卷三在基督內的生活 -(九誡/十誡)/THE NINTH COMMANDMENT

天主教教理卷三
在基督內的生活

第二部分
第二章

第九條

第九誡

不可貪你近人的房舍。不可貪戀你近人的妻子、僕人、婢女、牛驢及你近人的一切 (出 20:17)。
凡注視婦女,有意貪戀她的,他已在心裡姦淫了她 (瑪 5:28)。

 

2514. 聖若望把貪戀或貪慾(私慾偏情)分為三種:肉身的貪慾、眼目的貪慾、以及人生的驕奢。按照天主教教理的傳統,第九誡禁止肉身的貪慾,第十誡禁止對他人財物的貪慾。

 

2515. 就字源說,「貪慾」(concupiscence)可指人的任何強烈慾望。基督宗教神學給予它特殊意義,就是違反人理性行為的感性慾望的激動。聖保祿宗徒認為是「肉」對「靈」的反抗。這是來自第一個罪的不服從(創 3:11)。貪慾放縱人的道德官能,它自身雖不是罪過,但使人傾向於犯罪。

 

2516. 人是靈魂與肉身合成的,在人內已經有一種張力,進而發展為一種「靈」「肉」之間的鬥爭。然而事實上,這鬥爭是屬於罪的遺害,也正是罪過的後果,同時是罪過的証實。這是每天心靈戰鬥經驗的一部分:

 

對聖保祿宗徒來說,不是要鄙視或責罰身體的問題,身體配合靈魂構成人的本性和人格主體。更好說,他關心倫理上的善行或惡行善行或惡行,是德行及惡習的穩定的情形,即是順從 (善)或反對 (惡 )聖神的拯救行動聖神的拯救行動的效果。因此,聖保祿寫道:「如果我們因聖神生活,就應隨聖神的引導而行事」(迦 5:25)。

 

一、心靈的淨化

2517. 心是道德人格的所在處:「從心裡發出來的是惡念、凶殺、姦淫及邪淫」(瑪 15:19)。抗拒肉身貪慾的戰鬥,是要通過心靈的淨化和節制的實行:

 

何而馬牧者,《牧者的誡命》:你要保持純樸、天真,像小孩一樣,他們不知毀滅人生命的罪惡。

 

2518. 第六端真福宣布:「心裡潔淨的人是有福的,因為他們要看見天主」 (瑪 5:8)。「心裡潔淨的人」是指那些理智與意志配合天主聖善的人,特別在三方面:愛德,貞潔或性的正直、愛真理與正統的信德。心、身、信德的純潔之間,有一種關聯:

 

聖奧思定,《論信德與信經》:信友應該相信信經的條文,「如此因信而順從天主;因順命而正直地生活;因正直地生活,而心裡潔淨;因潔淨他們的心,而領會他們所信的」。

 

2519. 為「心裡潔淨的人」許下了, 面對面看見天主,並相似天主。心地純潔是看見的先決條件。它使我們從今天開始,就按照天主的觀點去看,去接待別人如同「近人」;心地純潔使我們領會人的身體,即自己及近人的身體,都是聖神的宮殿、都是天主至美的表現。

 

Article 9

THE NINTH COMMANDMENT

You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, or his manservant, or his maidservant, or his ox, or his ass, or anything that is your neighbor's.298 

Every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.299

2514 St. John distinguishes three kinds of covetousness or concupiscence: lust of the flesh, lust of the eyes, and pride of life.300 In the Catholic catechetical tradition, the ninth commandment forbids carnal concupiscence; the tenth forbids coveting another's goods.

