卷三在基督內的生活-人的召叫/THE HUMAN COMMUNION

 天主教教理

卷三在基督內的生活

第一部分 人的召叫:在聖神內的生活
第二章人的團體

1877. 人類的被召是為顯示天主的形象,並按父的獨子的肖象而受改變。這召叫具有個人的方式,因為每一個人被召進入天主的真福;這召叫也涉及整個人類團體。

 

CHAPTER TWO

THE HUMAN COMMUNION

1877 The vocation of humanity is to show forth the image of God and to be transformed into the image of the Father's only Son. This vocation takes a personal form since each of us is called to enter into the divine beatitude; it also concerns the human community as a whole.

第一條

人與社會
一、人被召的團體特色
1878.所有的人都為了同一終向,即為了天主本身而被召。天主聖三的結合,和人與人之間應在真理和愛中建立的兄弟手足情誼,有相似之處。愛近人與愛天主分不開。

1879. 個人需要社會生活。此種生活為個人不是附加的,而是他本性的需要。人通過與他人的交往,與兄弟間的互相服務和對話,而發展他的潛能;人就這樣回應他的被召。

1880. 一個社會是一群人的集合體,藉著一個超越他們中每個人的合一原則,以有機體的方式聯合在一起。社會是同時可見的和精神的集合,在時間內持續存在:它繼承過去,準備將來。通過社會,每個人被立為「繼承人」,領受「才能」以豐富他的身分,他則應該加以發展結出果實。每個人理當效忠於他所參與的團體,並尊重負責公益的掌權者。

1881.每個團體由它的目標來界定,因此應遵守特定的規則,但是「人是,且該是所有社會組織的本原、主體及宗旨」。

1882. 某些社會團體,如家庭和國家,更直接地符合人的本性。這些團體是人所需要的。為使更多的人參與社會生活,應鼓勵創立志願的協會和組織,「為了經濟、文化、社會、體育、娛樂、職業、政治的目標,且不只局限於國內,也推廣至世界的層面」這「社會化」也表達了自然的趨向,這趨向推動人為了達到超越個人能力的目標而結社。社會化發展個人的天賦,尤其增加人的創新力和責任感。社會化也有助於保障人的權利。

1883. 社會化也引發出一些危險。國家過度的干預能夠威脅個人的自由和主動。教會的訓導曾制定了所謂輔助性的原則。根據這個原則,「較高層的社會不應剝奪較低層社會的權限,以干預其內部生活,反而應在必要時支持它,並幫助它與其他的社會組成分子,在行動上取得協調,以促進公益」。

1884. 天主並不願意把一切權力的行使單獨保留給自己。祂分給每一個受造物,運用其天賦的能力,可以行使的職分。這治理的模式應在社會生活中加以仿效。天主治理世界的態度,証實了祂對人自由的極端尊重,這態度應能啟發人間團體統治者的智慧。他們應該表現出作為天主眷顧的執行者。

1885. 輔助性的原則反對任何形式的集體主義。它劃清國家干預的界限。它設法協調個人和社會之間的關係。它有助於建立一個名副其實的國際秩序。

Article 1

THE PERSON AND SOCIETY

I. The Communal Character of the Human Vocation

1878 All men are called to the same end: God himself. There is a certain resemblance between the union of the divine persons and the fraternity that men are to establish among themselves in truth and love.1Love of neighbor is inseparable from love for God.

1879 The human person needs to live in society. Society is not for him an extraneous addition but a requirement of his nature. Through the exchange with others, mutual service and dialogue with his brethren, man develops his potential; he thus responds to his vocation.2

1880 A society is a group of persons bound together organically by a principle of unity that goes beyond each one of them. As an assembly that is at once visible and spiritual, a society endures through time: it gathers up the past and prepares for the future. By means of society, each man is established as an "heir" and receives certain "talents" that enrich his identity and whose fruits he must develop.3 He rightly owes loyalty to the communities of which he is part and respect to those in authority who have charge of the common good.

1881 Each community is defined by its purpose and consequently obeys specific rules; but "the human person . . . is and ought to be the principle, the subject and the end of all social institutions."4

1882 Certain societies, such as the family and the state, correspond more directly to the nature of man; they are necessary to him. To promote the participation of the greatest number in the life of a society, the creation of voluntary associations and institutions must be encouraged "on both national and international levels, which relate to economic and social goals, to cultural and recreational activities, to sport, to various professions, and to political affairs."5 This "socialization" also expresses the natural tendency for human beings to associate with one another for the sake of attaining objectives that exceed individual capacities. It develops the qualities of the person, especially the sense of initiative and responsibility, and helps guarantee his rights.6

1883 Socialization also presents dangers. Excessive intervention by the state can threaten personal freedom and initiative. the teaching of the Church has elaborated the principle of subsidiarity, according to which "a community of a higher order should not interfere in the internal life of a community of a lower order, depriving the latter of its functions, but rather should support it in case of need and help to co-ordinate its activity with the activities of the rest of society, always with a view to the common good."7

1884 God has not willed to reserve to himself all exercise of power. He entrusts to every creature the functions it is capable of performing, according to the capacities of its own nature. This mode of governance ought to be followed in social life. the way God acts in governing the world, which bears witness to such great regard for human freedom, should inspire the wisdom of those who govern human communities. They should behave as ministers of divine providence.

