卷三在基督內的生活-十誡/THE TEN COMMANDMENTS

 天主教教理

卷三在基督內的生活

第二部分十誡
「師傅,我該做甚麼?」

2052. 有一個少年人問耶穌說:「師傅,為得永生,我該做甚麼『善』?」對這個問題,耶穌首先要他明白,必須確認天主是「唯一的善」,是善中之善,是一切善的泉源。然後向他宣布說:「如果你願意進入生命,就該遵守誡命」。接著,耶穌引用了愛近人的誡命答覆祂的對話者:「不可殺人,不可姦淫,不可偷盜,不可作假見証;應孝敬你的父母」。最後,耶穌更把這些誡命,用積極的命令作總結說:「應愛你的近人,如愛你自己」(瑪 19:16-19)。

2053. 在這第一個答覆之後,耶穌又加上第二個答覆:「你若願意是成全的,去!變賣你所有的,施捨給窮人,你必有寶藏在天上,然後來跟隨我」 (瑪 19:21)。 這第二個答覆並沒有廢除第一個。跟隨耶穌基督包括遵守誡命。法律並沒有被廢除, 而是邀請人們在他們的師傅身上,發現祂就是法律的圓滿實現。三部對觀福音,都把耶穌召叫富貴少年跟隨祂,做個順命和謹守誡命的門徒,與貧窮、貞潔的召叫連在一起。福音勸諭與誡命是不可分的。

2054. 耶穌重提十誡,但祂顯示了聖神的德能在十誡的文字中運作。祂所宣講的義德,「超過經師和法利塞人的義德」(瑪 5:20)也超過外邦人的義德。祂發揚了十誡的全部要求。「你們一向聽過給古人說:不可殺人……我卻對你們說:凡向自己弟兄發怒的,就要受裁判」(瑪瑪 22)。

2055. 當有人問祂:「法律中那條誡命是最大的?」(瑪 22:36),耶穌回答說:「你應全心、全靈、全意、愛上主你的天主。這是最大也是第一條誡命。第二條與此相似:你應當愛近人,如你自己。全部法律和先知,都繫於這兩條誡命」(瑪 22:37-40)。解釋十誡,必須在愛的誡命光照之下。這是一條二而一的愛的誡命,而愛就是法律的滿全:

誡命說:不可姦淫;不可殺人;不可偷盜;不可貪戀;以及其他任何誡命,都包含在這句話裡:就是「愛你的近人如你自己」。愛不加害於人,所以愛就是法律的滿全(羅 13:9-10)。



 SECTION TWO

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS

"Teacher, what must I do . . .?"

2052 "Teacher, what good deed must I do, to have eternal life?" To the young man who asked this question,

Jesus answers first by invoking the necessity to recognize God as the "One there is who is good," as the

supreme Good and the source of all good. Then Jesus tells him: "If you would enter life, keep the

commandments." and he cites for his questioner the precepts that concern love of neighbor: "You shall not

kill, You shall not commit adultery, You shall not steal, You shall not bear false witness, Honor your father

and mother." Finally Jesus sums up these commandments positively: "You shall love your neighbor as

yourself."1

2053 To this first reply Jesus adds a second: "If you would be perfect, go, sell what you possess and give to the

poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me."2 This reply does not do away with the

first: following Jesus Christ involves keeping the Commandments. the Law has not been abolished,3 but

rather man is invited to rediscover it in the person of his Master who is its perfect fulfillment. In the three

synoptic Gospels, Jesus' call to the rich young man to follow him, in the obedience of a disciple and in the

observance of the Commandments, is joined to the call to poverty and chastity.4 The evangelical counsels

are inseparable from the Commandments.

2054 Jesus acknowledged the Ten Commandments, but he also showed the power of the Spirit at work in

their letter. He preached a "righteousness [which] exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees"5 as well as that

of the Gentiles.6 He unfolded all the demands of the Commandments. "You have heard that it was said to

the men of old, 'You shall not kill.' . . . But I say to you that every one who is angry with his brother shall be

liable to judgment."7

2055 When someone asks him, "Which commandment in the Law is the greatest?"8 Jesus replies: "You

shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the

greatest and first commandment. and a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these

two commandments hang all the Law and the prophets."9 The Decalogue must be interpreted in light of

this twofold yet single commandment of love, the fullness of the Law:

 

the commandments: "You shall not commit adultery, You shall not kill, You shall not steal, You shall not covet," and any other commandment, are summed up in this sentence: "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.10

 

 

聖經中的十誡

2056. 「十誡」(Decalogue)一詞,其字面的意義是「十句話」(出 34:28;申 4:13; 10:4)。在聖山上,天主給自己的子民啟示了這「十句話」。是天主「用手指」寫的(出 31:18;申 5:22),不同於其他由梅瑟書寫的誡命。「十句話」在天主的話裡,佔著卓越的位置;「十句話」載在出谷紀和申命紀中,流傳至今。自舊約時代,經常為聖經所引用,但是,直到耶穌基督的新盟約,「十句話」的完整意義才顯示出來。

2057. 首先應在出谷紀的背景下理解十誡。出谷是天主在舊約的中心所完成的偉大拯救事件。「十句話」不論採取何種形式:消極的規範、禁令,或積極的命令(如「應孝敬你的父母」),都在指出,擺脫了罪惡的奴役之後,度自由生活的條件。十誡是一條生命的道路:

如果你愛慕你的天主,如果你履行祂的道路,如果你謹守祂的誡命、祂的法令、祂的規定,你必能生活,你必能繁榮 (申 30:16)。
十誡這股釋放的力量可見於某些誡命,如安息日應該休息。這誡命同樣也是為外邦人和奴隸所定的:
你應記得:你在埃及地也曾做過奴隸。上主你的天主以大能的手和伸展的臂,將你從那裡領了出來 (申 5:15)。

2058. 「十句話」概括並宣告了天主的法律:「這是上主在山上,由火中,由濃雲黑暗裡,大聲對你們會眾所說的話,再沒有加添甚麼;並將這些話寫在兩塊石板上,交給了我」(申 5:22)。因此這兩塊石板也叫做「約板」(出 25:16)。因為在上面刻了天主與祂的子民所結盟約的條款。這兩塊「約板」(出 31:18; 32:15; 34:29)應該放在「約櫃」裡(出出 2)。

2059. 「十句話」是天主在一次顯現之中宣布的 (「在山上,在烈火中,上主面對面對你們講了話」申 5:4)。「十句話」是屬於天主對祂自己和祂的光榮所作的啟示。誡命的恩賜就是有關天主自己和有關祂聖意的恩賜。藉著使人認識祂的旨意,天主把自己顯示給祂的子民。

2060. 誡命和法律的恩賜是天主與其子民所締結盟約的一部分。依照出谷紀的記錄,「十句話」的啟示頒布於盟約的提議與達成 之間──就是在百姓對上主所吩咐的話,作了「聽從、奉行」的承諾之後 (出 24:7)。十誡常常在追念盟約之後才傳授給人(「上主,我們的天主在曷勒布與我們立了約」申 5:2)。

2061. 誡命在盟約之內取得圓滿的意義。根據聖經,人的道德行為要在盟約內並藉著盟約,才取得其全部意義。「十句話」的第一句話,叫人記得天主首先愛了祂的子民:

奧利振,《出谷紀講道》:正如從前,作為罪的懲罰,人從自由的地堂轉入此世的奴役中,為此,十誡的第一段,天主誡命的第一句話,就著重自由:「我是上主,你的天主,是我領你出了埃及地、奴隸之所」(出 20:2;申 5:6)。

2062. 其次才是真正的誡命;誡命則道出因立約而歸屬天主的含義。道德生活其實就是回應上主主動的愛,就是知恩、尊崇、欽敬、感謝;亦即是與天主合作,實現祂在歷史中所進行的計劃。

2063. 天主與人之間的盟約和對話,也可從宣告的方式得到証實:所有義務都用第一人稱(「我是上主……」),宣告給另一個叫「你」的主體。在整個十誡中,都用了一個單數人稱代名詞,直指對方。天主顯示自己的旨意,同時針對整個民族和針對每一個人:

聖依勒內•里昂,《駁斥異端》:上主規定:對天主,要愛慕,對近人,要公道。如此,人就不會成為不義者,天主也不會受屈辱。這樣,藉著十誡,天主培育人成為祂的朋友,並和他的近人同心合意。……對我們基督信徒,十誡的話不但沒被廢棄,反而因著上主在血肉內臨於人間,得到發揚和進展。

 The Decalogue in Sacred Scripture

2056 The word "Decalogue" means literally "ten words."11 God revealed these "ten words" to his people

on the holy mountain. They were written "with the finger of God,"12 unlike the other commandments

written by Moses.13 They are pre-eminently the words of God. They are handed on to us in the books of

Exodus 14 and Deuteronomy.15 Beginning with the Old Testament, the sacred books refer to the "ten

words,"16 but it is in the New Covenant in Jesus Christ that their full meaning will be revealed.

