卷三在基督內的生活 -上主的名是聖的(第二誡 ~ 第四誡)/The Name of the Lord is Holy

 

 

第二條

第二誡

不可妄呼你天主上主的名 (出 20:7;申 5:11)。
你們一向聽過對古人說:「不可發虛誓」……。我卻對你們說:你們總不可發誓 (瑪 5:33-34)。

 

 

一、上主的名是聖的

2142. 第二誡規定我們要尊重上主的名。如同第一誡一樣,第二誡屬於虔敬之德的範圍,並更特殊地規定,在神聖的事情上,怎樣運用我們的口舌。

 

2143. 在所有啟示的話中,其中有一句是與眾不同的,就是啟示天主的名字。天主吐露祂的名字給相信祂的人;天主在自身的奧秘中顯示自己給相信祂的人。名字的恩賜表示對人的信任和親密。「上主的名是聖的」。因此,人不能濫用上主的名。人應以敬愛朝拜的靜默,把上主的名保守在心中。不應該在自己說話時輕易提起上主的名,除非為了祝福、讚美、光榮祂。

 

2144.對上主名字的尊敬表達對天主本身的奧秘,以及它所喚起的整個神聖事實應有的尊敬。神聖感乃屬於虔敬之德的範圍:

 

約翰亨利,紐曼《堂區簡易道理集》:敬畏和神聖感是基督徒的情懷嗎?沒有人能合理地去懷疑。一旦我們享見至尊無比的天主,這是應該具有的情懷,並且應該達到強烈的程度。幾時我們體驗祂臨在的「真實性」,我們就該具有這情懷。我們越相信祂臨在,就越會有這情懷。沒有敬畏和神聖感,就是體驗不到,不相信祂的臨在。

 

2145.信徒應該為上主的名作証,毫不畏懼地宣認自己的信仰。 宣道和教理講授,應該為對耶穌基督之名的崇拜和尊敬所浸潤。

 

2146. 第二誡禁止妄用天主的名字,就是不相宜地運用天主、耶穌基督、童貞瑪利亞及眾聖人的名字。
為保証。這些許諾按正義應該受到尊重。對這些許諾失信,便是濫用天主的名字,在某種程度上,使天主成為撒謊者咒罵天主直接違反第二誡,是指:在內心或在口頭上出言反對天主,說懷恨、指責、藐視天主的話、講天主的壞話、在言談中對天主說失敬的話,並妄呼天主的名字。聖雅各伯宗徒責備「那些辱罵基督美名(耶穌)」的人(雅 2:7)。

 

2148. 咒罵天主的禁令也包括反對基督教會、聖人以及神聖事物的言詞。借用天主的名字,為遮掩犯罪的行為、奴役人民、虐待人民或屠殺人民,也等於咒罵天主。妄用天主的名字,來進行犯罪的勾當,將招致對宗教的排斥。

 

咒罵天主與對天主和祂的聖名應有的尊敬相反。咒罵天主本身是個嚴重的罪過。
2149.以天主的名字詛咒(人),雖沒有咒罵天主的意思,也是對上主的失敬。第二誡也禁止以天主的名字來施行魔術
聖奧思定,《論山中聖訓》:天主的名號是偉大的,應該以相稱祂的偉大和尊高來稱呼祂。天主的名號是聖的,應該懷著恭敬和唯恐得罪祂的心情稱呼祂的名號。

 

二、妄呼天主的名號

2150. 第二誡禁止發虛誓。所謂宣誓或發誓,就是人籲請天主為自己所說的事情作証。這是人呼號天主的信實作為個人信實的保証。發誓是以上主的名號作擔保。「你要敬畏上主你的天主,只事奉祂,只以祂的名起誓」(申 6:13)。

 

2151. 拒絕發虛誓是對天主的一個義務。身為造物主和上主,天主是一切真理的標準。人的話與天主的真理,或者吻合,或者相反。若人的話是信實而合法的,所發的誓便突顯人的話與天主的真理的關係。虛誓則是人呼號天主為他的謊言作証。

 

2152. 發虛誓是一個人宣誓作出一個無意履行的承諾,或者在宣誓作出承諾之後,不予以履行。發虛誓是對一切言語之主的天主構成嚴重的失敬。以宣誓來保証做一件壞事是違反天主之名的神聖性。