1885 The principle of subsidiarity is opposed to all forms of collectivism. It sets limits for state intervention. It aims at harmonizing the relationships between individuals and societies. It tends toward the establishment of true international order.

二、皈依和社會

1886.社會為實現人的召喚是不能缺少的。為達到這個目標,必須尊重正確的價值等級,就是「物理和本能的層次隸屬於內在和精神的層次」。

社會中的生活,應首先被確認是屬於精神界的事實。事實上,社會生活是在真理光照中知識的交換、權利的行使、義務的完成,探索道德善的競爭,在所有美的正當表達中、高貴樂趣的相通,把自身最好的一分通傳給他人的恆常態度,對精神日益富裕的共同嚮往。這些價值應該推動和領導文化活動,經濟生活,社會組織,政治的運動和體制,立法的程序以及社會生活在不斷進化中的種種表現。

1887. 方法和目標的倒置,勢必給只為達到目標的手段賦予終向的價值,或將人視為達到目標的純粹手段,結果是產生不義的結構,這結構「將使基督徒的生活,要符合立法者天主的誡命,發生困難,而實際上成為不可能」。

1888. 因此,應該求助於人的精神和道德力量,並呼籲人經常需要進行內在的皈依,為促成社會的改變,使它真實地為人服務。確認人心皈依為首務之急,非但絕不免除,反而更負起責任,對引人犯罪的結構和生止善,而有利於善。

1889. 沒有恩寵的幫助,人不能「明辨介於懦弱和暴力之間的窄路,前者向罪惡低頭,後者流於與罪惡搏鬥的幻想,實則使之變本加厲」。這是一條愛德的道路,就是愛天主和愛近人的道路。愛德在社會誡命中佔著最重要的位置。愛德尊重他人和他人的權利。愛德要求實踐正義,也唯有愛德能使我們做到。愛德啟發自我奉獻的生活:「不論誰,若想保全自己的性命,必要喪失性命;凡喪失性命的,必要保存性命」 (路 17:33)。

 

II. Conversion and Society

1886 Society is essential to the fulfillment of the human vocation. To attain this aim, respect must be accorded to the just hierarchy of values, which "subordinates physical and instinctual dimensions to interior and spiritual ones:"8

Human society must primarily be considered something pertaining to the spiritual. Through it, in the bright light of truth, men should share their knowledge, be able to exercise their rights and fulfill their obligations, be inspired to seek spiritual values; mutually derive genuine pleasure from the beautiful, of whatever order it be; always be readily disposed to pass on to others the best of their own cultural heritage; and eagerly strive to make their own the spiritual achievements of others. These benefits not only influence, but at the same time give aim and scope to all that has bearing on cultural expressions, economic, and social institutions, political movements and forms, laws, and all other structures by which society is outwardly established and constantly developed.9

1887 The inversion of means and ends,10 which results in giving the value of ultimate end to what is only a means for attaining it, or in viewing persons as mere means to that end, engenders unjust structures which "make Christian conduct in keeping with the commandments of the divine Law-giver difficult and almost impossible."11

1888 It is necessary, then, to appeal to the spiritual and moral capacities of the human person and to the permanent need for his inner conversion, so as to obtain social changes that will really serve him. the acknowledged priority of the conversion of heart in no way eliminates but on the contrary imposes the obligation of bringing the appropriate remedies to institutions and living conditions when they are an inducement to sin, so that they conform to the norms of justice and advance the good rather than hinder it.12

1889 Without the help of grace, men would not know how "to discern the often narrow path between the cowardice which gives in to evil, and the violence which under the illusion of fighting evil only makes it worse."13 This is the path of charity, that is, of the love of God and of neighbor. Charity is the greatest social commandment. It respects others and their rights. It requires the practice of justice, and it alone makes us capable of it. Charity inspires a life of self-giving: "Whoever seeks to gain his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life will preserve it."14

