真正的自由。相反地,「不論在夫妻性行為前,或在進行中,或在該行為自然結果的發展中,作任何阻止生育的行為,無論以此行為作為目的,或作為手段」,本質上都是一件壞事。

由於人工避孕,那表達夫妻完全互相交付的天生語言,被另一種客觀上與之矛盾的語言取代,而後者不再表達完全互相的交付。這不但導致人正面地拒絕對生命的開放,而且歪曲夫妻之愛的內在真理,因為這愛要求整個人的奉獻。……人工避孕和應用安全期節育方法在人學和倫理上的區別,涵蓋對人和性的兩種看法,二者互不相容。

2371. 「再者,人人須知,人的生命及傳遞生命的任務,不僅限於此世,在此找不到其圓滿的幅度和意義,而是常應針對人類永遠的命運來了解」。

2372. 們是生育和教育自己子女的首要負責人。 政府沒有權國家應為國民的福祉負責。因此,政府干預人口政策的方向是合理的。它可藉客觀的和尊重人的資訊來干預,但不可用獨裁和高壓的手段。政府總不能合理地代替夫妻的主動。他力鼓勵違反道德的節育方法。

子女的恩賜
2373.聖經與教會的傳統習慣,都視人口眾多的家庭,為天主降福及父母慷慨的記號。

2374. 當配偶發現不能生育時,其痛苦是強烈的。亞巴郎問天主說:「祢能給我甚麼﹖我一直沒有兒子……」(創 15:2)。辣黑爾向丈夫雅各伯喊叫說:「你要給我兒子,不然我就要死!」(創 30:1)。

2375. 針對為減少人類不孕症進行的研究,是值得鼓勵的,條件是這些研究應「按照天主的計劃與意願,為人服務,為人不可剝奪的權利,及其真正完整的福祉服務」。

2376.信理部,《生命的禮物》訓令 2,1:藉配偶以外的第三者介入(精子或卵子的贈予,子宮借用),而引發的父母與所生子女的關係瓦解是嚴重的不道德。這些技術 (異體人工 受精和受胎)損害了嬰兒應由婚姻結合的、其所認識的一父一母所出生的權利。這也違背了「唯有夫妻,經過他們二人,才能成為父母的權利」。

2377. 信理部,《生命的禮物》訓令 2,4:這種技術,實行在配偶身上(同體人工受精或受胎),可能傷害較少,但在道德上仍是不能接受的。這使性行為與生育行為分離。使嬰兒存在的行為,不再是二人互相交付的行為,而是「把生命及胚胎的本身,交託給醫生和生物學者權下,對人的開始和去向,建立起技術的操控。這樣作成的操控,本身就違反父母和子女共有的尊嚴與平等」。「如果生育不是當作夫妻行為的果實而要的,即不是夫妻結合的特有行為所要的,生育在道德上失去固有的完美……。只有尊重夫妻行為的意義以及尊重人之內在合一的關係,才有符合人的尊嚴的生育」。

2378. 嬰兒不是該有的,而是恩賜的。「婚姻至高無上的禮物」就是一個有位格的人。不該把嬰兒視為被佔有的東西,如果這樣,將成立所謂的「對子女有權利」。在此領域內,唯有嬰兒才有真正的權利:就是「應該是父母夫妻之愛的特有行為的結晶,也應該有從受孕的一刻被尊為人」的權利。

2379. 福音明示,生理的不孕並非絕對的壞事。夫妻在已用盡醫藥的合法手段之後,仍然不孕,需要與基督的十字架結合,這是一切屬靈生育的泉源。他們可以顯示他們的慷慨,去認養被遺棄的兒童,或者去完成對別人的一些很費精神的服務。


 III. The Love of Husband and Wife

2360 Sexuality is ordered to the conjugal love of man and woman. In marriage the physical intimacy of the spouses becomes a sign and pledge of spiritual communion. Marriage bonds between baptized persons are sanctified by the sacrament.