 

2153. 耶穌在山中聖訓中講解了第二條誡命:「你們一向聽過對古人說:『不可發虛誓!要向上主償還你的誓願。』我卻對你們說:你們總不可發誓……。你們的話應當是:是就說是,非就說非;其他多餘的,便是出於邪惡」(瑪 5:33-34,37)。耶穌的教導是:所有的宣誓必然涉及天主,因而在一切言談中必須尊重天主的臨在及祂的真理。向天主求助時說話須謹慎,且對天主的臨在必恭必敬。我們每一句話或肯定或藐視天主的臨在。

 

2154. 隨著聖保祿,教會的傳統,認為為了重大而正當的理由發誓(例如在法庭前),並不與耶穌的教導相反。宣誓,即呼天主之名而為真理作証,但「除依照真理、明辨及正義外,不得宣誓」。

 

2155. 天主之名的神聖性,要求不得為微不足道的瑣事宣誓,不可在可疑的情況下宣誓,就是可能被誤解為認同那無理要求的權力。若宣誓為不合法的政府所要求,可以加以拒絕。若宣誓的目的違反人的尊嚴或損害教會的共融,必須加以拒絕。

 

三、基督徒的名字

2156. 聖洗聖事的施行乃「因父及子及聖神之名」(瑪 28:19)。在此聖事中,以上主之名祝聖受洗的人,基督徒領受他在教會中的名字。這可能是一個聖人的名字,這聖人是一個基督的門徒,忠於主的典範,善度了在世的一生。這位主保聖人提供他一個愛德的表率,又保証為他轉禱。「聖洗的名字」也能指基督的一個奧跡,或一個基督徒的德行。「父母、代父母和堂區主任應留心,勿以與基督信仰無關的名字為洗名」。

 

2157. 基督徒以十字聖號,「因父及子及聖神之名」開始他的一天、他的祈禱和行動。這樣,基督徒奉獻他的一天,為光榮天主,並呼求救主的恩寵,使他能在聖神內行動,一如天父的子女。我們在誘惑和困難中,十字聖號堅強我們。

 

2158.天主以每人的名字來召呼人。每一個人的名字是聖的。名字是一個人的畫相。它要求受到尊敬,為表示對有此名字者的尊重。

 

2159. 領受的名字是一個具有永久性的名字。在天國裡,每一個烙有天主聖名的人,他的奧秘和獨一無二的特徵,將大放光明。「勝利的,…… 我要賜給他一塊刻有新名號的白石,除了領受的人外,誰也不認得這名號」(默 2:17)。「我看見羔羊站在熙雍山上,同祂在一起的,還有十四萬四千人,他們的額上都刻著羔羊的名號和祂父的名號」(默 14:1)。

 

 

 

 

  

Article 2

THE SECOND COMMANDMENT

You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.72

You have heard that it was said to the men of old, "You shall not swear falsely. . But I say to you, Do not swear at all.73

I. The Name of the Lord is Holy

2142 The second commandment prescribes respect for the Lord's name. Like the first commandment, it belongs to the virtue of religion and more particularly it governs our use of speech in sacred matters.

2143 Among all the words of Revelation, there is one which is unique: the revealed name of God. God confides his name to those who believe in him; he reveals himself to them in his personal mystery. the gift of a name belongs to the order of trust and intimacy. "The Lord's name is holy." For this reason man must not abuse it. He must keep it in mind in silent, loving adoration. He will not introduce it into his own speech except to bless, praise, and glorify it.74

2144 Respect for his name is an expression of the respect owed to the mystery of God himself and to the whole sacred reality it evokes. the sense of the sacred is part of the virtue of religion:

Are these feelings of fear and awe Christian feelings or not? . . . I say this, then, which I think no one can reasonably dispute. They are the class of feelings we should have - yes, have to an intense degree - if we literally had the sight of Almighty God; therefore they are the class of feelings which we shall have, if we realize His presence. In proportion as we believe that He is present, we shall have them; and not to have them, is not to realize, not to believe that He is present.75

2145 The faithful should bear witness to the Lord's name by confessing the faith without giving way to fear.76 Preaching and catechizing should be permeated with adoration and respect for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.