2515 Etymologically, "concupiscence" can refer to any intense form of human desire. Christian theology has given it a particular meaning: the movement of the sensitive appetite contrary to the operation of the human reason. the apostle St. Paul identifies it with the rebellion of the "flesh" against the "spirit."301 Concupiscence stems from the disobedience of the first sin. It unsettles man's moral faculties and, without being in itself an offense, inclines man to commit sins.302

2516 Because man is a composite being, spirit and body, there already exists a certain tension in him; a certain struggle of tendencies between "spirit" and "flesh" develops. But in fact this struggle belongs to the heritage of sin. It is a consequence of sin and at the same time a confirmation of it. It is part of the daily experience of the spiritual battle:

For the Apostle it is not a matter of despising and condemning the body which with the spiritual soul constitutes man's nature and personal subjectivity. Rather, he is concerned with the morally good or bad works, or better, the permanent dispositions - virtues and vices - which are the fruit of submission (in the first case) or of resistance (in the second case) to the saving action of the Holy Spirit. For this reason the Apostle writes: "If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit."303

I. Purification of the Heart

2517 The heart is the seat of moral personality: "Out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, fornication...."304 The struggle against carnal covetousness entails purifying the heart and practicing temperance:

Remain simple and innocent, and you will be like little children who do not know the evil that destroys man's life.305

2518 The sixth beatitude proclaims, "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God."306 "Pure in heart" refers to those who have attuned their intellects and wills to the demands of God's holiness, chiefly in three areas: charity;307 chastity or sexual rectitude;308 love of truth and orthodoxy of faith.309 There is a connection between purity of heart, of body, and of faith:

The faithful must believe the articles of the Creed "so that by believing they may obey God, by obeying may live well, by living well may purify their hearts, and with pure hearts may understand what they believe."310

2519 The "pure in heart" are promised that they will see God face to face and be like him.311 Purity of heart is the precondition of the vision of God. Even now it enables us to see according to God, to accept others as "neighbors"; it lets us perceive the human body - ours and our neighbor's - as a temple of the Holy Spirit, a manifestation of divine beauty.

 
 

二、 為純潔而戰鬥

2520.洗禮授予人洗淨一切罪過的恩寵。但受過洗禮的人應該對肉身的貪慾及錯亂的慾望繼續戰鬥。靠天主的恩寵,可達到目的:
──藉貞潔的德行和恩賜,因為貞潔讓人以正直而心不二屬地去愛;
──藉純正的意向,就是追求人的真正目的:受過洗禮者,以單純的眼光,設法在一切事上尋找並完成天主的意願;

──藉內在與外在的眼目純潔;藉感覺與想像的紀律;藉拒絕取悅於人的、但使人偏離天主誡命道路的任何不潔思想:「愚人一見這些畫像,就大動情慾」(智15:5);

──藉祈禱

聖奧思定,《懺悔錄》:我以往認為節慾出自我自己的力量……我自己不認識的力量。我真是愚蠢,竟不知道,如果祢不賞賜,沒有人能夠節慾。的確,祢會賞賜,如果出自我內在的嘆息,震驚了祢的耳朵,又如果出自堅定的信德,我把我的焦慮都交給了祢。

 

2521.心地純潔必有羞恥心。這是構成節制的一部分。羞恥心保護人的隱私。它是指拒絕揭露應該隱藏的。它導向貞潔,並証實貞潔的文雅。羞恥心引領我們對別人的注視與舉止,都符合雙方的尊嚴和人際關係。

 

2522. 羞恥心保護人及人愛情的奧秘。在愛情關係上要求忍耐及適度;要求男女之間的授與及許以終身的條件得以滿足。羞恥心亦是端莊。它告訴人對衣著的選擇。當有不健康的好奇心出現的危險時,知所保留或緘默。羞恥心就是審慎。

 

2523. 羞恥心涉及感受和身體兩方面。比如,它反對某些廣告縱容對人身體的「偷窺」,或反對某些媒體太過揭露隱私。羞恥心使人有一種生活方式,得以抗拒時尚的誘惑,與流行意識型態的壓力。

 

2524. 不同文化各有其對羞恥心的表達方式。不過,無論何處,都顯示出人都有一種對靈性尊嚴的直覺。它出自主體意識的覺醒。教導兒童及青少年要有羞恥心,就是喚醒對人的尊重。

 

2525. 基督徒的純潔,要求社會風氣的淨化。它要求社會傳播工具,提供謹慎而有節制的資訊。心地純潔將擺脫瀰漫的色情主義,排除那些鼓勵偷窺與幻想的表演。

 

