卷三在基督內的生活 - 全心、全靈、全意愛上主 (第一誡)/YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD

第二部分
第一章 「你當全心、全靈、全意愛上主,你的天主」

天主教教理
卷三在基督內的生活

2083. 耶穌用「你當全心、全靈、全意,愛上主你的天主」這句話來概括人對天主的責任 (瑪 22:37)。這句話直接回應一個隆重的號召:「以色列!你要聽:上主我們的天主,是唯一的」(申 6:4)。

天主首先愛了我們。唯一天主的愛在「十句話」的第一句話裡已被提及。隨後,誡命闡明人蒙召應給予天主愛的答覆。
第一條

第一誡

 

我是上主,你的天主,是我領你出了埃及地、奴隸之所。除我之外,你不可有別的神。不可為你製造任何彷彿天上、或地上、或水中之物的雕像。不可叩拜這些像,也不可敬奉 (出 20:2-5)。

經上記載:「你要朝拜上主,你的天主,唯獨事奉祂」(瑪 4:10)。

一、「你要朝拜上主,你的天主,並要事奉祂」

2084. 天主向以民說:「我領你們出了埃及地、為奴之家」。天主使以民記起祂在他們的歷史中所施行的大能、恩惠和拯救,就這樣把自己顯示給以民讓他們認識。第一句話包含法律的第一條誡命:「你要朝拜上主、你的天主,並要事奉祂。……不可追隨別的神」(申 6:13-14)。天主的第一個召喚和正義的要求,便是要人接納祂和朝拜祂。

2085. 唯一和真實的天主首先把自己的光榮顯示給以色列。有關人的蒙召和人的真理的啟示,與天主的啟示是互相聯貫的。人蒙召是為藉著他符合人受造特色的行為,彰顯天主,人是「依照天主的肖象和模樣而受造的」:

聖奧思定,《與猶太人特肋弗對話錄》:特肋弗 (Tryphon )啊,總不能再有別的天主了!從亙古以來……,除了那位宇宙的創造者和治理者外,也從未有過別的天主。我們不認為我們的天主不同於你們的天主。祂是同一位「以大能的手和高舉的雙臂」,領你們的祖先出了埃及地的天主。我們不會把我們的希望寄於任何別的神,實際上也沒有別的神,而就是你們希望的那一位,亞巴郎的天主、依撒格的天主和雅各伯的天主。

2086. 「命令的第一條包括信德、望德和愛德。因為,誰說到天主,事實上,是論及一位恆常、不變、永遠一樣、忠信、完全公義的主。由此,我們必然應該接受祂說的話,對祂有完全的信仰和依賴。祂是全能的,仁慈的,無限量地樂意行善。誰能夠不把所有的希望寄託在祂身上?誰見到了祂傾注於我們的慈善和溫柔的寶藏而能夠不愛慕祂?因此天主在聖經中,在命令的開始,或在命令的結束時,採用了『我是上主』這種說法」。

信德

2087. 天主把祂的愛啟示給我們,我們的道德生活在對天主的信德中,找到了根源。聖保祿視「服從信德」(羅 1:5; 16:26)為人的第一義務。他指出一切道德偏差的根源與解釋,均在於「不認識天主」。我們對天主的責任是信仰祂並為祂作見証。

2088.第一條誡命要求我們以明智、以警醒來培養和維護我們的信德,並拋棄違反信德的一切。事實上,有多種方式構成違反信德的罪:

對信德 刻意的懷疑,是指疏忽或拒絕承認天主所啟示的,並經教會定為當信的道理是真的。非刻意的懷疑,是指相信上的猶豫,或在克服信德受質疑時的困難,或由信德晦澀而產生的憂慮。人若故意地維持懷疑,會導致心靈的盲目。

2089. 不信,是忽視啟示的真理或自願拒絕認同。「所謂異端,是在領洗後,固執地否認天主所啟示及教會所定為該信的某端真理,或是固執地懷疑這端道理。所謂背教,是整個背棄基督徒信仰。所謂裂教,是拒絕服從教宗或是不願與服從教宗的教會成員共融」。

望德
2090.當天主啟示自己和召喚人時,人不能靠自己的力量圓滿地答覆天主的愛。人應該希望天主給他還愛天主的能力,並按照愛的誡命而行事的能罪天主的愛和招致懲罰。
2091.第一條誡命也針對違反望德的罪,就是失望和妄望:

所謂失望,是人停止從天主盼望個人的得救,為達致得救的幫助或自己罪過的赦免。失望違反天主的良善,祂的正義──因為上主對祂的許諾是忠實的──和祂的仁慈。

2092. 妄望有兩種。或是人對自己的能力存有妄想 (希望無需來自上天的幫助而能自救),或是人對天主的全能和仁慈存有妄想(希望無悔改而得寬恕,無功績而得光榮)。

愛德
2093.對天主的愛的信仰,包含以真誠的愛,回應天主愛的召喚和義務。第一條誡命要我們愛天主在萬有之上,並為天主和因天主而愛萬物。

2094. 人犯罪違反天主的愛,能有幾種方式:冷漠是忽略或拒絕考慮天主的愛;也是不賞識天主愛的關切和否認其力量。忘恩是疏忽或迴避承認天主的愛和對天主以愛還愛。冷淡是猶豫和忽略回應天主的愛,也能指人拒絕把自己交付於愛的推動。懈怠或靈性方面的懶惰,甚至能使人拒絕來自天主的喜樂,和對神聖的美善持厭惡的態度。仇恨天主源自驕傲自大。仇恨違反天主的愛,否認天主的良善,並竟敢咒罵那阻止犯罪及處以懲罰的天主。

CHAPTER ONE

YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND

2083 Jesus summed up man's duties toward God in this saying: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind."1 This immediately echoes the solemn call: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God is one LORD."2 
God has loved us first. the love of the One God is recalled in the first of the "ten words." the commandments then make explicit the response of love that man is called to give to his God.

Article 1

THE FIRST COMMANDMENT

I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them.3 
It is written: "You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve."4

I. "You Shall Worship the Lord Your God and Him Only Shall You Serve"

2084 God makes himself known by recalling his all-powerful loving, and liberating action in the history of the one he addresses: "I brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." the first word contains the first commandment of the Law: "You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall serve him.... You shall not go after other gods."5 God's first call and just demand is that man accept him and worship him.

2085 The one and true God first reveals his glory to Israel.6 The revelation of the vocation and truth of man is linked to the revelation of God. Man's vocation is to make God manifest by acting in conformity with his creation "in the image and likeness of God":

There will never be another God, Trypho, and there has been no other since the world began . . . than he who made and ordered the universe. We do not think that our God is different from yours. He is the same who brought your fathers out of Egypt "by his powerful hand and his outstretched arm." We do not place our hope in some other god, for there is none, but in the same God as you do: the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.7

2086 "The first commandment embraces faith, hope, and charity. When we say 'God' we confess a constant, unchangeable being, always the same, faithful and just, without any evil. It follows that we must necessarily accept his words and have complete faith in him and acknowledge his authority. He is almighty, merciful, and infinitely beneficent. Who could not place all hope in him? Who could not love him when contemplating the treasures of goodness and love he has poured out on us? Hence the formula God employs in the Scripture at the beginning and end of his commandments: 'I am the LORD.'"8

Faith

2087 Our moral life has its source in faith in God who reveals his love to us. St. Paul speaks of the "obedience of faith"9 as our first obligation. He shows that "ignorance of God" is the principle and explanation of all moral deviations.10 Our duty toward God is to believe in him and to bear witness to him.

2088 The first commandment requires us to nourish and protect our faith with prudence and vigilance, and to reject everything that is opposed to it. There are various ways of sinning against faith: 
Voluntary doubt about the faith disregards or refuses to hold as true what God has revealed and the Church proposes for belief. Involuntary doubt refers to hesitation in believing, difficulty in overcoming objections connected with the faith, or also anxiety aroused by its obscurity. If deliberately cultivated doubt can lead to spiritual blindness.

2089 Incredulity is the neglect of revealed truth or the willful refusal to assent to it. "Heresy is the obstinate post-baptismal denial of some truth which must be believed with divine and catholic faith, or it is likewise an obstinate doubt concerning the same; apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian faith; schism is the refusal of submission to the Roman Pontiff or of communion with the members of the Church subject to him."11

Hope

2090 When God reveals Himself and calls him, man cannot fully respond to the divine love by his own powers. He must hope that God will give him the capacity to love Him in return and to act in conformity with the commandments of charity. Hope is the confident expectation of divine blessing and the beatific vision of God; it is also the fear of offending God's love and of incurring punishment.

2091 The first commandment is also concerned with sins against hope, namely, despair and presumption: 
By despair, man ceases to hope for his personal salvation from God, for help in attaining it or for the forgiveness of his sins. Despair is contrary to God's goodness, to his justice - for the Lord is faithful to his promises - and to his mercy.

2092 There are two kinds of presumption. Either man presumes upon his own capacities, (hoping to be able to save himself without help from on high), or he presumes upon God's almighty power or his mercy (hoping to obtain his forgiveness without conversion and glory without merit).

Charity

2093 Faith in God's love encompasses the call and the obligation to respond with sincere love to divine charity. the first commandment enjoins us to love God above everything and all creatures for him and because of him.12

2094 One can sin against God's love in various ways: 
- indifference neglects or refuses to reflect on divine charity; it fails to consider its prevenient goodness and denies its power. 
- ingratitude fails or refuses to acknowledge divine charity and to return him love for love. 
- lukewarmness is hesitation or negligence in responding to divine love; it can imply refusal to give oneself over to the prompting of charity. 
- acedia or spiritual sloth goes so far as to refuse the joy that comes from God and to be repelled by divine goodness. 
- hatred of God comes from pride. It is contrary to love of God, whose goodness it denies, and whom it presumes to curse as the one who forbids sins and inflicts punishments.