2146 The second commandment forbids the abuse of God's name, i.e., every improper use of the names of God, Jesus Christ, but also of the Virgin Mary and all the saints.

2147 Promises made to others in God's name engage the divine honor, fidelity, truthfulness, and authority. They must be respected in justice. To be unfaithful to them is to misuse God's name and in some way to make God out to be a liar.77

2148 Blasphemy is directly opposed to the second commandment. It consists in uttering against God - inwardly or outwardly - words of hatred, reproach, or defiance; in speaking ill of God; in failing in respect toward him in one's speech; in misusing God's name. St. James condemns those "who blaspheme that honorable name [of Jesus] by which you are called."78 The prohibition of blasphemy extends to language against Christ's Church, the saints, and sacred things. It is also blasphemous to make use of God's name to cover up criminal practices, to reduce peoples to servitude, to torture persons or put them to death. the misuse of God's name to commit a crime can provoke others to repudiate religion. 
Blasphemy is contrary to the respect due God and his holy name. It is in itself a grave sin.79

2149 Oaths which misuse God's name, though without the intention of blasphemy, show lack of respect for the Lord. the second commandment also forbids magical use of the divine name.

[God's] name is great when spoken with respect for the greatness of his majesty. God's name is holy when said with veneration and fear of offending him.80

II. Taking the Name of the Lord in Vain

2150 The second commandment forbids false oaths. Taking an oath or swearing is to take God as witness to what one affirms. It is to invoke the divine truthfulness as a pledge of one's own truthfulness. An oath engages the Lord's name. "You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall serve him, and swear by his name."81

2151 Rejection of false oaths is a duty toward God. As Creator and Lord, God is the norm of all truth. Human speech is either in accord with or in opposition to God who is Truth itself. When it is truthful and legitimate, an oath highlights the relationship of human speech with God's truth. A false oath calls on God to be witness to a lie.

2152 A person commits perjury when he makes a promise under oath with no intention of keeping it, or when after promising on oath he does not keep it. Perjury is a grave lack of respect for the Lord of all speech. Pledging oneself by oath to commit an evil deed is contrary to the holiness of the divine name.

2153 In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus explained the second commandment: "You have heard that it was said to the men of old, 'You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform to the Lord what you have sworn.' But I say to you, Do not swear at all.... Let what you say be simply 'Yes' or 'No'; anything more than this comes from the evil one."82 Jesus teaches that every oath involves a reference to God and that God's presence and his truth must be honored in all speech. Discretion in calling upon God is allied with a respectful awareness of his presence, which all our assertions either witness to or mock.

2154 Following St. Paul,83 The tradition of the Church has understood Jesus' words as not excluding oaths made for grave and right reasons (for example, in court). "An oath, that is the invocation of the divine name as a witness to truth, cannot be taken unless in truth, in judgment, and in justice."84

2155 The holiness of the divine name demands that we neither use it for trivial matters, nor take an oath which on the basis of the circumstances could be interpreted as approval of an authority unjustly requiring it. When an oath is required by illegitimate civil authorities, it may be refused. It must be refused when it is required for purposes contrary to the dignity of persons or to ecclesial communion.

III. The Christian Name

2156 The sacrament of Baptism is conferred "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit."85 In Baptism, the Lord's name sanctifies man, and the Christian receives his name in the Church. This can be the name of a saint, that is, of a disciple who has lived a life of exemplary fidelity to the Lord. the patron saint provides a model of charity; we are assured of his intercession. the "baptismal name" can also express a Christian mystery or Christian virtue. "Parents, sponsors, and the pastor are to see that a name is not given which is foreign to Christian sentiment."86

2157 The Christian begins his day, his prayers, and his activities with the Sign of the Cross: "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen." the baptized person dedicates the day to the glory of God and calls on the Savior's grace which lets him act in the Spirit as a child of the Father. the sign of the cross strengthens us in temptations and difficulties.

2158 God calls each one by name.87 Everyone's name is sacred. the name is the icon of the person. It demands respect as a sign of the dignity of the one who bears it.