2057 The Decalogue must first be understood in the context of the Exodus, God's great liberating event at

the center of the Old Covenant. Whether formulated as negative commandments, prohibitions, or as

positive precepts such as: "Honor your father and mother," the "ten words" point out the conditions of a life

freed from the slavery of sin. the Decalogue is a path of life:

If you love the LORD your God, by walking in his ways, and by keeping his commandments and his statutes and his ordinances, then you shall live andmultiply.17

This liberating power of the Decalogue appears, for example, in the commandment about the

sabbath rest, directed also to foreigners and slaves:

You shall remember that you were a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out thence with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm.18

2058 The "ten words" sum up and proclaim God's law: "These words the Lord spoke to all your assembly at the mountain out of the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darkness, with a loud voice; and he added no more. and he wrote them upon two tables of stone, and gave them to me."19 For this reason these two tables are called "the Testimony." In fact, they contain the terms of the covenant concluded between God and his people. These "tables of the Testimony" were to be deposited in "the ark."20

2059 The "ten words" are pronounced by God in the midst of a theophany (“The LORD spoke with you face to face at the mountain, out of the midst of the fire."21). They belong to God's revelation of himself and his glory. the gift of the Commandments is the gift of God himself and his holy will. In making his will known, God reveals himself to his people.

2060 The gift of the commandments and of the Law is part of the covenant God sealed with his own. In Exodus, the revelation of the "ten words" is granted between the proposal of the covenant 22 and its conclusion - after the people had committed themselves to "do" all that the Lord had said, and to "obey" it.23 The Decalogue is never handed on without first recalling the covenant (“The LORD our God made

a covenant with us in Horeb.").24

2061 The Commandments take on their full meaning within the covenant. According to Scripture, man's

moral life has all its meaning in and through the covenant. the first of the "ten words" recalls that God loved

his people first:

Since there was a passing from the paradise of freedom to the slavery of this world, in punishment for sin, the first phrase of the Decalogue, the first word of God's commandments, bears on freedom "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery."25

2062 The Commandments properly so-called come in the second place: they express the implications of

belonging to God through the establishment of the covenant. Moral existence is a response to the Lord's

loving initiative. It is the acknowledgement and homage given to God and a worship of thanksgiving. It is

cooperation with the plan God pursues in history.

2063 The covenant and dialogue between God and man are also attested to by the fact that all the obligations

are stated in the first person (“I am the Lord.") and addressed by God to another personal subject (“you"). In

all God's commandments, the singular personal pronoun designates the recipient. God makes his will known

to each person in particular, at the same time as he makes it known to the whole people:

The Lord prescribed love towards God and taught justice towards neighbor, so that man would be neither unjust, nor unworthy of God. Thus, through the Decalogue, God prepared man to become his friend and to live in harmony with his neighbor.... the words of the Decalogue remain likewise for us Christians. Far from being abolished, they have received amplification and development from the fact of the coming of the Lord in the flesh.26

 
 

教會聖傳中的十誡

2064.教會的聖傳忠於聖經並依照耶穌的教導,確認十誡具有基本的重要性和意義。

2065. 自聖奧思定開始,教會在給候洗者和信徒的教理講授中,「十誡」佔著優越的地位。在十五世紀,人們習慣把十誡的規條寫成有節奏的詞句,以便背誦並採用積極的形式。這種方式直到今日仍被沿用。教會的教理書在講解基督徒的倫理時,經常隨從「十誡」的次序。

2066. 在歷史的過程中,誡命的劃分和編號曾有變化。本教理仍隨從聖奧思定所做的分法,這分法已成了天主教的傳統。這也是路德會的傳統。希臘教父所做的分法稍有不同,這分法可見於東正教會和改革教會的團體。