二 、「 只向你的天主、上主俯伏朝拜」

2095. 信、望、愛三個超性德行使倫理德行定型並活躍起來。如此,愛德促使我們,依照全部義德的要求,歸還給天主我們身為受造物所欠祂的一切。虔敬之德使我們具備這種態度。

朝拜

2096. 朝拜是虔敬之德的第一個行為。所謂朝拜天主,就是承認祂是天主、是造物主和救主、是一切存在之物的上主和主人、是無限的愛和仁慈。耶穌引述申命紀說(申 6:13):「你要朝拜上主,你的天主;唯獨事奉祂」 (路 4:8)。

2097. 朝拜天主,就是在絕對的尊敬和順服中,承認「受造物原是虛無」,只能藉天主而存在。朝拜天主,就是如同聖母瑪利亞,在謝主曲中,讚美祂、頌揚祂,並自謙自卑,懷著感恩之情,承認祂行了大事、祂的名字是聖的。朝拜唯一的天主使人免於只看自己、免於罪惡的奴役和世界的偶像崇拜。

祈禱

2098. 第一誡所命令的信、望、愛的行為,在祈禱中完成。舉心歸向天主,是我們朝拜天主的一種表達,就是:讚美、謝恩、轉求、求恩的祈禱。為能服從天主的誡命,祈禱是不能缺少的條件。「應當時常祈禱,不要灰心」(路 18:1)。

祭獻

2099. 給天主奉上祭獻,作為朝拜、感恩、祈求、和共融的記號,是理所當然的:「為了在神聖的共融中與天主結合,並為了能成為幸福的人而做的任何行為,都是真實的祭獻」。

2100. 欲使外在的祭獻成為實在的,它必須是屬神祭獻的表達:「我的祭獻就是痛悔的精神……」(詠 51:19)。舊約的先知屢次譴責那些毫無內在參與或與愛近人無關的祭獻。耶穌追憶歐瑟亞先知的話:「我喜歡仁愛勝過祭獻」(瑪 9:13; 12:7);唯一完美的祭獻,是基督在十字架上,為愛祂的父,並為我們的得救,所作的全燔祭。聯合於基督的祭獻,我們能使我們的生活成為獻給天主的祭獻。

許諾與誓願

2101. 在許多場合裡,基督徒應邀向天主作出承諾。聖洗、堅振、婚姻、聖秩四件聖事常含有這類承諾。出自個人的虔敬,基督徒也可向天主許下要作某種善功、某種祈禱、某種施捨、某種朝聖等等。忠於對天主所作的許諾,是表達對至尊天主應有的尊敬和對天主的愛慕。

2102. 「許願乃是向天主審慎而自由做出的承諾,保証自己要行一件可能的且是更好的善功,並應以虔敬之德完成之」。許願是一個虔敬的行為,藉此行為,基督徒自獻於天主或向天主許下要做一件善事。藉著實踐所許的願,將他所許諾的和所奉獻的交給天主。宗徒大事錄給我們記錄了聖保祿很關心實踐他所許下的誓願。

2103.教會對實踐福音勸諭的誓願確認有典範的價值:

慈母教會欣喜在其懷抱中,有許多男女更親近地去追隨救主的自貶,並更顯著的加以表彰,以天主兒女的自由,承受貧窮,捨棄自己的意志:這些人都是為了天主,在成全的事上,自願屈服於一個受造的人,為能使自己更完善地相似基督的服從。

在某些情況下,教會為了相稱的理由,能豁免所做的承諾及誓願。 宗教的社會義務與宗教自由的權利

2104. 「人人都該追求真理,特別應該追求有關天主及其教會的真理,既尋獲不違反對各種不同宗教的「誠懇的尊敬」,「這些宗教往往反映出普照全人類的真理的一線光明」。它也不違反愛德的要求,這愛德催促基督徒「應以仁愛、明智、耐心、對待那些徘徊於歧途或在信仰上無知的人們」。

2105. 向天主獻上真實的崇敬,是一種個人性和社會性的義務。這正是「公教會關於人類及社會,對於真宗教及唯一的基督教會,所有道德責任的傳統道理」。藉著不斷地向人們宣傳福音,教會盡其所能,使他們能夠「把基督的精神注入思想、習慣、法律和所處的團體制度中」。基督徒的社會責任是尊重並啟發每個人對真與善的喜愛。這責任要求他們使人認識、崇奉唯一的真宗教,這真宗教存在於至公而由宗徒傳下來的教會之內。基督徒蒙召為世界之光。如此,教會向受造界,尤其向人類社會,表達基督對它們的王權。

2106. 「在宗教信仰上,不能強迫任何人,違反其良心行事,也不能阻撓任何人,在合理的範團內,或私自、或公開、或單獨、或集體依照其良心行事」。這信仰的權利乃奠基於人的本性,而人的尊嚴驅使其良心自由地依附超越現世秩序的天主的真理。因此,「即使在那些對於追求真理,及依附真理不盡責任者身上,仍保有不受強制的權利」。