2159 The name one receives is a name for eternity. In the kingdom, the mysterious and unique character of each person marked with God's name will shine forth in splendor. "To him who conquers . . . I will give a white stone, with a new name written on the stone which no one knows except him who receives it."88 "Then I looked, and Lo, on Mount Zion stood the Lamb, and with him a hundred and forty-four thousand who had his name and his Father's name written on their foreheads."89

 

撮要
2160.「上主,我們的天主!祢的名在普世何其美妙!」(詠 8:2)。
2161.第二誡規定我們要尊重上主的名。上主的名是聖的。
2162.第二誡禁止妄用天主的名字。咒罵天主在於居心不敬地運用天主、耶穌基督、童貞瑪利亞和聖人的名字。

 

2163. 發虛誓是呼號天主為一個謊言作証。發虛誓是對常忠於自己許諾的上主,嚴重地失敬。
悉心為他選擇基督徒的名字。以一位聖人作主保,表示以這位聖人為愛德的模範,並且肯定享有他的代禱。

 

2166.基督徒以十字聖號開始他的祈禱和行動,「因父及子及聖神之名。阿們」。

 

第三條

第三誡


2167.天主以每人的名字來召呼人。 第三條 應記住安息日,守為聖日。六天應該勞作,作你一切的事;但第七天是為恭敬上主你的天主當守的安息日;你不可作任何工作(出 20:8-10)。
安息日是為人立的,並不是人為了安息日;所以,人子也是安息日的主(谷 2:27-28)。

 

一、安息日

2168.十誡的第三誡提醒人記得安息的神聖性:「第七日應完全安息,因為是獻於上主的聖日」(出 31:15)。

 

2169. 在說到安息時,聖經作了創造的紀念:「因為上主在六天內造了天地、海洋和其中的一切,但第七天休息了,因此上主祝福了安息日,也定為聖日」(出 20:11)。

 

2170. 聖經也揭示了上主的日子,是以色列自埃及的奴役中獲得解救的紀念 日:「應記得:你在埃及地也曾做過奴隸,上主你的天主以大能的手和伸展的臂,將你從那裡領出來。為此,上主你的天主吩咐你守安息日」(申 5:15)。

 

2171. 天主把安息日交給以色列遵守,作為永遠盟約的記號。安息日是為上主所保留的神聖日子,用以讚美天主,祂的創世工程,以及祂拯救以色列的行為。

 

2172. 天主的作為是人之作為的榜樣。如果天主在第七天「停工休息」(出 31:17),人也應該「停止工作」,並讓他人,尤其是窮人,「獲得喘息」(出 23:12)。安息日停止日常的工作,讓人休息。這是對工作的奴役性和金錢崇拜抗議的日子。

 

2173. 福音報導了許多耶穌被控告觸犯安息日法律的事件。但是耶穌從不違背安息日的神聖性。耶穌用祂的權威給安息日作了正確的解釋:「安息日是為人立的,並不是人為了安息日」(谷 2:27)。基督以悲天憫人的 (谷 3:4)。安息日是慈悲的上主的日子和光榮天主的日子。「人子也是安息日的主」(谷 2:28)。

 

 IN BRIEF

2160 "O Lord, our Lord, how majestic is your name in all the earth" ( Ps 8:1)!

2161 The second commandment enjoins respect for the Lord's name. the name of the Lord is holy.

2162 The second commandment forbids every improper use of God's name. Blasphemy is the use of the name of God, of Jesus Christ, of the Virgin Mary, and of the saints in an offensive way.

2163 False oaths call on God to be witness to a lie. Perjury is a grave offence against the Lord who is always faithful to his promises.

2164 "Do not swear whether by the Creator, or any creature, except truthfully, of necessity, and with reverence" (St. Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, 38).

2165 In Baptism, the Christian receives his name in the Church. Parents, godparents, and the pastor are to see that he be given a Christian name. the patron saint provides a model of charity and the assurance of his prayer.

2166 The Christian begins his prayers and activities with the Sign of the Cross: "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen."