2526. 所謂時尚的縱容是根據一種對人性自由的錯誤觀念;為了使自由發展,需要先藉道德律予以教育。應該要求教育的負責人,對青年人施予教導,使其尊重真理、人品,及人的道德與精神的尊嚴。

 

2527. 「基督的福音不斷地革新墮落人類的生活與文化,並對罪惡經常的誘惑所產生的錯誤與災禍,從事戰鬥與隔離的工作。教會不停地淨化與提昇各民族的道德。她以天上財富使每個民族及時代的精神素質、本有秉賦,從內部得以豐富,並在基督內得以強化、充實與復興」。

 

撮要
2528.「凡注視婦女,有意貪戀她的,他已在心裡姦淫了她」(瑪 5:28)。
2529.第九誡教人提防貪戀及肉身的貪慾。
2530.抗拒肉身貪慾的戰鬥,涉及心靈的淨化及節德的實踐。
2531.心地純潔將使我們看見天主:從現在就讓我們按照天主的觀點看一切的事。
2532.為潔淨心靈,需要祈禱、實行貞潔、意向和眼目的純潔。
2533.心地純潔需要羞恥心,就是忍耐、樸素及審慎。羞恥心保護人的隱密。 


 II. The Battle for Purity

2520 Baptism confers on its recipient the grace of purification from all sins. But the baptized must continue to struggle against concupiscence of the flesh and disordered desires. With God's grace he will prevail 
- by the virtue and gift of chastity, for chastity lets us love with upright and undivided heart; 
- by purity of intention which consists in seeking the true end of man: with simplicity of vision, the baptized person seeks to find and to fulfill God's will in everything;312 
- by purity of vision, external and internal; by discipline of feelings and imagination; by refusing all complicity in impure thoughts that incline us to turn aside from the path of God's commandments: "Appearance arouses yearning in fools";313 
- by prayer:

I thought that continence arose from one's own powers, which I did not recognize in myself. I was foolish enough not to know . . . that no one can be continent unless you grant it. For you would surely have granted it if my inner groaning had reached your ears and I with firm faith had cast my cares on you.314

2521 Purity requires modesty, an integral part of temperance. Modesty protects the intimate center of the person. It means refusing to unveil what should remain hidden. It is ordered to chastity to whose sensitivity it bears witness. It guides how one looks at others and behaves toward them in conformity with the dignity of persons and their solidarity.

2522 Modesty protects the mystery of persons and their love. It encourages patience and moderation in loving relationships; it requires that the conditions for the definitive giving and commitment of man and woman to one another be fulfilled. Modesty is decency. It inspires one's choice of clothing. It keeps silence or reserve where there is evident risk of unhealthy curiosity. It is discreet.

2523 There is a modesty of the feelings as well as of the body. It protests, for example, against the voyeuristic explorations of the human body in certain advertisements, or against the solicitations of certain media that go too far in the exhibition of intimate things. Modesty inspires a way of life which makes it possible to resist the allurements of fashion and the pressures of prevailing ideologies.

2524 The forms taken by modesty vary from one culture to another. Everywhere, however, modesty exists as an intuition of the spiritual dignity proper to man. It is born with the awakening consciousness of being a subject. Teaching modesty to children and adolescents means awakening in them respect for the human person.

2525 Christian purity requires a purification of the social climate. It requires of the communications media that their presentations show concern for respect and restraint. Purity of heart brings freedom from widespread eroticism and avoids entertainment inclined to voyeurism and illusion.

2526 So called moral permissiveness rests on an erroneous conception of human freedom; the necessary precondition for the development of true freedom is to let oneself be educated in the moral law. Those in charge of education can reasonably be expected to give young people instruction respectful of the truth, the qualities of the heart, and the moral and spiritual dignity of man.

2527 "The Good News of Christ continually renews the life and culture of fallen man; it combats and removes the error and evil which flow from the ever-present attraction of sin. It never ceases to purify and elevate the morality of peoples. It takes the spiritual qualities and endowments of every age and nation, and with supernatural riches it causes them to blossom, as it were, from within; it fortifies, completes, and restores them in Christ."315

IN BRIEF

2528 "Everyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart" ( Mt 5:28).