2107. 「如果為了人民的特殊環境,在國家的法律制度上,對某一宗教團體予以國家的特別承認,則必須同時對其他一切公民及宗教團體,承認並尊重其在宗教事務上的自由權利」。

2108. 宗教自由的權利既不是依附錯誤的道德允許,也不是犯錯的假想權利,而是人享有公民自由的自然權利,就是在有關宗教的事務上,在合理的限度內,不受政府當局的外力強制。這項自然權利,在社會法律制度中應予確認,並成為民法的條文。

2109. 信仰自由的權利,其本身不是無限的,也不能僅以法有明文,或實証主義、自然主義的標準,而設計的「公共秩序」加以限制。至於與此權利俱來的「合理範圍」,必須依據每一個社會情況,按照公益的要求,運用政治的明智加以釐定,並由政府依照「符合客觀道德秩序的規範」予以批准。


 II. "Him Only Shall You Serve"

2095 The theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity inform and give life to the moral virtues. Thus charity leads us to render to God what we as creatures owe him in all justice. the virtue of religion disposes us to have this attitude.

Adoration

2096 Adoration is the first act of the virtue of religion. To adore God is to acknowledge him as God, as the Creator and Savior, the Lord and Master of everything that exists, as infinite and merciful Love. "You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve," says Jesus, citing Deuteronomy.13

2097 To adore God is to acknowledge, in respect and absolute submission, the "nothingness of the creature" who would not exist but for God. To adore God is to praise and exalt him and to humble oneself, as Mary did in the Magnificat, confessing with gratitude that he has done great things and holy is his name.14 The worship of the one God sets man free from turning in on himself, from the slavery of sin and the idolatry of the world.

Prayer

2098 The acts of faith, hope, and charity enjoined by the first commandment are accomplished in prayer. Lifting up the mind toward God is an expression of our adoration of God: prayer of praise and thanksgiving, intercession and petition. Prayer is an indispensable condition for being able to obey God's commandments. " (We) ought always to pray and not lose heart."15

Sacrifice

2099 It is right to offer sacrifice to God as a sign of adoration and gratitude, supplication and communion: "Every action done so as to cling to God in communion of holiness, and thus achieve blessedness, is a true sacrifice."16

2100 Outward sacrifice, to be genuine, must be the expression of spiritual sacrifice: "The sacrifice acceptable to God is a broken spirit...."17 The prophets of the Old Covenant often denounced sacrifices that were not from the heart or not coupled with love of neighbor.18 Jesus recalls the words of the prophet Hosea: "I desire mercy, and not sacrifice."19 The only perfect sacrifice is the one that Christ offered on the cross as a total offering to the Father's love and for our salvation.20 By uniting ourselves with his sacrifice we can make our lives a sacrifice to God.

Promises and vows

2101 In many circumstances, the Christian is called to make promises to God. Baptism and Confirmation, Matrimony and Holy Orders always entail promises. Out of personal devotion, the Christian may also promise to God this action, that prayer, this alms-giving, that pilgrimage, and so forth. Fidelity to promises made to God is a sign of the respect owed to the divine majesty and of love for a faithful God.

2102 "A vow is a deliberate and free promise made to God concerning a possible and better good which must be fulfilled by reason of the virtue of religion,"21 A vow is an act of devotion in which the Christian dedicates himself to God or promises him some good work. By fulfilling his vows he renders to God what has been promised and consecrated to Him. the Acts of the Apostles shows us St. Paul concerned to fulfill the vows he had made.22

2103 The Church recognizes an exemplary value in the vows to practice the evangelical counsels:23

Mother Church rejoices that she has within herself many men and women who pursue the Savior's self-emptying more closely and show it forth more clearly, by undertaking poverty with the freedom of the children of God, and renouncing their own will: they submit themselves to man for the sake of God, thus going beyond what is of precept in the matter of perfection, so as to conform themselves more fully to the obedient Christ.24 
The Church can, in certain cases and for proportionate reasons, dispense from vows and promises25 
The social duty of religion and the right to religious freedom

2104 "All men are bound to seek the truth, especially in what concerns God and his Church, and to embrace it and hold on to it as they come to know it."26 This duty derives from "the very dignity of the human person."27 It does not contradict a "sincere respect" for different religions which frequently "reflect a ray of that truth which enlightens all men,"28 nor the requirement of charity, which urges Christians "to treat with love, prudence and patience those who are in error or ignorance with regard to the faith."29

2105 The duty of offering God genuine worship concerns man both individually and socially. This is "the traditional Catholic teaching on the moral duty of individuals and societies toward the true religion and the one Church of Christ."30 By constantly evangelizing men, the Church works toward enabling them "to infuse the Christian spirit into the mentality and mores, laws and structures of the communities in which [they] live."31 The social duty of Christians is to respect and awaken in each man the love of the true and the good. It requires them to make known the worship of the one true religion which subsists in the Catholic and apostolic Church.32 Christians are called to be the light of the world. Thus, the Church shows forth the kingship of Christ over all creation and in particular over human societies.33