2167 God calls each one by name (cf  Isa 43:1).

Article 3

THE THIRD COMMANDMENT

Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work; but the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work.90

The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath; so the Son of Man is lord even of the sabbath.91

I. The Sabbath Day

2168 The third commandment of the Decalogue recalls the holiness of the sabbath: "The seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD."92

2169 In speaking of the sabbath Scripture recalls creation: "For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and hallowed it."93

2170 Scripture also reveals in the Lord's day a memorial of Israel's liberation from bondage in Egypt: "You shall remember that you were a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out thence with mighty hand and outstretched arm; therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the sabbath day."94

2171 God entrusted the sabbath to Israel to keep as a sign of the irrevocable covenant.95 The sabbath is for the Lord, holy and set apart for the praise of God, his work of creation, and his saving actions on behalf of Israel.

2172 God's action is the model for human action. If God "rested and was refreshed" on the seventh day, man too ought to "rest" and should let others, especially the poor, "be refreshed."96 The sabbath brings everyday work to a halt and provides a respite. It is a day of protest against the servitude of work and the worship of money.97

2173 The Gospel reports many incidents when Jesus was accused of violating the sabbath law. But Jesus never fails to respect the holiness of this day.98 He gives this law its authentic and authoritative interpretation: "The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath."99 With compassion, Christ declares the sabbath for doing good rather than harm, for saving life rather than killing.100 The sabbath is the day of the Lord of mercies and a day to honor God.101 "The Son of Man is lord even of the sabbath."102


二、主的日子

這是上主所安排的一天,我們應該為此鼓舞喜歡(詠 118:24)。
復活的日子::新的創造

 

2174. 「一週的第一天」,耶穌自死者中復活了 (瑪 28:1;谷 16:2;路 24:1;若 20:1)。就其為「第一天」來說,基督復活的日子使我們記起第一次創造。就其為「第八天」,亦即安息日的後一日來說 ,基督復活的日子意味著開始了新創造。對基督徒來說,這日子成了一切日子中的第一個日子,一切慶節中的第一個慶節,主的日子 (he kuriake hemera, dies dominica),「主日」:

 

聖猶思定,《護教書》:每一個日曜日,我們聚在一起,因為這是第一天〔緊接在猶太人的安息日之後,但也是第一天〕,在這一天,天主從黑暗中引出物質,創造天地,又在同一天,耶穌基督,我們的救主,自死者中復活。

 

主日是安息日的圓滿

 

2175. 主日與安息日顯然不同;在時間上,每週,主日在安息日之後一日;為基督徒,主日取代了安息日的禮規。在基督的逾越奧跡內,主日滿全了猶太安息日的屬靈真理,宣告人在天主內的永遠安息。因為法律的敬禮乃準備基督的奧跡,這敬禮的實踐正好預示了一些有關基督的特色:

 

聖依納爵•安提約基,《致馬尼西人書》:那些依照舊的方式而生活的人,現在來到了新的希望之中,不再遵守安息日,而遵守主日,因為是在主日,我們的生命因著主和祂的死亡而蒙受祝福。

 

2176. 主日的慶典遵守自然銘刻在人心中的道德規律,「為表示天主對全人類的普施恩德,向祂獻上外在、可見、公共和定期的敬禮」。主日的敬禮履行舊約的道德命令,因為這敬禮沿用舊約的節奏和精神,每週慶祝天主子民的造物主和救主。

 

主日的感恩祭

 

2177. 慶祝主的日子和舉行主的感恩祭是教會生活的中心。「根據宗徒的傳統,慶祝逾越奧跡的主日,在整個教會內,應奉為當守的主要法定慶節」。
「我們決不離棄我們的集會,就像一些人所習慣行的;反而應彼此勸勉」(希 10:25)。

 

「同樣該遵守的,有我們的主耶穌基督的聖誕節,主顯節,耶穌升天節,基督聖體聖血節,天主之母節,聖母始胎無原罪節,聖母升天節,聖若瑟節,聖伯多祿及聖保祿宗徒節,諸聖節」。

 

《講論主日的道理》:傳統牢記一個萬古常新的勸告:「及早來到聖堂,接近上主,明認自己的罪過,在祈禱中痛心懺悔……。參與聖潔和神聖的禮儀,做完祈禱,不要在遣散之前離去……。這是我們經常說的:「賜給你們這一天是為了祈禱和休息。這是上主安排的一天。我們要在上主內踴躍喜樂」。

 