2529 The ninth commandment warns against lust or carnal concupiscence.

2530 The struggle against carnal lust involves purifying the heart and practicing temperance.

2531 Purity of heart will enable us to see God: it enables us even now to see things according to God.

2532 Purification of the heart demands prayer, the practice of chastity, purity of intention and of vision.

2533 Purity of heart requires the modesty which is patience, decency, and discretion. Modesty protects the intimate center of the person.

 第十條

第十誡

不可貪……你近人的財物 (出 20:17)。不可貪圖你近人的房屋、田地、僕婢、牛驢,以及屬於你近人的一切事物 (申 5:21)。
你的財寶在那裡,你的心也必在那裡 (瑪 6:21)。

 

2534. 第十誡擴展並補充第九誡,第九誡論到肉身的貪慾。第十誡禁止貪他人的財物,是第七誡所禁止的偷竊、搶奪、欺詐之根。「眼目的貪慾」 (若一 2:16)引人走向第五誡禁止的暴力和不義 貪婪,如行淫一般,源於三條誡命所禁止的拜偶像。第十誡是針對心靈的意圖;連同第九誡總括十誡的各條誡命。

 

 Article 10

THE TENTH COMMANDMENT

You shall not covet ... anything that is your neighbor's....

You shall not desire your neighbor's house, his field, or his manservant, or his maidservant,, or his ox, or his ass, or anything that is your neighbor's.316 

For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.317

2534 The tenth commandment unfolds and completes the ninth, which is concerned with concupiscence of the flesh. It forbids coveting the goods of another, as the root of theft, robbery, and fraud, which the seventh commandment forbids. "Lust of the eyes" leads to the violence and injustice forbidden by the fifth commandment.318 Avarice, like fornication, originates in the idolatry prohibited by the first three prescriptions of the Law.319 The tenth commandment concerns the intentions of the heart; with the ninth, it summarizes all the precepts of the Law.

 

一貪慾的錯亂

2535. 感性的慾望使我們希求我們所沒有的愜意的事物。比如,當飢餓時,想吃東西;當寒冷時,想取暖。這些慾望,其本身是好的;但多次不守理性的尺度,並驅使我們不義地去貪那不屬於我們,而屬於別人或者應該是他人的事物。

 

2536. 第十誡禁止貪心及對地上財富過度的佔有慾;禁止對財富及其權勢的無節制的貪婪。此誡命還禁止人有行不義的慾望,以致損害近人的世間財物:

 

《羅馬教理》3,37:當法律告訴我們:「你們不可貪」時,是給我們說,要遠離一切不屬於我們的事物的慾望。對近人財富的渴望是無限的,總不能滿足,因此聖經寫道:「愛錢的,錢不能使他滿足」(德 5:9)。

 

2537. 希望獲得屬於近人的物品,只要取之以正當的方法,就不違反此誡命。傳統的教理符合實際情況地指出「那些需要對有罪的貪慾作艱苦戰鬥的人」,應該「加倍勸勉他們遵守此誡命」:

 

《羅馬教理》3,37:他們是……那些商人,他們希望商品缺乏或昂貴,不幸他們看到他們不是獨家買賣,他們就無法賣得更貴,買得更便宜;他們希望別人都貧困,好能向他人賣出或買進而從中得利……。醫生們希望有病人;律師們需要案件與訴訟,且越多越好……。

 

2538. 第十誡要求從心裡消除嫉妒。當納堂先知想要刺激達味悔罪時,對他講述了一個故事:有一個窮人只有一隻小羊,待牠猶如自己的女兒,而富人雖有牛羊成群,卻嫉妒窮人,終於奪走了他的小羊。嫉妒可能招致更大的壞事。就是因了魔鬼的嫉妒,死亡才進入了世界(智 2:24):

 

金口聖若望,《格林多人後書講道》:我們彼此攻擊,嫉妒使我們持刀相向……如果我們如此猛烈攻擊,致使基督的身體動搖,我們將至於何地﹖我們將使基督的身體軟弱無力……。我們聲稱是同一身體的肢體,而我們相互吞食,猶如猛獸。