撮要
1890.天主聖三的結合,和人與人之間所應建立的兄弟友愛的情誼有某種相似之處。
1891.人按照其本性發展自己,就需要社會生活。某些社會團體,如家庭和國家,更直接地適於人性。
1892.「人是,且該是所有社會組織的本原、主體及宗旨」。
1893.應鼓勵人們廣泛地參與志願的社團和組織。
1894.按照輔助性的原則,不論是國家抑或較大的社會,都不應取代個人和中間團體的主動性及責任感。
1895.社會應讓人們容易地修練德行,勿橫加障礙。應由一個正確的價值等級所啟發。

1896. 在社會風氣為罪惡所腐化的地方,就要呼籲人心的皈依,和懇求天主的恩寵,讓愛德激勵正義的改革。離開福音,就沒有解決社會問題的答案。

 

IN BRIEF

1890 There is a certain resemblance between the union of the divine persons and the fraternity that men ought to establish among themselves.

1891 The human person needs life in society in order to develop in accordance with his nature. Certain societies, such as the family and the state, correspond more directly to the nature of man.

1892 "The human person . . . is and ought to be the principle, the subject, and the object of every social organization" (GS 25 # 1).

1893 Widespread participation in voluntary associations and institutions is to be encouraged.

1894 In accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, neither the state nor any larger society should substitute itself for the initiative and responsibility of individuals and intermediary bodies.

1895 Society ought to promote the exercise of virtue, not obstruct it. It should be animated by a just hierarchy of values.

1896 Where sin has perverted the social climate, it is necessary to call for the conversion of hearts and appeal to the grace of God. Charity urges just reforms. There is no solution to the social question apart from the Gospel (cf CA 3, 5).

第二條

參與社會生活
一、權威

1897.「社會中若無賦有合法權威的人,保障法紀的穩定,並採取足夠的措施,促進公益,社會生活將沒有秩序和成就」。
予號令,並要求人們服從。
1898.任何人的團體都需要有權威來治理。 權威以人性為基礎。為國家的連帶責任,權威是必要的。權威的任務是盡其所能確保社會的公益。

1899. 道德秩序所需要的權威,是從天主來的:「每人要服從上級有權柄的人,因為沒有權柄不是從天主來的,所有的權柄都是由天主規定的。所以誰反抗權柄,就是反抗天主的規定,而反抗的人就是自取處罰」 (羅 13:1-2)。

1900.服從的義務要求眾人給予權威應有的榮譽,對行使職權的人表示尊敬,並依照他們的功績,表示感激和善意。
有聖克萊孟教宗筆下的一篇禱詞,是教會為執政者最古老的一篇祈禱文:

「上主,請恩賜他們健康、平安、和睦、安定,為使他們順利地行使祢賜給他們的統治權。師傅,永世的天上君王,是祢賜給了世人之子光榮,榮譽和統治大地的權能。上主,請指引他們的計謀,不離美善並依祢所悅納的,為使他們在以虔敬、和平、溫良,行使得自祢的權力的時候,幸獲祢的垂憐」。

1901.權威固然反映天主所欽定的秩序,「政體的確定及行政人員的遴選,可由國民自由抉擇」。

政體的多元性,在倫理上是容許的,只要它們符合採用此體制的團體的合法利益。若政體在本質上違反自然律、公共秩序以及基本人權,那麼,強行此政體的國家便不能達成其公益。

1902.權威並非從自身取得其道德的合法性。它不得專橫妄為,而應為公益服務,作為一種「道德力量,此道德力量的基礎是自由及責任感 」:

聖多瑪斯,《神學大全》:人的立法是否有法律的特色,全看是否符合正直的理性;由此顯出,它的力量乃得自永恆律。如果立法偏離理性,則應宣告為不義,因為它不再符合法律的定義;而更好說是一種暴力。

1903. 若權威尋求有關團體的公益,並採用道德上容許的方法來達成此目標,這時權威的行使才算合法。如有掌權者制定不義的法律,或採用違反道德秩序的方法,這些措施沒有束縛良心的力量。「在這情況下,權威自動消失而轉變成為迫害」。

1904. 「更好每個權力受到其他權力及其他合法權力的制衡約束,使它維持在正確的限度內。這便是所謂『法治國家』的原則,在法治國家裡法律是無上權威,而非個人獨斷的意願」。


 Article 2

PARTICIPATION IN SOCIAL LIFE

I. Authority

1897 "Human society can be neither well-ordered nor prosperous unless it has some people invested with legitimate authority to preserve its institutions and to devote themselves as far as is necessary to work and care for the good of all."15 
By "authority" one means the quality by virtue of which persons or institutions make laws and give orders to men and expect obedience from them.

1898 Every human community needs an authority to govern it.16 The foundation of such authority lies in human nature. It is necessary for the unity of the state. Its role is to ensure as far as possible the common good of the society.