2179. 「堂區是個別教會中成立的固定的信徒團體,由堂區主任在教區主教的權下,負責其牧靈事務,堂區主任是堂區的當然牧者」。堂區是所有信徒為舉行主日感恩慶典可以集合的地方。堂區傳授基督的子民以禮儀生活的一般表達,在這慶典中聚集他們;它教導基督救世的道理;它在慈善和友愛的事業中實踐上主的慈愛:

 

金口聖若望,《論天主性不能徹悟》:你在家中祈禱,與在教會中祈禱,不能相比。在教會中祈禱,人數眾多,在那裡,祈禱的呼聲,眾口一心,直達天主。在教會中有的更多:如精神的結合、心靈的一致、愛德的聯繫、司祭的祈禱。

 

主日的本分

 

2180. 教會的規條更確切地規定上主的法律:「主日及當守的法定慶節,信徒有責任參與彌撒」。「無論在慶節本日或在前一天晚上,參與任何地方舉行的天主教禮彌撒者,即滿全參與彌撒的誡命」。

 

2181. 主日的感恩祭奠定和確認基督徒的一切宗教習慣。因此,信徒有責任參與法定日子的感恩祭,除非為了重大的理由而不能出席,(例如疾病、照顧嬰兒)或獲得自己本堂牧者的豁免。凡故意未盡這責任者,難免不犯重罪。

 

2182. 參與主日共同舉行的感恩祭,是歸屬和忠於基督與祂的教會的明証。信徒以此証實他們在信德和愛德內的共融。他們一起為天主的神聖性和他們對救援的希望作証。他們在聖神的引導之下,彼此鼓勵。

 

2183. 「如因缺乏聖職人員,或因其他重大原因,不能參與感恩祭時,懇切希望信徒參加在本堂區聖堂或在其他聖所,依教區主教規定所舉行的聖道禮儀;或個人或與家人一起以相當的時間做祈禱,或斟酌情形,幾個家庭團聚做祈禱」。

 

恩寵的日子和停止工作

 

2184. 如同「天主造物的工程已完成,就在第七天休息,停止了所作的一切工程」(創 2:2),人的生活是由工作和休息所調節。主日的建立是為了使所有的人都有機會享有足夠的休息和餘暇,以培養其家庭、文化、社會及宗教的生活。

 

2185. 在主日及當守的法定節日,信徒應停止有礙於敬禮天主、合乎於主的日子的喜樂、從事慈善事業、讓心神和肉體適當鬆弛的工作及業務。家庭的急需或社會的巨大利益,構成合法的免除主日休息的規定。但活、和健康的習慣。

 

聖奧思定,《天主之城》:為了熱愛真理,要尋求聖善的休閒;為了愛德的需要,要接受正當的工作。

 

2186. 但願享受休閒的信徒,記得那些具有相同需要和相同權利的弟兄,他們由於貧窮和不幸而無法得到休息。傳統上,虔敬的基督徒習慣以做慈善的工作和給病人、弱小者、老人作謙卑的服務來聖化主日。基督徒另一個聖化主日的方式是,為他們的家人和近人,撥出額外的時間和關心,在平時,這些時間是難以找到的。主日是一個反省、默靜、文化和深思的時機,這些都有益於內心生活和基督徒生活的成長。

 

2187.聖化主日和節日要求共同的努力。每個基督徒如無必要應避免強求他人作事,致使他人難以遵守主的日子。若某些習慣(運動、餐廳等)和社會生活的需要(公共服務等)要

 

求在主日那天工作,每個人有責任為自己保留足夠的休閒時間。但願信徒以節制和愛德,在群體休閒活動中避免時有所聞的過度和暴力。儘管經濟的壓力強大,但願公權力給國民確保一個專為休息和敬主的時間。僱主對他們的僱員來說也有類似的責任。

 

2188. 在尊重信仰自由和公益的前提之下,基督徒應使人承認教會的主日和慶節為法定的假日。他們應該給群眾樹立祈禱、互敬和喜樂的榜樣,並維護他們的傳統,對人類社會的精神生活是一項珍貴的貢獻。如果因著國家的立法或由於其他的理由,在主日那一天必須工作,務使在這一天也要過得猶如我們獲得釋放的日子,這一天使我們參與這「盛會」,「已被登錄在天上的首生者的集會」(希 12:22-23)。