2067.十誡講述愛天主和愛近人的要求。首三條更針對愛天主,後七條針對愛近人。

聖奧思定,《講道集》:既然愛德包括兩條命令,主又把全部法律和先知綜合其中……,因此,十條命令,分別寫在兩塊石板上。三條寫在第一塊上,七條寫在第二塊上。

2068. 特倫多大公會議教導說,基督徒及已成義的人依然有遵守十誡的責任。梵二則加以肯定:「主教們是宗徒們的繼承人,從……主的手裡,接受訓導萬民及向一切受造物宣講福音的使命,為使眾人因信德、聖洗及遵守誡命而得救」。

十誡的統一性

2069. 十誡組成一個不能分割的整體。每一句「話」都涉及其他每一句話和所有的話。它們互相配合,兩塊約板互相解釋,組成一個有機的整體。觸犯一條誡命,就是違反其他一切誡命。人若不讚美他們的造物主天主,就不能尊敬他人。人若不愛天主所造的人,就不能崇拜天主。十誡把人的敬神生活與其社會生活結合為一。

十誡與自然律

2070. 十誡乃屬於天主的啟示。十誡同時教導我們真實的人性。十誡說明基本的義務,因此,間接地,也說明了人性固有的基本權利。十誡含有「自然律」的一種優越的表達:

聖依勒內•里昂,《駁斥異端》:從開始,天主就把自然律的規誡植根在人的心內。然後,天主只是提醒人而已,這便是十誡。


2071.雖然只憑理性也能得知十誡的規條,天主仍予以啟示。為對自然律的要求,達致完整和確實的認識,有罪的人類需要這啟示:
聖文德,《神學集成講解》:在罪惡的處境中,由於理智之光已經昏暗以及意志的偏差,對十誡作一完整的解釋,成了必要的。
我們對天主十誡的了解,是藉著教會提供給我們的天主的啟示,和道德良心的呼聲。

 The Decalogue in the Church's Tradition

 

2064 In fidelity to Scripture and in conformity with the example of Jesus, the tradition of the Church has

acknowledged the primordial importance and significance of the Decalogue.

2065 Ever since St. Augustine, the Ten Commandments have occupied a predominant place in the catechesis of baptismal candidates and the faithful. In the fifteenth century, the custom arose of expressing the commandments of the Decalogue in rhymed formulae, easy to memorize and in positive form. They are still in use today. the catechisms of the Church have often expounded Christian morality by following the order of the Ten Commandments.

2066 The division and numbering of the Commandments have varied in the course of history. the present catechism follows the division of the Commandments established by St. Augustine, which has become traditional in the Catholic Church. It is also that of the Lutheran confessions. the Greek Fathers worked out a slightly different division, which is found in the Orthodox Churches and Reformed communities.

2067 The Ten Commandments state what is required in the love of God and love of neighbor. the first three concern love of God, and the other seven love of neighbor.

As charity comprises the two commandments to which the Lord related the whole Law and the prophets . . . so the Ten Commandments were themselves given on two tablets. Three were written on one tablet and seven on the other.27

2068 The Council of Trent teaches that the Ten Commandments are obligatory for Christians and that the

justified man is still bound to keep them;28 The Second Vatican Council confirms: "The bishops, successors

of the apostles, receive from the Lord . . . the mission of teaching all peoples, and of preaching the Gospel to

every creature, so that all men may attain salvation through faith, Baptism and the observance of the

Commandments."29

The unity of the Decalogue

2069 The Decalogue forms a coherent whole. Each "word" refers to each of the others and to all of them; they

reciprocally condition one another. the two tables shed light on one another; they form an organic unity.

To transgress one commandment is to infringe all the others.30 One cannot honor another person without

blessing God his Creator. One cannot adore God without loving all men, his creatures. the Decalogue brings

man's religious and social life into unity.

The Decalogue ant the natural law

2070 The Ten Commandments belong to God's revelation. At the same time they teach us the true humanity

of man. They bring to light the essential duties, and therefore, indirectly, the fundamental rights inherent

in the nature of the human person. the Decalogue contains a privileged expression of the natural law:

From the beginning, God had implanted in the heart of man the precepts of the natural law. Then he was content to remind him of them. This was the Decalogue.31

2071 The commandments of the Decalogue, although accessible to reason alone, have been revealed. To

attain a complete and certain understanding of the requirements of the natural law, sinful humanity needed

this revelation:

A full explanation of the commandments of the Decalogue became necessary in the state of sin because the light of reason was obscured and the will had gone astray.32