2106 "Nobody may be forced to act against his convictions, nor is anyone to be restrained from acting in accordance with his conscience in religious matters in private or in public, alone or in association with others, within due limits."34 This right is based on the very nature of the human person, whose dignity enables him freely to assent to the divine truth which transcends the temporal order. For this reason it "continues to exist even in those who do not live up to their obligation of seeking the truth and adhering to it."35

2107 "If because of the circumstances of a particular people special civil recognition is given to one religious community in the constitutional organization of a state, the right of all citizens and religious communities to religious freedom must be recognized and respected as well."36

2108 The right to religious liberty is neither a moral license to adhere to error, nor a supposed right to error,37 but rather a natural right of the human person to civil liberty, i.e., immunity, within just limits, from external constraint in religious matters by political authorities. This natural right ought to be acknowledged in the juridical order of society in such a way that it constitutes a civil right.38

2109 The right to religious liberty can of itself be neither unlimited nor limited only by a "public order" conceived in a positivist or naturalist manner.39 The "due limits" which are inherent in it must be determined for each social situation by political prudence, according to the requirements of the common good, and ratified by the civil authority in accordance with "legal principles which are in conformity with the objective moral order."40

三、「在我面前你不可有其他的神」

2110. 第一誡禁止恭敬其他的神,只應恭敬啟示給其子民的唯一上主。第一誡禁止迷信和不信。迷信可以說是一種對宗教的過分歪曲;不信正好相反,是由於欠缺,是對虔敬之德的缺陷。

迷信
2111.迷信是宗教情緒和當行敬禮的偏差。迷信也能影響我們崇拜真天主的敬禮,例如,給一些原是合法或必要的敬禮,賦予一種魔術般的重要性。內心的準備,便是陷於迷信。
拜偶像

2112. 第一誡譴責多神論。它要求人除了天主以外,不要相信別的神道,除了唯一的神以外,不崇拜別的神明。聖經不斷地提醒人拋棄「人手鑄造的金的,或銀的偶像」,它們「有口而不能言,有眼而不能看……」這些虛妄的偶像使人陷於虛妄:「鑄造偶像的人將與偶像同亡;凡信賴偶像的人,也將是一樣」(詠 115:4-5,8)。天主,則相反,是「生活的天主」 (蘇 3:10;詠 42:3等)祂給人生命,並介入歷史中。

2113. 拜偶像不僅指其他宗教的虛假崇拜。它對信仰常是一個恆常的誘惑。拜偶像是把原非天主的一切,予以神化。拜偶像開始存在,就在當人把一個受造物當作天主來尊敬的時候。崇拜的受造物能夠是邪神或魔鬼(譬如崇拜魔王),也能夠是權勢、娛樂、種族、祖先、國家、錢財等。耶穌說:「你們不能事奉天主而又事奉錢財」(瑪 6:24)。許多殉道者捨生受死只是為了不朝拜「獸像」,甚至拒絕偽裝的朝拜。拜偶像否認天主唯一的主權;因而與天主的共融是不能相容的。

2114. 人的生活在對獨一無二者崇拜中獲得整合。崇拜唯一真主的誡命使人單純化,使他免於無盡的紛亂。拜偶像是人與生俱來的宗教意識的敗壞。崇拜偶像者「拒絕把不可摧毀的天主觀念歸於天主,反而加於其他任何事物上」。

占卜和巫術

2115. 天主能啟示未來給祂的先知或其他聖賢。然而,基督徒面對未來的正確態度,是懷著信賴,把自身交付於天主的眷顧,放棄一切對此不健康的好奇。但不顧未來能構成缺乏責任感。

2116. 一切形式的占卜應該拋棄:無論是求助撒殫或魔鬼、招魂或其他誤以為能夠「揭露」未來的做法。觀察星座、行占星術、行手相術、解釋徵兆和命運、相信神視現象、求助靈媒,都是有意掌握時間、歷史甚至人類,同時也希望為自己贏得神秘力量的支持。這一切都違反我們對唯一天主應有的敬意、尊重和敬畏之情。

2117. 所有施行巫術或妖術的法事,有意藉此馴服神秘的力量,以供當事人的驅使,並取得支配他人的超然能力──即使是為了恢復健康,也是嚴重地違反虔敬之德。這種法事,要是尚含有危害他人的意向,或求助魔鬼的干預,更應受到譴責。佩帶護身符的人,也應受到責備。通靈論往往

反宗教
2118.天主的第一條誡命譴責幾個反宗教的主要罪行:就是,或以言語,或以行為試探天主、褻瀆神明和買賣聖職。

2119. 試探天主就是用言語或用行為,來考驗天主的良善和祂的全能。撒殫有意使耶穌從聖殿頂上跳下去,而強迫天主採取行動,正是試探天主的行為。耶穌用天主的話駁斥說:「你不可試探上主你的天主」(申 6:16)。含有這類試探天主的挑撥都傷害我們對造物主天主應有的尊敬和信賴。試探天主常是對天主的愛、上智、和能力持有一種懷疑的態度。