 

2539. 嫉妒是七罪宗之一。嫉妒眼見他人的財物而感到不快,也是想將之據為己有的過分慾望,即使非法也不惜。當嫉妒是希望人遭遇重大災害,就是大罪:

 

聖奧思定視嫉妒為「特別屬於魔鬼的罪」。「從嫉妒生怨恨、誹謗、誣衊、幸災樂禍,對他人的發達不快」。
2540.嫉妒是不快的一種表現,因此是對愛德的拒絕;受過洗的人應以慈善加以抗衡。嫉妒往往來自驕傲,受過洗的人應練習度謙遜的生活:

 

金口聖若望,《羅馬書講道集》:你願意看到天主因你受光榮嗎﹖好,那你就該為弟兄的進步而高興,天主就因你而立刻受光榮。天主受讚頌,因為祂的僕人已知道克服嫉妒,視他人的功績為自己的喜樂。

 

 I. The Disorder of Covetous Desires

2535 The sensitive appetite leads us to desire pleasant things we do not have, e.g., the desire to eat when we are hungry or to warm ourselves when we are cold. These desires are good in themselves; but often they exceed the limits of reason and drive us to covet unjustly what is not ours and belongs to another or is owed to him.

2536 The tenth commandment forbids greed and the desire to amass earthly goods without limit. It forbids avarice arising from a passion for riches and their attendant power. It also forbids the desire to commit injustice by harming our neighbor in his temporal goods:

When the Law says, "You shall not covet," these words mean that we should banish our desires for whatever does not belong to us. Our thirst for another's goods is immense, infinite, never quenched. Thus it is written: "He who loves money never has money enough."320

2537 It is not a violation of this commandment to desire to obtain things that belong to one's neighbor, provided this is done by just means. Traditional catechesis realistically mentions "those who have a harder struggle against their criminal desires" and so who "must be urged the more to keep this commandment":

. . . merchants who desire scarcity and rising prices, who cannot bear not to be the only ones buying and selling so that they themselves can sell more dearly and buy more cheaply; those who hope that their peers will be impoverished, in order to realize a profit either by selling to them or buying from them . . . physicians who wish disease to spread; lawyers who are eager for many important cases and trials.321

2538 The tenth commandment requires that envy be banished from the human heart. When the prophet Nathan wanted to spur King David to repentance, he told him the story about the poor man who had only one ewe lamb that he treated like his own daughter and the rich man who, despite the great number of his flocks, envied the poor man and ended by stealing his lamb.322 Envy can lead to the worst crimes.323 "Through the devil's envy death entered the world":324

We fight one another, and envy arms us against one another.... If everyone strives to unsettle the Body of Christ, where shall we end up? We are engaged in making Christ's Body a corpse.... We declare ourselves members of one and the same organism, yet we devour one another like beasts.325

2539 Envy is a capital sin. It refers to the sadness at the sight of another's goods and the immoderate desire to acquire them for oneself, even unjustly. When it wishes grave harm to a neighbor it is a mortal sin:

St. Augustine saw envy as "the diabolical sin."326 "From envy are born hatred, detraction, calumny, joy caused by the misfortune of a neighbor, and displeasure caused by his prosperity."327

2540 Envy represents a form of sadness and therefore a refusal of charity; the baptized person should struggle against it by exercising good will. Envy often comes from pride; the baptized person should train himself to live in humility:

Would you like to see God glorified by you? Then rejoice in your brother's progress and you will immediately give glory to God. Because his servant could conquer envy by rejoicing in the merits of others, God will be praised.328


 

二、聖神的意願

2541.法律和恩寵的救恩計劃使人心放棄貪婪和嫉妒:引導人心渴望「至善」;教導人聖神的願望,聖神滿足人心。
向人屢作許諾的天主常要人提防,那從開始就顯示出「好吃,好看,令人羨慕」(創 3:6)的誘惑。

 