2361 "Sexuality, by means of which man and woman give themselves to one another through the acts which are proper and exclusive to spouses, is not something simply biological, but concerns the innermost being of the human person as such. It is realized in a truly human way only if it is an integral part of the love by which a man and woman commit themselves totally to one another until death."142

Tobias got out of bed and said to Sarah, "Sister, get up, and let us pray and implore our Lord that he grant us mercy and safety." So she got up, and they began to pray and implore that they might be kept safe. Tobias began by saying, "Blessed are you, O God of our fathers.... You made Adam, and for him you made his wife Eve as a helper and support. From the two of them the race of mankind has sprung. You said, 'It is not good that the man should be alone; let us make a helper for him like himself.' I now am taking this kinswoman of mine, not because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that she and I may find mercy and that we may grow old together." and they both said, "Amen, Amen." Then they went to sleep for the night.143

2362 "The acts in marriage by which the intimate and chaste union of the spouses takes place are noble and honorable; the truly human performance of these acts fosters the self-giving they signify and enriches the spouses in joy and gratitude."144 Sexuality is a source of joy and pleasure:

The Creator himself . . . established that in the [generative] function, spouses should experience pleasure and enjoyment of body and spirit. Therefore, the spouses do nothing evil in seeking this pleasure and enjoyment. They accept what the Creator has intended for them. At the same time, spouses should know how to keep themselves within the limits of just moderation.145

2363 The spouses' union achieves the twofold end of marriage: the good of the spouses themselves and the transmission of life. These two meanings or values of marriage cannot be separated without altering the couple's spiritual life and compromising the goods of marriage and the future of the family. 
The conjugal love of man and woman thus stands under the twofold obligation of fidelity and fecundity.

Conjugal fidelity

2364 The married couple forms "the intimate partnership of life and love established by the Creator and governed by his laws; it is rooted in the conjugal covenant, that is, in their irrevocable personal consent."146 Both give themselves definitively and totally to one another. They are no longer two; from now on they form one flesh. the covenant they freely contracted imposes on the spouses the obligation to preserve it as unique and indissoluble.147 "What therefore God has joined together, let not man put asunder."148

2365 Fidelity expresses constancy in keeping one's given word. God is faithful. the Sacrament of Matrimony enables man and woman to enter into Christ's fidelity for his Church. Through conjugal chastity, they bear witness to this mystery before the world.

St. John Chrysostom suggests that young husbands should say to their wives: I have taken you in my arms, and I love you, and I prefer you to my life itself. For the present life is nothing, and my most ardent dream is to spend it with you in such a way that we may be assured of not being separated in the life reserved for us.... I place your love above all things, and nothing would be more bitter or painful to me than to be of a different mind than you.149

The fecundity of marriage

2366 Fecundity is a gift, an end of marriage, for conjugal love naturally tends to be fruitful. A child does not come from outside as something added on to the mutual love of the spouses, but springs from the very heart of that mutual giving, as its fruit and fulfillment. So the Church, which "is on the side of life"150 teaches that "each and every marriage act must remain open 'per se' to the transmission of life."151"This particular doctrine, expounded on numerous occasions by the Magisterium, is based on the inseparable connection, established by God, which man on his own initiative may not break, between the unitive significance and the procreative significance which are both inherent to the marriage act."152

2367 Called to give life, spouses share in the creative power and fatherhood of God.153 "Married couples should regard it as their proper mission to transmit human life and to educate their children; they should realize that they are thereby cooperating with the love of God the Creator and are, in a certain sense, its interpreters. They will fulfill this duty with a sense of human and Christian responsibility."154

2368 A particular aspect of this responsibility concerns the regulation of procreation. For just reasons, spouses may wish to space the births of their children. It is their duty to make certain that their desire is not motivated by selfishness but is in conformity with the generosity appropriate to responsible parenthood. Moreover, they should conform their behavior to the objective criteria of morality:

When it is a question of harmonizing married love with the responsible transmission of life, the morality of the behavior does not depend on sincere intention and evaluation of motives alone; but it must be determined by objective criteria, criteria drawn from the nature of the person and his acts criteria that respect the total meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of true love; this is possible only if the virtue of married chastity is practiced with sincerity of heart.155

2369 "By safeguarding both these essential aspects, the unitive and the procreative, the conjugal act preserves in its fullness the sense of true mutual love and its orientation toward man's exalted vocation to parenthood."156

2370 Periodic continence, that is, the methods of birth regulation based on self-observation and the use of infertile periods, is in conformity with the objective criteria of morality.157 These methods respect the bodies of the spouses, encourage tenderness between them, and favor the education of an authentic freedom. In contrast, "every action which, whether in anticipation of the conjugal act, or in its accomplishment, or in the development of its natural consequences, proposes, whether as an end or as a means, to render procreation impossible" is intrinsically evil:158

Thus the innate language that expresses the total reciprocal self-giving of husband and wife is overlaid, through contraception, by an objectively contradictory language, namely, that of not giving oneself totally to the other. This leads not only to a positive refusal to be open to life but also to a falsification of the inner truth of conjugal love, which is called upon to give itself in personal totality.... the difference, both anthropological and moral, between contraception and recourse to the rhythm of the cycle . . . involves in the final analysis two irreconcilable concepts of the human person and of human sexuality.159

2371 "Let all be convinced that human life and the duty of transmitting it are not limited by the horizons of this life only: their true evaluation and full significance can be understood only in reference to man's eternal destiny."160

2372 The state has a responsibility for its citizens' well-being. In this capacity it is legitimate for it to intervene to orient the demography of the population. This can be done by means of objective and respectful information, but certainly not by authoritarian, coercive measures. the state may not legitimately usurp the initiative of spouses, who have the primary responsibility for the procreation and education of their children.161 It is not authorized to intervene in this area with means contrary to the moral law.

The gift of a child

2373 Sacred Scripture and the Church's traditional practice see in large families a sign of God's blessing and the parents' generosity.162

2374 Couples who discover that they are sterile suffer greatly. "What will you give me," asks Abraham of God, "for I continue childless?"163 and Rachel cries to her husband Jacob, "Give me children, or I shall die!"164

2375 Research aimed at reducing human sterility is to be encouraged, on condition that it is placed "at the service of the human person, of his inalienable rights, and his true and integral good according to the design and will of God."165

2376 Techniques that entail the dissociation of husband and wife, by the intrusion of a person other than the couple (donation of sperm or ovum, surrogate uterus), are gravely immoral. These techniques (heterologous artificial insemination and fertilization) infringe the child's right to be born of a father and mother known to him and bound to each other by marriage. They betray the spouses' "right to become a father and a mother only through each other."166

2377 Techniques involving only the married couple (homologous artificial insemination and fertilization) are perhaps less reprehensible, yet remain morally unacceptable. They dissociate the sexual act from the procreative act. the act which brings the child into existence is no longer an act by which two persons give themselves to one another, but one that "entrusts the life and identity of the embryo into the power of doctors and biologists and establishes the domination of technology over the origin and destiny of the human person. Such a relationship of domination is in itself contrary to the dignity and equality that must be common to parents and children."167 "Under the moral aspect procreation is deprived of its proper perfection when it is not willed as the fruit of the conjugal act, that is to say, of the specific act of the spouses' union .... Only respect for the link between the meanings of the conjugal act and respect for the unity of the human being make possible procreation in conformity with the dignity of the person."168

2378 A child is not something owed to one, but is a gift. the "supreme gift of marriage" is a human person. A child may not be considered a piece of property, an idea to which an alleged "right to a child" would lead. In this area, only the child possesses genuine rights: the right "to be the fruit of the specific act of the conjugal love of his parents," and "the right to be respected as a person from the moment of his conception."169

2379 The Gospel shows that physical sterility is not an absolute evil. Spouses who still suffer from infertility after exhausting legitimate medical procedures should unite themselves with the Lord's Cross, the source of all spiritual fecundity. They can give expression to their generosity by adopting abandoned children or performing demanding services for others.