We know God's commandments through the

divine revelation proposed to us in the Church, and through the voice of moral conscience. the obligation

of the Decalogue

 

十誡的約束力

2072. 由於十誡是表達人對天主和對近人的基本義務,所以,在其基本的內容上揭示了人當盡的重大義務。十誡的本質不能改變,其約束力時時處處都有效。沒有人可以免除。十誡是天主銘刻在人心上的。

2073. 服從十誡尚包括一些本身是較輕微的義務。例如,罵人是第五誡所禁止的,本身不是嚴重的過錯,但說話者由於環境或罵人者的意向能使它成為嚴重的過錯。

「離了我離了我,,你們甚麼也不能作你們甚麼也不能作」

2074. 耶穌說:「我是葡萄樹,你們是枝條;那住在我內,我也住在他內的,他就結許多的果實,因為離了我,你們甚麼也不能作」(若 15:5)。這話所提到的果實,就是藉著與基督的結合而有的豐富生命所產生的聖德。幾時我們信仰耶穌基督,參與祂的奧跡,遵守祂的誡命,救主將親臨,而在我們內,愛祂的父和祂的弟兄,也是我們的父和我們的弟兄。祂本人因著聖神,將成為我們行事的、生活的和內心的規範。「這是我的命令:你們該彼此相愛,如同我愛了你們一樣」(若 15:12)。

 

 2072 Since they express man's fundamental duties towards God and towards his neighbor, the Ten

Commandments reveal, in their primordial content, grave obligations. They are fundamentally immutable,

and they oblige always and everywhere. No one can dispense from them. the Ten Commandments are

engraved by God in the human heart.

2073 Obedience to the Commandments also implies obligations in matter which is, in itself, light. Thus

abusive language is forbidden by the fifth commandment, but would be a grave offense only as a result of

circumstances or the offender's intention. "Apart from me you can do nothing"

2074 Jesus says: "I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in me, and I in him, he it is that bears

much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing."33 The fruit referred to in this saying is the holiness of

a life made fruitful by union with Christ. When we believe in Jesus Christ, partake of his mysteries, and keep

his commandments, the Savior himself comes to love, in us, his Father and his brethren, our Father and our

brethren. His person becomes, through the Spirit, the living and interior rule of our activity. "This is my

commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you."34

 

撮要


2075.「我該行甚麼『善』,為得永生?」──「如果你願意進入生命,就該遵守誡命」(瑪 19:16-17)。

2076.耶穌以言以行証實十誡是永恆的。

2077.十誡的恩賜是在天主與其子民締結的盟約中所頒賜的。為此,天主十誡在此盟約內,並藉此盟約取得真實的意義。

2078.教會的聖傳忠於聖經並依照耶穌的教導,確認十誡具有基本的重要性和意義。

2079.十誡組成一個有機的整體,其中每一句「話」或每一條「誡命」都涉及整體。觸犯了一條誡命就是違犯全部法律。

2080.十誡含有自然律的一種優越的表達,我們可從天主的啟示和人的理性得知十誡。

2081.十誡在其基本內容上宣示的是屬於嚴重的義務。不過,服從這些規誡,也包括輕微的義務,這是由於事情本質是輕微的。

2082.凡天主所命令的,祂賜恩寵使之成為可行的。
 IN BRIEF

2075 "What good deed must I do, to have eternal life?" - "If you would enter into life, keep the

commandments" ( Mt 19:16-17).

2076 By his life and by his preaching Jesus attested to the permanent validity of the Decalogue. 2077 The

gift of the Decalogue is bestowed from within the covenant concluded by God with his people. God's

commandments take on their true meaning in and through this covenant.

2078 In fidelity to Scripture and in conformity with Jesus' example, the tradition of the Church has always

acknowledged the primordial importance and significance of the Decalogue.

2079 The Decalogue forms an organic unity in which each "word" or "commandment" refers to all the others

taken together. To transgress one commandment is to infringe the whole Law (cf  Jas 2:10-11).

2080 The Decalogue contains a privileged expression of the natural law. It is made known to us by divine

revelation and by human reason.

2081 The Ten Commandments, in their fundamental content, state grave obligations. However, obedience

to these precepts also implies obligations in matter which is, in itself, light.

2082 What God commands he makes possible by his grace.

   
   
   
   
   
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