1899 The authority required by the moral order derives from God: "Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore he who resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment."17

1900 The duty of obedience requires all to give due honor to authority and to treat those who are charged to exercise it with respect, and, insofar as it is deserved, with gratitude and good-will.

Pope St. Clement of Rome provides the Church's most ancient prayer for political authorities:18 "Grant to them, Lord, health, peace, concord, and stability, so that they may exercise without offense the sovereignty that you have given them. Master, heavenly King of the ages, you give glory, honor, and power over the things of earth to the sons of men. Direct, Lord, their counsel, following what is pleasing and acceptable in your sight, so that by exercising with devotion and in peace and gentleness the power that you have given to them, they may find favor with you."19

1901 If authority belongs to the order established by God, "the choice of the political regime and the appointment of rulers are left to the free decision of the citizens."20 
The diversity of political regimes is morally acceptable, provided they serve the legitimate good of the communities that adopt them. Regimes whose nature is contrary to the natural law, to the public order, and to the fundamental rights of persons cannot achieve the common good of the nations on which they have been imposed.

1902 Authority does not derive its moral legitimacy from itself. It must not behave in a despotic manner, but must act for the common good as a "moral force based on freedom and a sense of responsibility":21

A human law has the character of law to the extent that it accords with right reason, and thus derives from the eternal law. Insofar as it falls short of right reason it is said to be an unjust law, and thus has not so much the nature of law as of a kind of violence.22

1903 Authority is exercised legitimately only when it seeks the common good of the group concerned and if it employs morally licit means to attain it. If rulers were to enact unjust laws or take measures contrary to the moral order, such arrangements would not be binding in conscience. In such a case, "authority breaks down completely and results in shameful abuse."23

1904 "It is preferable that each power be balanced by other powers and by other spheres of responsibility which keep it within proper bounds. This is the principle of the 'rule of law,' in which the law is sovereign and not the arbitrary will of men."


二、公益

1905.依照人的社會本質,個人的私益必然與社會的公益有關。公益的界定,必然要顧及個人:
巴納博,《書信》:生活絕不可脫離群眾、獨自隱退,自以為義人似的,但要聚在一起,共同尋求公益。

1906. 公益一詞是指「整個社會生活的條件,容許團體和個人更充分地和更方便地達到完美」。 公益與所有人的生活有關。公益要求每一個人,尤其那些掌權的人,謹慎明智。公益包括三個基本的要素:

1907. 首先,以對人之所以為人的尊重為前提。因公益之名,公權力必須尊重人基本的和不可轉讓的權利。社會應該允許每一個成員實現他的使命。公益尤其在於提供條件,以利行使天賦的自由,這為達成人的使命,是不可缺少的:「例如:隨從自己良心的正確指示而行事的權利、維護私生活和正當自由的權利,包括宗教事務上的自由」。

1908. 其次,公益要求社會的福祉和團體自身的發展。發展概括了全部的社會義務。誠然,以公益的名義,分配各種個別的利益,乃屬權威的責任。但是它必須使每一個人可以得到所需要的一切,為能度一個真正合乎人性的生活,如:衣、食、健康、工作、教育和文化、適當的資訊、建立家庭的權利等。

1909. 最後,公益包括和平,就是一個穩定和安全的正義秩序。因此,公益假定權威採用正當的方法,確保社會及其成員的安全。公益奠定個人和集體的合法自衛的權利。

1910. 要想人的每一團體都擁有允許它自我肯定的公益,這唯有在政治團體 裡才能得到最圓滿的實現。保衛和促進公民社會、國民和中間社團的公益是國家的責任。

1911. 人類彼此相屬的關係越來越密切,並漸漸伸展至整個大地。四海一家,集合了享有天賦平等尊嚴的人類,牽涉到一個普遍的公益。這公益要求將各國團體組織起來,「以應付人類各種需要。這些需要有的屬於社會生活,如:衣食、衛生、教育……;有的則屬於某些隨處可以發生的特殊情形,如:賑濟難民,並支援移民及其家庭……」。

1912. 公益常以人的進步為目標:「事物的秩序應隸屬於人的秩序,而人不應隸屬於事物」。 這秩序以真理為基礎,建立在正義之上,因愛而活躍。

 II. The Common Good

1905 In keeping with the social nature of man, the good of each individual is necessarily related to the common good, which in turn can be defined only in reference to the human person:

Do not live entirely isolated, having retreated into yourselves, as if you were already justified, but gather instead to seek the common good together.25

1906 By common good is to be understood "the sum total of social conditions which allow people, either as groups or as individuals, to reach their fulfillment more fully and more easily."26 The common good concerns the life of all. It calls for prudence from each, and even more from those who exercise the office of authority. It consists of three essential elements:

1907 First, the common good presupposes respect for the person as such. In the name of the common good, public authorities are bound to respect the fundamental and inalienable rights of the human person. Society should permit each of its members to fulfill his vocation. In particular, the common good resides in the conditions for the exercise of the natural freedoms indispensable for the development of the human vocation, such as "the right to act according to a sound norm of conscience and to safeguard . . . privacy, and rightful freedom also in matters of religion."27

1908 Second, the common good requires the social well-being and development of the group itself. Development is the epitome of all social duties. Certainly, it is the proper function of authority to arbitrate, in the name of the common good, between various particular interests; but it should make accessible to each what is needed to lead a truly human life: food, clothing, health, work, education and culture, suitable information, the right to establish a family, and so on.28

1909 Finally, the common good requires peace, that is, the stability and security of a just order. It presupposes that authority should ensure by morally acceptable means the security of society and its members. It is the basis of the right to legitimate personal and collective defence.

1910 Each human community possesses a common good which permits it to be recognized as such; it is in the political community that its most complete realization is found. It is the role of the state to defend and promote the common good of civil society, its citizens, and intermediate bodies.

1911 Human interdependence is increasing and gradually spreading throughout the world. the unity of the human family, embracing people who enjoy equal natural dignity, implies a universal common good. This good calls for an organization of the community of nations able to "provide for the different needs of men; this will involve the sphere of social life to which belong questions of food, hygiene, education, . . . and certain situations arising here and there, as for example . . . alleviating the miseries of refugees dispersed throughout the world, and assisting migrants and their families."29

1912 The common good is always oriented towards the progress of persons: "The order of things must be subordinate to the order of persons, and not the other way around."30 This order is founded on truth, built up in justice, and animated by love.

三、責任與參與

1913.參與是指個人自願並慷慨地投入社會的交流。所有的人必須各依其格的尊嚴。
1914.參與首先實現在職務範圍裡,負起個人的責任:人藉著關懷家人的教育,藉著在自己工作上的良心,而分享他人和社會的利益。

1915. 國民應盡其所能積極參與公眾生活。參與的模式因地區或文化而異。「國家讓絕大部分國民,在真正的自由中,參與公共事務,是值得讚揚的」。

1916. 眾人對促進公益工作的參與,一如所有的倫理責任,要求社會的夥伴經常不斷地皈依。欺詐舞弊以及其他狡猾手段,使某些人逃避法律的強制與社會義務的規定,因與社會正義的要求背道而馳,應該堅決地予以譴責。應該設法促進那些改善人生活條件的組織。

1917. 鞏固那些能促進團體成員互相信任,和激勵他們自願為別人服務的價值,乃屬於掌權者的責任。參與從教育和文化開始。「我們有理由相信,誰知道給下一代指出生活及希望的理由,人類未來的命運,就操在他們的手中」。

 

III. Responsibility and Participation

1913 "Participation" is the voluntary and generous engagement of a person in social interchange. It is necessary that all participate, each according to his position and role, in promoting the common good. This obligation is inherent in the dignity of the human person.

1914 Participation is achieved first of all by taking charge of the areas for which one assumes personal responsibility: by the care taken for the education of his family, by conscientious work, and so forth, man participates in the good of others and of society.31

1915 As far as possible citizens should take an active part in public life. the manner of this participation may vary from one country or culture to another. "One must pay tribute to those nations whose systems permit the largest possible number of the citizens to take part in public life in a climate of genuine freedom."32

1916 As with any ethical obligation, the participation of all in realizing the common good calls for a continually renewed conversion of the social partners. Fraud and other subterfuges, by which some people evade the constraints of the law and the prescriptions of societal obligation, must be firmly condemned because they are incompatible with the requirements of justice. Much care should be taken to promote institutions that improve the conditions of human life.33

1917 It is incumbent on those who exercise authority to strengthen the values that inspire the confidence of the members of the group and encourage them to put themselves at the service of others. Participation begins with education and culture. "One is entitled to think that the future of humanity is in the hands of those who are capable of providing the generations to come with reasons for life and optimism."34

撮要
1918.「沒有權柄不是從天主來的,所有的權柄都是由天主規定的」(羅 13:1)。
1919.任何人類的團體都需要有權威來維持和發展。
1920.「政治團體及公權力是以人性為基礎的,所以也屬於天主所欽定的秩序」。
1921.若權威致力於促進社會的公益,就是合法地行使。為達到這目的,它該使用道德上容許的方法。
1922.政體的多元性,只要它們致力於促進團體的公益,就是合法的。
1923.政權應在道德的規範內行使,同時要保証行使自由的條件。
1924.公益包括「整個社會生活的條件,容許團體和個人更充分地和更方便地達到完美」。
1925.公益包括三個基本的要素:對人基本權利的尊重和促進;社會的屬靈及屬世價值的昌盛或發展;團體及個人的和平與安全。

1926. 人位格的尊嚴包含尋求公益。每人都有義務出力促進和支持一些改善人類生活條件的組織。
1927.維護並促進公民社會的公益是國家的責任。為整個人類家庭的公益,則要求一個國際社會的組織。

 

IN BRIEF

1918 "There is no authority except from God, and those authorities that exist have been instituted by God" ( Rom 13:1).