2542. 交託給以色列的法律,絕不足以使服從此法律的人成義;此法律甚至變成了「貪慾」的工具。意願與實行之間的鴻溝,顯示天主的法律,即「理性的法律」,與另一條法律,即「叫我隸屬於那在我肢體內的罪惡的法律」(羅 7:23),二者之間有衝突。

 

2543. 「如今,天主的正義,在法律之外已顯示出來;法律和先知也為此作証:就是天主的正義,因對耶穌基督的信德,毫無區別地,賜給了凡信仰的人」(羅 3:21-22)。從那時起,基督的信徒「已把肉身同邪情和貪慾,釘在十字架上了」(迦 5:24);他們是由聖神引導,隨從聖神的意願。

 


 II. The Desires of the Spirit

2541 The economy of law and grace turns men's hearts away from avarice and envy. It initiates them into desire for the Sovereign Good; it instructs them in the desires of the Holy Spirit who satisfies man's heart. 
The God of the promises always warned man against seduction by what from the beginning has seemed "good for food . . . a delight to the eyes . . . to be desired to make one wise."329

2542 The Law entrusted to Israel never sufficed to justify those subject to it; it even became the instrument of "lust."330 The gap between wanting and doing points to the conflict between God's Law which is the "law of my mind," and another law "making me captive to the law of sin which dwells in my members."331

2543 "But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from law, although the law and the prophets bear witness to it, the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe."332 Henceforth, Christ's faithful "have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires"; they are led by the Spirit and follow the desires of the Spirit.333

 

三、心靈的貧窮

2544. 耶穌吩咐祂的門徒,要愛祂勝過任何事物及任何人,並要他們為了祂和福音的緣故,「捨棄他們的一切所有」(路 14:33)。在祂受難前不久,祂舉耶路撒冷的窮寡婦給他們作榜樣,這寡婦從她的窮困中,把她所有的一切生活費都獻出了。擺脫財富的命令,為進天國是必須遵守的。貧窮精神,去享用世物及依戀財富,而阻止其追求完全的愛德」。

 

2546.「神貧的人是有福的」(瑪 5:3)。真福八端啟示出幸福與恩寵、美麗與和平的境界。耶穌稱揚窮人的喜悅,因為天國已經是他們的了:
聖言稱人精神上的謙抑自下和淡泊為「神貧」;聖保祿也舉出天主的貧窮為例,他說:「祂為了你們成了貧窮的」 (格後 8:9)

 

2547. 上主為富貴人悲傷,因為他們把安慰置於大量的財富上(路 6:24)。「驕傲人追求地上的權勢,而神貧的人卻尋求天國」。投靠天父的眷顧足以解除明日的焦慮。信賴天主是準備人得到窮人的真福。他們要看見天主。

 

 III. Poverty of Heart

2544 Jesus enjoins his disciples to prefer him to everything and everyone, and bids them "renounce all that [they have]" for his sake and that of the Gospel.334 Shortly before his passion he gave them the example of the poor widow of Jerusalem who, out of her poverty, gave all that she had to live on.335 The precept of detachment from riches is obligatory for entrance into the Kingdom of heaven.

2545 All Christ's faithful are to "direct their affections rightly, lest they be hindered in their pursuit of perfect charity by the use of worldly things and by an adherence to riches which is contrary to the spirit of evangelical poverty."336

2546 "Blessed are the poor in spirit."337 The Beatitudes reveal an order of happiness and grace, of beauty and peace. Jesus celebrates the joy of the poor, to whom the Kingdom already belongs:338

The Word speaks of voluntary humility as "poverty in spirit"; the Apostle gives an example of God's poverty when he says: "For your sakes he became poor."339

2547 The Lord grieves over the rich, because they find their consolation in the abundance of goods.340 "Let the proud seek and love earthly kingdoms, but blessed are the poor in spirit for theirs is the Kingdom of heaven."341 Abandonment to the providence of the Father in heaven frees us from anxiety about tomorrow.342 Trust in God is a preparation for the blessedness of the poor. They shall see God.