2120. 褻瀆是侮辱或不相稱地處理聖事及其他禮儀行為,或奉獻於天主的人、地、事物。褻瀆是一種嚴重的罪過,尤其是對聖體聖事,因為基督的身體為了我們而實體地臨在這聖事內。

2121. 買賣聖職或聖物在於收買或出售屬靈的事物。有一個名叫西滿的術士,見到在宗徒身上成就的事業,就有意購買屬靈的能力,伯多祿回答說:「願你的銀錢與你一起喪亡!因為你想天主的恩賜可以用銀錢買得」(宗 8:20)。這與耶穌的話正相吻合:「你們無條件得來的,也要無條件分施」(瑪 10:8)。屬靈財富是不能佔為己有的,誰也不能自認為屬靈財富的擁有者或主人,因為這些財富均來自天主。人只能從天主的手中無條件地領受。

2122. 「聖事施行人,除所屬主管當局規定的獻儀外,不可藉施行聖事要求報酬,且常應注意,那些有需要的人,不可因為貧困的緣故而被剝奪獲得聖事的援助」。主管當局規定這些「獻儀」是基於一個原則,就是基督的子民應支持教會聖職人員的生活。「工人自當有他的食物」(瑪 10:10)。

無神主義
2123.「我們這時代的許多人一點感覺不出、甚至明明否認,人同天主這種攸關生命的密切關係,故無神主義可列為現代最嚴重的事」。

2124. 無神主義一詞泛指許多不同的現象。一個經常遇到的形式便是實際的唯物主義,它把人的需要和希望局限於時空之內。無神的人文主義誤以為「人是自己的目的,人是其歷史的唯一創造者」。當代另一種形式的無神主義則將人類的解放,寄望於經濟及社會的解放,且認定「宗教在本質上便構成一種障礙……,因為令人神往於來世生命的幻想,等於使人對建設地上的王國毫不努力」。

2125. 由於否認或拒絕天主的存在,無神主義是一個違反虔敬之德的罪過。這一過錯的歸咎性,能因其意向和環境的因素而大大地減輕。對無神主義的肇始和傳播,「有信仰的人可能負有不小的責任。信友因忽視信仰教

2126. 無神主義屢次基於一個錯誤觀念,就是過度強調人的獨立自主,以至感到難以承認人對天主的任何隸屬關係。然而,「承認天主決不違反人性尊嚴:因為人性尊嚴正奠基於天主,並靠天主來玉成」。教會深知「其所宣布的真理,符合人心極其秘密的願望」。

不可知主義

2127. 不可知主義有多種形式。在某些情況中,不可知論者拒絕否認天主;他們反而肯定必須有一個超然的實體存在,然而它不可能啟示自己,因此對它沒有人能夠知道甚麼。在其他情況下,不可知論者對天主的存在不作論斷,他們聲明天主的存在不可能加以証明,或予以肯定或否定。

2128. 不可知主義有時也許對天主作若干探討,但也能代表一種冷漠,對存在最終問題的逃避,以及道德良心的怠惰。不可知主義,在不少情況下,等同於實際的無神主義。

 III. "You Shall Have No Other Gods Before Me"

2110 The first commandment forbids honoring gods other than the one Lord who has revealed himself to his people. It proscribes superstition and irreligion. Superstition in some sense represents a perverse excess of religion; irreligion is the vice contrary by defect to the virtue of religion.

Superstition

2111 Superstition is the deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes. It can even affect the worship we offer the true God, e.g., when one attributes an importance in some way magical to certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand, is to fall into superstition.41

Idolatry

2112 The first commandment condemns polytheism. It requires man neither to believe in, nor to venerate, other divinities than the one true God. Scripture constantly recalls this rejection of "idols, (of) silver and gold, the work of men's hands. They have mouths, but do not speak; eyes, but do not see." These empty idols make their worshippers empty: "Those who make them are like them; so are all who trust in them."42 God, however, is the "living God"43 who gives life and intervenes in history.

2113 Idolatry not only refers to false pagan worship. It remains a constant temptation to faith. Idolatry consists in divinizing what is not God. Man commits idolatry whenever he honors and reveres a creature in place of God, whether this be gods or demons (for example, satanism), power, pleasure, race, ancestors, the state, money, etc. Jesus says, "You cannot serve God and mammon."44 Many martyrs died for not adoring "the Beast"45 refusing even to simulate such worship. Idolatry rejects the unique Lordship of God; it is therefore incompatible with communion with God.46

2114 Human life finds its unity in the adoration of the one God. the commandment to worship the Lord alone integrates man and saves him from an endless disintegration. Idolatry is a perversion of man's innate religious sense. An idolater is someone who "transfers his indestructible notion of God to anything other than God."47

Divination and magic

2115 God can reveal the future to his prophets or to other saints. Still, a sound Christian attitude consists in putting oneself confidently into the hands of Providence for whatever concerns the future, and giving up all unhealthy curiosity about it. Improvidence, however, can constitute a lack of responsibility.