四、侵犯婚姻尊嚴的罪

2380. 通姦,係指夫妻的不忠。當二人發生性關係,其中至少一人是已婚者,即使是短暫的關係,他們就犯了通姦罪。基督譴責通姦,即使僅是慾念。第六誡及新約絕對禁止通姦。先知們揭發其嚴重性。他們視通姦為偶像崇拜之罪的代表。

2381. 通姦是一種不義。犯這罪的人使自己的承諾落空。通姦損害婚姻盟約的記號,傷害另一方配偶的權利,侵害婚姻制度,違反婚姻賴以建立的合約。通姦危及人的後代及孩子的幸福,他們需要父母的穩定結合。

離婚
2382.主耶穌曾強調造物主的原有意願, 祂要求婚姻是不可拆散的。祂廢除了逐漸混進舊約中的容忍。
在已受洗者之間,「完成而既遂的婚姻,除死亡之外,任何人間權力,或因任何原因,皆不得拆散」。
2383.在教會法所規定的某些情形下,夫妻分居,但仍維持婚姻關係,能是合法的。
如果民法離婚,是保障某些合法權利唯一可行的方法,比如子女的照顧或繼承產業的維護,則可以容忍,而不構成倫理的過失。

2384. 離婚是對自然道德律的嚴重侵害,是企圖摧毀夫婦自由同意、一起生活至死的合約。離婚違反救恩的盟約,婚姻聖事就是這盟約標記。離婚而重新結婚,雖為民法所承認,但使婚姻關係的破裂更加嚴重:重婚的配偶因此而處於公開及連續通姦的狀態下:

聖巴西略,《泛談倫理》規則:假如丈夫與其妻分離後,接近另一女人,他本人是姦夫,因為他對這女人犯下通姦罪;而與他同居的女人亦是通姦,因為她引誘了另一女人的丈夫,傾心於他。

2385. 離婚是不道德的,也是因為它把錯亂引進家庭及社會中。這種錯亂產生嚴重傷害:配偶被遺棄,孩子因父母分離受到精神傷害,且多次是父母彼此爭奪的對象;離婚的效果有傳染性,成了社會真正的災禍。

2386. 在一對配偶中,一方可能是民法宣告離婚的無辜受害者,因此沒有違反道德誡命。他們中的一方已誠實地努力忠於婚姻聖事,卻感到不義地被遺棄,另一方則為了自己的嚴重過失,而破壞一個按教會法有效的婚姻,兩者之間存在著巨大的差別。

其它侵犯婚姻尊嚴的罪

2387. 那曾與多位妻子共度多年夫婦生活的人,由於切望皈依福音,有責放棄一位或多位妻子,其困境是可了解的。然而,多妻制是不符合道德律的。它「根本與夫妻共融相背馳:因為多妻制直接否認天主從創世之初所啟示的計劃,它違反男女位格尊嚴的平等,因為在婚姻中,男女以愛而彼此給予是全部的,因而是專一的、排他的」。曾有多個妻子的基督徒,按正義他有重大的責任對前妻和子女履行應承擔的義務。

2388. 亂倫係指血親或姻親之間,在禁止他們結婚的等級內,所發生的親密關係。聖保祿曾痛斥這種特別嚴重的罪過:「我確實聽說在你們中間有淫亂的事……以至有人竟同自己父親的妻子姘居!……以我們的主耶穌的大能……我們將這樣的人交於撒殫,摧毀他的身體……」。亂倫使家庭關係敗壞,表示退回到獸性的地步。

2389. 成年人對受委託照顧的兒童或青少年,所犯的姦污罪可與亂倫罪相比。在此情況,姦污罪同時又是侵犯青少年的生理及倫理完整的壞榜樣,使他們終生留下創傷,並且有違教育的責任。