1919 Every human community needs an authority in order to endure and develop.

1920 "The political community and public authority are based on human nature and therefore . . . belong to an order established by God" (GS 74 # 3).

1921 Authority is exercised legitimately if it is committed to the common good of society. To attain this it must employ morally acceptable means.

1922 The diversity of political regimes is legitimate, provided they contribute to the good of the community.

1923 Political authority must be exercised within the limits of the moral order and must guarantee the conditions for the exercise of freedom.

1924 The common good comprises "the sum total of social conditions which allow people, either as groups or as individuals, to reach their fulfillment more fully and more easily" (GS 26 1).

1925 The common good consists of three essential elements: respect for and promotion of the fundamental rights of the person; prosperity, or the development of the spiritual and temporal goods of society; the peace and security of the group and of its members.

1926 The dignity of the human person requires the pursuit of the common good. Everyone should be concerned to create and support institutions that improve the conditions of human life.

1927 It is the role of the state to defend and promote the common good of civil society. the common good of the whole human family calls for an organization of society on the international level.

第三條

社會正義

 

1928. 當社會製造某些條件,容許社團和個人,按照他們的本性和召叫,享有他們應該得到的一切時,才能保証社會正義。社會正義是與公益及權力的行使連在一起的。

一、對人的尊重

1929.只有在人的超越性的尊嚴受到尊重時,社會正義才能實現。人代表著社會的最終目標,社會是為了人而組成的:
維護和促進人位格的尊嚴,是造物主交給我們的責任。對此,歷史的環境不論如何,男男女女都有重大的責任和應盡的義務。

1930. 尊重人,包括尊重他身為受造物的尊嚴及由此所衍生的權利。這些權利是先於社會的、是社會應該承認的。它們是所有權威倫理合法性的基礎:如果一個社會在其積極立法時,加以輕視,或拒絕承認這些權利,無異是損害自身的倫理合法性。缺少了對人的尊重,掌權者唯有訴諸武力或暴力,以使屬下服從。教會有責任提醒善意的人士,請他們謹記這些權利,並對不當的與錯誤的要求,加以分辨。

1931. 尊重人須透過以下的原則:「人人應將其近人視作『另一個自己』,一無例外。首先應顧及近人的生命,以及為度尊嚴的生活所需要的資源」。沒有一種立法,憑其本身的力量,足以消除恐懼、偏見、驕傲和自私的心態,這些都阻礙建立真正具有兄弟情誼的社會。唯有在以每一個人為「近人」、為兄弟的愛德能消除這些阻礙。

1932. 對那些最感無助的人,不論在那一方面,作為他們的近人、積極為他們服務的責任尤其迫切。「凡你們對我這些最小兄弟中的一個所做的,就是對我做的」(瑪 25:40)。

1933. 這責任也推廣到那些思想和行為方式跟我們不同的人。基督的教導更要求寬恕他人的冒犯。基督把愛的誡命,也就是新的法律,推及所有仇人。福音精神的解放跟憎恨仇人,是水火不相容的;這裡,不容許憎恨的,是作惡的人,而非仇人作的惡。

二、人的平等與差異

1934. 人是依照唯一天主的肖象而受造的,擁有一個相同的有理性的靈魂;人人皆有同一本性,出自同一本原。人又是藉基督的犧牲所救贖的,人人都蒙召分享同一天主的真福:因此,人人都享有平等的尊嚴。

1935.人與人之間的平等,本質上,基於人之為人的尊嚴,和導源於此尊嚴的權利:
面對人的基本人權,任何形式的歧視,無論是為了性別、種族、膚色、社會地位,或為了語言或宗教,都應予以克服和揚棄,因為都違反天主的計劃。

1936. 在進入世界的時候,人並沒有為發展肉體和精神生活所需要的一切。他需要其他的人。人顯然存有與年齡、體能、智能、人品、利益交流、財富分配等有關的差異。「才能」並不是平等地分配的。

1937. 這些差異乃屬天主的計劃,祂願意每個人從他人得到他所需要的,而享有某些特殊「才能」的人,要把利益輸送給那些需要的人。差異鼓勵,而且屢次要求人們慷慨大量,宅心仁厚,樂意分施;差異促使各文化彼此豐富充實:

聖女加大利肋•西恩那,《對話集》:我不把所有德行平等地分給每個人。……有許多德行,我就這樣分給了人,有的給這人,有的給那人。……給這人愛德;給那人義德;給這人謙遜的德行,給那人活潑的信德。……至於現世的財富,為人生必需的事物,我以更大的不平等分施給人。我不願意每個人都擁有為生活必需的一切,為了使人們因生活的急需,在彼此之間有實行愛德的機會。……我願意他們互相需要,並做我的管家,為分施他們受自我的恩寵和贈與。

1938. 邪惡的不平等仍存在著,打擊著千千萬萬的男女。。這種不平等公開地違反福音:

人的平等尊嚴要求達到更為人道及比較公平的生活條件。在人類大家庭內各成員、各民族間,所有經濟、社會上過分的不平等,是一種恥辱並違反社會正義、公平及人位格的尊嚴,尤其危及社會及國際和平。


Article 3

SOCIAL JUSTICE

1928 Society ensures social justice when it provides the conditions that allow associations or individuals to obtain what is their due, according to their nature and their vocation. Social justice is linked to the common good and the exercise of authority.

I. Respect For the Human Person

1929 Social justice can be obtained only in respecting the transcendent dignity of man. the person represents the ultimate end of society, which is ordered to him:

What is at stake is the dignity of the human person, whose defense and promotion have been entrusted to us by the Creator, and to whom the men and women at every moment of history are strictly and responsibly in debt.35

1930 Respect for the human person entails respect for the rights that flow from his dignity as a creature. These rights are prior to society and must be recognized by it. They are the basis of the moral legitimacy of every authority: by flouting them, or refusing to recognize them in its positive legislation, a society undermines its own moral legitimacy.36 If it does not respect them, authority can rely only on force or violence to obtain obedience from its subjects. It is the Church's role to remind men of good will of these rights and to distinguish them from unwarranted or false claims.

1931 Respect for the human person proceeds by way of respect for the principle that "everyone should look upon his neighbor (without any exception) as 'another self,' above all bearing in mind his life and the means necessary for living it with dignity."37 No legislation could by itself do away with the fears, prejudices, and attitudes of pride and selfishness which obstruct the establishment of truly fraternal societies. Such behavior will cease only through the charity that finds in every man a "neighbor," a brother.

1932 The duty of making oneself a neighbor to others and actively serving them becomes even more urgent when it involves the disadvantaged, in whatever area this may be. "As you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me."38

1933 This same duty extends to those who think or act differently from us. the teaching of Christ goes so far as to require the forgiveness of offenses. He extends the commandment of love, which is that of the New Law, to all enemies.39 Liberation in the spirit of the Gospel is incompatible with hatred of one's enemy as a person, but not with hatred of the evil that he does as an enemy.

II. Equality and Differences Among Men

1934 Created in the image of the one God and equally endowed with rational souls, all men have the same nature and the same origin. Redeemed by the sacrifice of Christ, all are called to participate in the same divine beatitude: all therefore enjoy an equal dignity.

1935 The equality of men rests essentially on their dignity as persons and the rights that flow from it:

Every form of social or cultural discrimination in fundamental personal rights on the grounds of sex, race, color, social conditions, language, or religion must be curbed and eradicated as incompatible with God's design.40

1936 On coming into the world, man is not equipped with everything he needs for developing his bodily and spiritual life. He needs others. Differences appear tied to age, physical abilities, intellectual or moral aptitudes, the benefits derived from social commerce, and the distribution of wealth.41 The "talents" are not distributed equally.42

1937 These differences belong to God's plan, who wills that each receive what he needs from others, and that those endowed with particular "talents" share the benefits with those who need them. These differences encourage and often oblige persons to practice generosity, kindness, and sharing of goods; they foster the mutual enrichment of cultures:

I distribute the virtues quite diversely; I do not give all of them to each person, but some to one, some to others.... I shall give principally charity to one; justice to another; humility to this one, a living faith to that one.... and so I have given many gifts and graces, both spiritual and temporal, with such diversity that I have not given everything to one single person, so that you may be constrained to practice charity towards one another.... I have willed that one should need another and that all should be my ministers in distributing the graces and gifts they have received from me.43

1938 There exist also sinful inequalities that affect millions of men and women. These are in open contradiction of the Gospel:

Their equal dignity as persons demands that we strive for fairer and more humane conditions. Excessive economic and social disparity between individuals and peoples of the one human race is a source of scandal and militates against social justice, equity, human dignity, as well as social and international peace.44

 

三、人的連帶責任

1939.連帶責任的原則,也被稱為「友誼」或「社會仁愛」,是人類間和基督徒之弟兄情誼的一個直接的要求:

比約十二世,《至高司祭》通諭:「今日廣泛流傳的一個錯誤,便是忘記人類連帶責任和愛德的法律。這法律是為所有的人規定的,且應遵守的,因為所有的人,不管屬於那一民族,都有同一個來源,並有平等的理智天性。這法律亦被耶穌基督為有罪的人類在十字架的祭台上獻給天父的贖罪祭所確定」。

1940.連帶責任的表達,首先在於財富的分配和工作的酬勞。其次也在於致力於一個更正義的社會秩序,在此,張力更能化解,爭執更易達致協議。

1941. 社會和經濟的問題,只有借助各種形式的連帶責任,才能獲得解決:窮人和窮人間,富人和窮人間,工人和工人間的連帶責任,在企業上僱主和僱員間的連帶責任,國家和國家間的連帶責任,民族和民族間的連帶責任。國際的連帶責任是道德秩序的一個要求。世界的和平局部地有賴於它。

1942. 連帶責任的德行超越物質的財富。在傳播信德的精神財富時,教會也隨著促進物質財富的發展,屢次給此發展開闢新的門路。這樣,許多世紀以來,應驗了主的話:「你們先該尋求天主的國和祂的義德,這一切自會加給你們的」(瑪 6:33)。

比約十二世,1941年 6月 1日講詞:二千年來,在教會的靈魂內,活躍著,且繼續活躍著一種心情:它曾經推動了,且繼續在推動人靈從事愛德的事業,直達英豪的地步:其中,有隱修的苦耕者,奴隸的解放者,病患的醫療者,信德、文明、科學的傳播者;他們把訊息帶給所有的時代,所有的民族,為了創新社會的環境,以便所有的人能夠度一個適宜於人的,相稱於基督徒的生活。

撮要
1943.當社會實現某些條件,容許社團和個人享有他們應得的權利,才能保証社會正義。
1944.尊重他人就是將他人當作「另一個自己」看待。這必須以尊重人的基本權利為前提,因為這些權利乃源於人的內在尊嚴。
1945.人與人之間的平等是基於他們的人格尊嚴,和源於這尊嚴的的權利。
1946人與人的差異乃屬天主的計劃,祂願意我們彼此需要。這些差異該激勵我們實踐愛德。
1947人的尊嚴是平等的,要求我們縮減社會及經濟上過分的差距,同時推動我們消除邪惡的不平等。
1948連帶責任是一個極具基督徒特色的德行,它使我們分享屬靈的財富,更甚於物質的財富。

 III. Human Solidarity

1939 The principle of solidarity, also articulated in terms of "friendship" or "social charity," is a direct demand of human and Christian brotherhood.45

An error, "today abundantly widespread, is disregard for the law of human solidarity and charity, dictated and imposed both by our common origin and by the equality in rational nature of all men, whatever nation they belong to. This law is sealed by the sacrifice of redemption offered by Jesus Christ on the altar of the Cross to his heavenly Father, on behalf of sinful humanity."46

1940 Solidarity is manifested in the first place by the distribution of goods and remuneration for work. It also presupposes the effort for a more just social order where tensions are better able to be reduced and conflicts more readily settled by negotiation.

1941 Socio-economic problems can be resolved only with the help of all the forms of solidarity: solidarity of the poor among themselves, between rich and poor, of workers among themselves, between employers and employees in a business, solidarity among nations and peoples. International solidarity is a requirement of the moral order; world peace depends in part upon this.

1942 The virtue of solidarity goes beyond material goods. In spreading the spiritual goods of the faith, the Church has promoted, and often opened new paths for, the development of temporal goods as well. and so throughout the centuries has the Lord's saying been verified: "Seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things shall be yours as well":47

For two thousand years this sentiment has lived and endured in the soul of the Church, impelling souls then and now to the heroic charity of monastic farmers, liberators of slaves, healers of the sick, and messengers of faith, civilization, and science to all generations and all peoples for the sake of creating the social conditions capable of offering to everyone possible a life worthy of man and of a Christian.48

IN BRIEF

1943 Society ensures social justice by providing the conditions that allow associations and individuals to obtain their due.

1944 Respect for the human person considers the other "another self." It presupposes respect for the fundamental rights that flow from the dignity intrinsic of the person.

1945 The equality of men concerns their dignity as persons and the rights that flow from it.

1946 The differences among persons belong to God's plan, who wills that we should need one another. These differences should encourage charity.

1947 The equal dignity of human persons requires the effort to reduce excessive social and economic inequalities. It gives urgency to the elimination of sinful inequalities.

1948 Solidarity is an eminently Christian virtue. It practices the sharing of spiritual goods even more than material ones.

 

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