2116 All forms of divination are to be rejected: recourse to Satan or demons, conjuring up the dead or other practices falsely supposed to "unveil" the future.48 Consulting horoscopes, astrology, palm reading, interpretation of omens and lots, the phenomena of clairvoyance, and recourse to mediums all conceal a desire for power over time, history, and, in the last analysis, other human beings, as well as a wish to conciliate hidden powers. They contradict the honor, respect, and loving fear that we owe to God alone.

2117 All practices of magic or sorcery, by which one attempts to tame occult powers, so as to place them at one's service and have a supernatural power over others - even if this were for the sake of restoring their health - are gravely contrary to the virtue of religion. These practices are even more to be condemned when accompanied by the intention of harming someone, or when they have recourse to the intervention of demons. Wearing charms is also reprehensible. Spiritism often implies divination or magical practices; the Church for her part warns the faithful against it. Recourse to so-called traditional cures does not justify either the invocation of evil powers or the exploitation of another's credulity.

Irreligion

2118 God's first commandment condemns the main sins of irreligion: tempting God, in words or deeds, sacrilege, and simony.

2119 Tempting God consists in putting his goodness and almighty power to the test by word or deed. Thus Satan tried to induce Jesus to throw himself down from the Temple and, by this gesture, force God to act.49 Jesus opposed Satan with the word of God: "You shall not put the LORD your God to the test." 50 The challenge contained in such tempting of God wounds the respect and trust we owe our Creator and Lord. It always harbors doubt about his love, his providence, and his power.51

2120 Sacrilege consists in profaning or treating unworthily the sacraments and other liturgical actions, as well as persons, things, or places consecrated to God. Sacrilege is a grave sin especially when committed against the Eucharist, for in this sacrament the true Body of Christ is made substantially present for us.52

2121 Simony is defined as the buying or selling of spiritual things.53 To Simon the magician, who wanted to buy the spiritual power he saw at work in the apostles, St. Peter responded: "Your silver perish with you, because you thought you could obtain God's gift with money!"54 Peter thus held to the words of Jesus: "You received without pay, give without pay."55 It is impossible to appropriate to oneself spiritual goods and behave toward them as their owner or master, for they have their source in God. One can receive them only from him, without payment.

2122 The minister should ask nothing for the administration of the sacraments beyond the offerings defined by the competent authority, always being careful that the needy are not deprived of the help of the sacraments because of their poverty."56 The competent authority determines these "offerings" in accordance with the principle that the Christian people ought to contribute to the support of the Church's ministers. "The laborer deserves his food."57

Atheism

2123 "Many . . . of our contemporaries either do not at all perceive, or explicitly reject, this intimate and vital bond of man to God. Atheism must therefore be regarded as one of the most serious problems of our time."58

2124 The name "atheism" covers many very different phenomena. One common form is the practical materialism which restricts its needs and aspirations to space and time. Atheistic humanism falsely considers man to be "an end to himself, and the sole maker, with supreme control, of his own history."59 Another form of contemporary atheism looks for the liberation of man through economic and social liberation. "It holds that religion, of its very nature, thwarts such emancipation by raising man's hopes in a future life, thus both deceiving him and discouraging him from working for a better form of life on earth."60

2125 Since it rejects or denies the existence of God, atheism is a sin against the virtue of religion.61 The imputability of this offense can be significantly diminished in virtue of the intentions and the circumstances. "Believers can have more than a little to do with the rise of atheism. To the extent that they are careless about their instruction in the faith, or present its teaching falsely, or even fail in their religious, moral, or social life, they must be said to conceal rather than to reveal the true nature of God and of religion."62

2126 Atheism is often based on a false conception of human autonomy, exaggerated to the point of refusing any dependence on God.63 Yet, "to acknowledge God is in no way to oppose the dignity of man, since such dignity is grounded and brought to perfection in God...."64 "For the Church knows full well that her message is in harmony with the most secret desires of the human heart."65

Agnosticism

2127 Agnosticism assumes a number of forms. In certain cases the agnostic refrains from denying God; instead he postulates the existence of a transcendent being which is incapable of revealing itself, and about which nothing can be said. In other cases, the agnostic makes no judgment about God's existence, declaring it impossible to prove, or even to affirm or deny.

2128 Agnosticism can sometimes include a certain search for God, but it can equally express indifferentism, a flight from the ultimate question of existence, and a sluggish moral conscience. Agnosticism is all too often equivalent to practical atheism.