2390.自由結合是當一對男女達到性親密的關係,卻拒絕給予法定和公開的儀式。
這種結合方法是騙人的:在這種結合下,雙方並不承諾任何事情,因而表示對另一方、對自己或對將來都缺乏信心,這種結合有甚麼意思呢﹖

自由結合包括各種狀況:姘居、根本拒絕婚姻本身、不能長期承諾受約束。這些情況都侵害婚姻的尊嚴;摧毀家庭的觀念;削弱忠信的意識。它相反道德律:性行為應該只在婚姻內發生;婚外性行為常構成一個重罪,並被排除於聖事共融之外。

2391. 現在有些人有結婚的意願,卻要求一種「試婚的權利」。不管這些從事過早的性關係者的意圖如何堅定,「過早的性關係,不可能保証在一男一女的人際關係中的誠實和忠信,特別不可能保護他們免於幻想和任性」。肉體的結合,唯有在男女之間建立了決定性的生活團體之後,道德上才是合法的。人類的愛情不能容忍「試婚」。愛情要求在人與人之間全部的、決定性的給予。

撮要
2392.「愛是每一個人基本的和天賦的召叫」。
2393.在創造男人和女人的時候,天主給予男女彼此平等的位格尊嚴。每人應承認並接納自己的性別。
2394.基督是貞潔的模範。每一個領過洗的人,都被召叫,按照自己的生活方式,度貞潔的生活。
2395.貞潔意指性在人位格上的整合。貞潔要求自我控制的練習。
2396.手淫、行淫、色情產品及同性戀行為,都是嚴重違反貞潔的罪。
2397.夫妻自由所締結的盟約,包括忠實的愛。這盟約要求他們堅守婚姻的不可拆散性。
2398.生育是婚姻的好事、恩賜和目的。夫妻傳衍生命,就是分享天主的父性。
2399.調節生育表現負責的生育計劃中的一點。夫妻的意向雖是正當的,但不可用不道德的方法 (比如:直接絕育或人工避孕)。
2400.通姦及離婚、多妻及自由結合,都嚴重地違反婚姻的尊嚴。

IV. Offenses Against the Dignity of Marriage

Adultery

2380 Adultery refers to marital infidelity. When two partners, of whom at least one is married to another party, have sexual relations - even transient ones - they commit adultery. Christ condemns even adultery of mere desire.170 The sixth commandment and the New Testament forbid adultery absolutely.171 The prophets denounce the gravity of adultery; they see it as an image of the sin of idolatry.172

2381 Adultery is an injustice. He who commits adultery fails in his commitment. He does injury to the sign of the covenant which the marriage bond is, transgresses the rights of the other spouse, and undermines the institution of marriage by breaking the contract on which it is based. He compromises the good of human generation and the welfare of children who need their parents' stable union.

Divorce

2382 The Lord Jesus insisted on the original intention of the Creator who willed that marriage be indissoluble.173 He abrogates the accommodations that had slipped into the old Law.174 
Between the baptized, "a ratified and consummated marriage cannot be dissolved by any human power or for any reason other than death."175

2383 The separation of spouses while maintaining the marriage bond can be legitimate in certain cases provided for by canon law.176 
If civil divorce remains the only possible way of ensuring certain legal rights, the care of the children, or the protection of inheritance, it can be tolerated and does not constitute a moral offense.

2384 Divorce is a grave offense against the natural law. It claims to break the contract, to which the spouses freely consented, to live with each other till death. Divorce does injury to the covenant of salvation, of which sacramental marriage is the sign. Contracting a new union, even if it is recognized by civil law, adds to the gravity of the rupture: the remarried spouse is then in a situation of public and permanent adultery:

If a husband, separated from his wife, approaches another woman, he is an adulterer because he makes that woman commit adultery, and the woman who lives with him is an adulteress, because she has drawn another's husband to herself.177

2385 Divorce is immoral also because it introduces disorder into the family and into society. This disorder brings grave harm to the deserted spouse, to children traumatized by the separation of their parents and often torn between them, and because of its contagious effect which makes it truly a plague on society.