 

四、「我願看見天主」

2548. 對真正幸福的渴望,使人解脫對現世財物的過分依戀,而在享見天主及在天主的真福中得到滿足。「享見天主的許諾,超過一切真福。在聖經裡,看見就是擁有。看見天主的人,就是已經得到一切可能想像的財富」。

 

2549. 天主的聖民還要靠從天上來的恩寵奮鬥,以獲得天主所許的財富。為了擁有天主、瞻仰天主,基督信徒消除自己的貪慾,並靠天主的恩寵,戰勝安逸和權勢的誘惑。

 

2550.在成全的路上,聖神與新娘都在召喚,凡聽見的, 都要與天主有圓滿的共融:

 

聖奧思定,《天主之城》:那裡將有真正的光榮;那裡沒有人因錯誤或諂媚而受到稱揚;真正的尊榮不會拒絕給應得的人,也不會賜與無資格的人;另一方面,無資格者不會強求,因為只有有資格者才能進入。在那裡真正的和平將要統治一切,再不會感到從自己或從別人而來的反抗。論及德行,天主自己就是酬報,天主賜給了德行,也把祂自己許諾給德行。天主是最好、最大的酬報:「我將作他們的天主,他們作我的子民」…… (肋 26:12) 。這也是聖保祿宗徒說這話的意思:「好叫天主成為萬物中的萬有」(格前 15:28)。天主自己將是我們渴望的最終對象,我們將無止境地瞻仰祂、無止境地愛慕祂、無厭倦地讚美祂。這種恩寵、這種情懷、這種職務,確實是眾人共有,一如永生一樣。

 

撮要
2551.「你的財寶在那裡,你的心也必在那裡」(瑪 6:21)。
2552.第十誡禁止對財富及其權勢的過度貪婪,這貪婪源自對錢財無節制的情慾。
這是七罪宗之一。
2554.受過洗的人,以良善、謙遜,及依靠天主的照顧,而與嫉妒戰鬥。
2555.基督徒「已把肉身同邪情和貪慾,釘在十字架上了」(迦 5:24);他們是由聖神引導,隨從祂的意願。
2556.擺脫財富為進天國是必要的。「神貧的人是有福的」。
2557.人類真正的渴望:「我願看見天主」。對天主的渴望,只有永生的水才能解除。

 IV. "I Want to See God"

2548 Desire for true happiness frees man from his immoderate attachment to the goods of this world so that he can find his fulfillment in the vision and beatitude of God. "The promise [of seeing God] surpasses all beatitude.... In Scripture, to see is to possess.... Whoever sees God has obtained all the goods of which he can conceive."343

2549 It remains for the holy people to struggle, with grace from on high, to obtain the good things God promises. In order to possess and contemplate God, Christ's faithful mortify their cravings and, with the grace of God, prevail over the seductions of pleasure and power.

2550 On this way of perfection, the Spirit and the Bride call whoever hears them344 to perfect communion with God:

There will true glory be, where no one will be praised by mistake or flattery; true honor will not be refused to the worthy, nor granted to the unworthy; likewise, no one unworthy will pretend to be worthy, where only those who are worthy will be admitted. There true peace will reign, where no one will experience opposition either from self or others. God himself will be virtue's reward; he gives virtue and has promised to give himself as the best and greatest reward that could exist.... "I shall be their God and they will be my people...." This is also the meaning of the Apostle's words: "So that God may be all in all." God himself will be the goal of our desires; we shall contemplate him without end, love him without surfeit, praise him without weariness. This gift, this state, this act, like eternal life itself, will assuredly be common to all.345

IN BRIEF

2551 "Where your treasure is, there will your heart be also" ( Mt 6:21).

2552 The tenth commandment forbids avarice arising from a passion for riches and their attendant power.

2553 Envy is sadness at the sight of another's goods and the immoderate desire to have them for oneself. It is a capital sin.

2554 The baptized person combats envy through good-will, humility, and abandonment to the providence of God.

2555 Christ's faithful "have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires" ( Gal 5:24); they are led by the Spirit and follow his desires.

2556 Detachment from riches is necessary for entering the Kingdom of heaven. "Blessed are the poor in spirit."

2557 "I want to see God" expresses the true desire of man. Thirst for God is quenched by the water of eternal life (cf In 4:14).

   
   
   
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