四、「不要雕塑偶像……」

2129. 天主的命令包括禁止人手為天主製造的任何畫像。申命紀解釋說:「因為上主你們的天主,在曷勒布由火中對你們說話的那天,你們既然沒有見到甚麼形狀,那麼,你們切不要墮落,為自己製造任何形狀的神像……」(申 4:15-16)。把自己顯示給以色列的天主絕對超越一切。「祂是萬有」,但同時「祂超越祂的一切化工」(德 43:27-28)。祂自身就是「一切受造之美的源由」(智 13:3)。

2130.但是,從舊約開始,天主曾命令或允許採用形象,以象徵的方式導向降生成人的聖言所給的救恩:例如銅蛇,結約之櫃和革魯賓。

2131. 教會史中第七屆大公會議,即尼西亞大公會議 (787年),以聖言降生成人的奧跡為基礎,針對反對敬禮聖相者,斷定恭敬聖相為正確。這些聖相包括:基督的相、以及天主之母的相、天使和諸聖的相。天主聖子,藉著降生成人,對敬禮聖相開啟了一個新的「秩序」。

2132. 基督徒對聖像的敬禮並不違反禁止崇拜偶像的第一條誡命。因為「對一個形象的尊敬應歸屬於原始的典型」,又「任何人敬禮一個形象,旨在敬禮形象所描繪的人物」。對聖像的尊敬是一個「尊重的敬意」,並不是一種崇拜,只有天主配得崇拜。

聖多瑪斯,《神學大全》:宗教的敬禮並不指向形象自身,視之為實體,而是在形象所表達的角度下,引導我們,歸向降生成人的天主。因為,指向形象的動向,就其形象而言,並不停留在形象那裡,而是通過形象,趨向形象所表達的實體。

 

 IV. "You Shall Not Make For Yourself a Graven Image . . ."

2129 The divine injunction included the prohibition of every representation of God by the hand of man. Deuteronomy explains: "Since you saw no form on the day that the Lord spoke to you at Horeb out of the midst of the fire, beware lest you act corruptly by making a graven image for yourselves, in the form of any figure...."66 It is the absolutely transcendent God who revealed himself to Israel. "He is the all," but at the same time "he is greater than all his works."67 He is "the author of beauty."68

2130 Nevertheless, already in the Old Testament, God ordained or permitted the making of images that pointed symbolically toward salvation by the incarnate Word: so it was with the bronze serpent, the ark of the covenant, and the cherubim.69

2131 Basing itself on the mystery of the incarnate Word, the seventh ecumenical council at Nicaea (787) justified against the iconoclasts the veneration of icons - of Christ, but also of the Mother of God, the angels, and all the saints. By becoming incarnate, the Son of God introduced a new "economy" of images.

2132 The Christian veneration of images is not contrary to the first commandment which proscribes idols. Indeed, "the honor rendered to an image passes to its prototype," and "whoever venerates an image venerates the person portrayed in it."70 The honor paid to sacred images is a "respectful veneration," not the adoration due to God alone:

Religious worship is not directed to images in themselves, considered as mere things, but under their distinctive aspect as images leading us on to God incarnate. the movement toward the image does not terminate in it as image, but tends toward that whose image it is.71

撮要
2133.「你當全心、全靈、全力愛上主,你的天主」(申 6:5)。 2134.第一誡召喚人信天主,寄望於祂並愛祂在萬有之上。

2135. 「你要朝拜上主,你的天主」(瑪 4:10)。朝拜天主,祈求天主,對天主行應有的敬禮,持守向祂所作的許諾和誓願,都是實踐虔敬之德的行為,以及對第一條誡命的服從。

2136.對天主奉行真實敬禮的責任,涉及個人和社會團體。
2137.人應該「能私自和公開自由地宣認自己的宗教信仰」。
2138.迷信是我們敬禮天主的一種偏差,其最顯著的表現是拜偶像,也包括其他形式的占卜和巫術。
2139.以言以行試探天主、褻瀆、買賣神聖事物都是違反虔敬的罪過,都為第一誡所禁止。
2140.無神論由於捨棄或否認天主的存在,是一種違反第一誡的罪過。

2141.聖像的敬禮是建基於天主聖言降生成人的奧跡上,並不違反第一誡。 
 IN BRIEF

2133 "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul and with all your strength" ( Deut 6:5).

2134 The first commandment summons man to believe in God, to hope in him, and to love him above all else.

2135 "You shall worship the Lord your God" ( Mt 4:10). Adoring God, praying to him, offering him the worship that belongs to him, fulfilling the promises and vows made to him are acts of the virtue of religion which fall under obedience to the first commandment.

2136 The duty to offer God authentic worship concerns man both as an individual and as a social being.

2137 "Men of the present day want to profess their religion freely in private and in public" (DH 15).

2138 Superstition is a departure from the worship that we give to the true God. It is manifested in idolatry, as well as in various forms of divination and magic.

2139 Tempting God in words or deeds, sacrilege, and simony are sins of irreligion forbidden by the first commandment.

2140 Since it rejects or denies the existence of God, atheism is a sin against the first commandment.

2141 The veneration of sacred images is based on the mystery of the Incarnation of the Word of God. It is not contrary to the first commandment.

   
   
   
   
   
文件動作