2386 It can happen that one of the spouses is the innocent victim of a divorce decreed by civil law; this spouse therefore has not contravened the moral law. There is a considerable difference between a spouse who has sincerely tried to be faithful to the sacrament of marriage and is unjustly abandoned, and one who through his own grave fault destroys a canonically valid marriage.178

Other offenses against the dignity of marriage

2387 The predicament of a man who, desiring to convert to the Gospel, is obliged to repudiate one or more wives with whom he has shared years of conjugal life, is understandable. However polygamy is not in accord with the moral law." [Conjugal] communion is radically contradicted by polygamy; this, in fact, directly negates the plan of God which was revealed from the beginning, because it is contrary to the equal personal dignity of men and women who in matrimony give themselves with a love that is total and therefore unique and exclusive."179 The Christian who has previously lived in polygamy has a grave duty in justice to honor the obligations contracted in regard to his former wives and his children.

2388 Incest designates intimate relations between relatives or in-laws within a degree that prohibits marriage between them.180 St. Paul stigmatizes this especially grave offense: "It is actually reported that there is immorality among you . . . for a man is living with his father's wife.... In the name of the Lord Jesus ... you are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh...."181 Incest corrupts family relationships and marks a regression toward animality.

2389 Connected to incest is any sexual abuse perpetrated by adults on children or adolescents entrusted to their care. the offense is compounded by the scandalous harm done to the physical and moral integrity of the young, who will remain scarred by it all their lives; and the violation of responsibility for their upbringing.

2390 In a so-called free union, a man and a woman refuse to give juridical and public form to a liaison involving sexual intimacy.

The expression "free union" is fallacious: what can "union" mean when the partners make no commitment to one another, each exhibiting a lack of trust in the other, in himself, or in the future?

The expression covers a number of different situations: concubinage, rejection of marriage as such, or inability to make long-term commitments.182 All these situations offend against the dignity of marriage; they destroy the very idea of the family; they weaken the sense of fidelity. They are contrary to the moral law. the sexual act must take place exclusively within marriage. Outside of marriage it always constitutes a grave sin and excludes one from sacramental communion.

2391 Some today claim a "right to a trial marriage" where there is an intention of getting married later. However firm the purpose of those who engage in premature sexual relations may be, "the fact is that such liaisons can scarcely ensure mutual sincerity and fidelity in a relationship between a man and a woman, nor, especially, can they protect it from inconstancy of desires or whim."183 Carnal union is morally legitimate only when a definitive community of life between a man and woman has been established. Human love does not tolerate "trial marriages." It demands a total and definitive gift of persons to one another.184

IN BRIEF

2392 "Love is the fundamental and innate vocation of every human being" (FC 11).

2393 By creating the human being man and woman, God gives personal dignity equally to the one and the other. Each of them, man and woman, should acknowledge and accept his sexual identity.

2394 Christ is the model of chastity. Every baptized person is called to lead a chaste life, each according to his particular state of life.

2395 Chastity means the integration of sexuality within the person. It includes an apprenticeship in self-mastery.

2396 Among the sins gravely contrary to chastity are masturbation, fornication, pornography, and homosexual practices.

2397 The covenant which spouses have freely entered into entails faithful love. It imposes on them the obligation to keep their marriage indissoluble.

2398 Fecundity is a good, a gift and an end of marriage. By giving life, spouses participate in God's fatherhood.

2399 The regulation of births represents one of the aspects of responsible fatherhood and motherhood. Legitimate intentions on the part of the spouses do not justify recourse to morally unacceptable means (for example, direct sterilization or contraception).

2400 Adultery, divorce, polygamy, and free union are grave offenses against the dignity of marriage.

 

 

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