 

撮要
2189.「當照上主,你的天主吩咐的,遵守安息日,奉為聖日」(申 5:12)。「第七日應完全安息,因為是獻於上主的聖日」(出 31:15)。


2190.安息日代表第一次創造的完成,現在則由主日所取代,因為紀念新的創造,以基督的復活作為開始。


2191.教會在第八天慶祝基督復活的日子,這日子理當稱為主的日子或主日。
2192.「主日……應在整個教會內,首先奉為當守的法定慶節」「在主日及當守的法定節日裡,信徒有責任參與彌撒」。


2193.「主日及當守的法定慶節,信友……應停止有礙於敬禮天主、合乎於主的日子的喜樂,或心神和肉身休閒的工作及業務」。


2194.主日的建立是為了使所有的人都有機會「享有足夠的休息和餘暇,以度其家庭、文化、社會及宗教生活」。


2195.每位基督徒如無必要應避免強求他人作阻礙人遵守主的日子的事。

 

II. The Lord's Day

This is the day which the LORD has made; let us rejoice and be glad in it.103 

The day of the Resurrection: the new creation

2174 Jesus rose from the dead "on the first day of the week."104 Because it is the "first day," the day of Christ's Resurrection recalls the first creation. Because it is the "eighth day" following the sabbath,105it symbolizes the new creation ushered in by Christ's Resurrection. For Christians it has become the first of all days, the first of all feasts, the Lord's Day (he kuriake hemera, dies dominica) Sunday:

We all gather on the day of the sun, for it is the first day [after the Jewish sabbath, but also the first day] when God, separating matter from darkness, made the world; and on this same day Jesus Christ our Savior rose from the dead.106

Sunday - fulfillment of the sabbath

2175 Sunday is expressly distinguished from the sabbath which it follows chronologically every week; for Christians its ceremonial observance replaces that of the sabbath. In Christ's Passover, Sunday fulfills the spiritual truth of the Jewish sabbath and announces man's eternal rest in God. For worship under the Law prepared for the mystery of Christ, and what was done there prefigured some aspects of Christ:107

Those who lived according to the old order of things have come to a new hope, no longer keeping the sabbath, but the Lord's Day, in which our life is blessed by him and by his death.108

2176 The celebration of Sunday observes the moral commandment inscribed by nature in the human heart to render to God an outward, visible, public, and regular worship "as a sign of his universal beneficence to all."109 Sunday worship fulfills the moral command of the Old Covenant, taking up its rhythm and spirit in the weekly celebration of the Creator and Redeemer of his people.

The Sunday Eucharist

2177 The Sunday celebration of the Lord's Day and his Eucharist is at the heart of the Church's life. 
"Sunday is the day on which the paschal mystery is celebrated in light of the apostolic tradition and is to be observed as the foremost holy day of obligation in the universal Church."110

"Also to be observed are the day of the Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Epiphany, 
the Ascension of Christ, 
the feast of the Body and Blood of Christi, 
the feast of Mary the Mother of God, 
her Immaculate Conception, 
her Assumption, 
the feast of Saint Joseph, 
the feast of the Apostles Saints Peter and Paul, and the feast of All Saints."111

2178 This practice of the Christian assembly dates from the beginnings of the apostolic age.112 The Letter to the Hebrews reminds the faithful "not to neglect to meet together, as is the habit of some, but to encourage one another."113

Tradition preserves the memory of an ever-timely exhortation: Come to Church early, approach the Lord, and confess your sins, repent in prayer.... Be present at the sacred and divine liturgy, conclude its prayer and do not leave before the dismissal.... We have often said: "This day is given to you for prayer and rest. This is the day that the Lord has made, let us rejoice and be glad in it."114

2179 "A parish is a definite community of the Christian faithful established on a stable basis within a particular church; the pastoral care of the parish is entrusted to a pastor as its own shepherd under the authority of the diocesan bishop."115 It is the place where all the faithful can be gathered together for the Sunday celebration of the Eucharist. the parish initiates the Christian people into the ordinary expression of the liturgical life: it gathers them together in this celebration; it teaches Christ's saving doctrine; it practices the charity of the Lord in good works and brotherly love:

You cannot pray at home as at church, where there is a great multitude, where exclamations are cried out to God as from one great heart, and where there is something more: the union of minds, the accord of souls, the bond of charity, the prayers of the priests.116

The Sunday obligation

2180 The precept of the Church specifies the law of the Lord more precisely: "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound to participate in the Mass."117 "The precept of participating in the Mass is satisfied by assistance at a Mass which is celebrated anywhere in a Catholic rite either on the holy day or on the evening of the preceding day."118

2181 The Sunday Eucharist is the foundation and confirmation of all Christian practice. For this reason the faithful are obliged to participate in the Eucharist on days of obligation, unless excused for a serious reason (for example, illness, the care of infants) or dispensed by their own pastor.119 Those who deliberately fail in this obligation commit a grave sin.

2182 Participation in the communal celebration of the Sunday Eucharist is a testimony of belonging and of being faithful to Christ and to his Church. the faithful give witness by this to their communion in faith and charity. Together they testify to God's holiness and their hope of salvation. They strengthen one another under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.

2183 "If because of lack of a sacred minister or for other grave cause participation in the celebration of the Eucharist is impossible, it is specially recommended that the faithful take part in the Liturgy of the Word if it is celebrated in the parish church or in another sacred place according to the prescriptions of the diocesan bishop, or engage in prayer for an appropriate amount of time personally or in a family or, as occasion offers, in groups of families."120

A day of grace and rest from work

2184 Just as God "rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done,"121 human life has a rhythm of work and rest. the institution of the Lord's Day helps everyone enjoy adequate rest and leisure to cultivate their familial, cultural, social, and religious lives.122

2185 On Sundays and other holy days of obligation, the faithful are to refrain from engaging in work or activities that hinder the worship owed to God, the joy proper to the Lord's Day, the performance of the works of mercy, and the appropriate relaxation of mind and body.123 Family needs or important social service can legitimately excuse from the obligation of Sunday rest. the faithful should see to it that legitimate excuses do not lead to habits prejudicial to religion, family life, and health.

The charity of truth seeks holy leisure - the necessity of charity accepts just work.124

2186 Those Christians who have leisure should be mindful of their brethren who have the same needs and the same rights, yet cannot rest from work because of poverty and misery. Sunday is traditionally consecrated by Christian piety to good works and humble service of the sick, the infirm, and the elderly. Christians will also sanctify Sunday by devoting time and care to their families and relatives, often difficult to do on other days of the week. Sunday is a time for reflection, silence, cultivation of the mind, and meditation which furthers the growth of the Christian interior life.

2187 Sanctifying Sundays and holy days requires a common effort. Every Christian should avoid making unnecessary demands on others that would hinder them from observing the Lord's Day. Traditional activities (sport, restaurants, etc.), and social necessities (public services, etc.), require some people to work on Sundays, but everyone should still take care to set aside sufficient time for leisure. With temperance and charity the faithful will see to it that they avoid the excesses and violence sometimes associated with popular leisure activities. In spite of economic constraints, public authorities should ensure citizens a time intended for rest and divine worship. Employers have a similar obligation toward their employees.

2188 In respecting religious liberty and the common good of all, Christians should seek recognition of Sundays and the Church's holy days as legal holidays. They have to give everyone a public example of prayer, respect, and joy and defend their traditions as a precious contribution to the spiritual life of society. If a country's legislation or other reasons require work on Sunday, the day should nevertheless be lived as the day of our deliverance which lets us share in this "festal gathering," this "assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven."125


IN BRIEF

2189 "Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy" ( Deut 5:12). "The seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the Lord" ( Ex 31:15).

2190 The sabbath, which represented the completion of the first creation, has been replaced by Sunday which recalls the new creation inaugurated by the Resurrection of Christ.

2191 The Church celebrates the day of Christ's Resurrection on the "eighth day," Sunday, which is rightly called the Lord's Day (cf SC 106).

2192 "Sunday . . . is to be observed as the foremost holy day of obligation in the universal Church" ( CIC, can. 1246 # 1). "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound to participate in the Mass" ( CIC, can. 1247).

2193 "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound . . . to abstain from those labors and business concerns which impede the worship to be rendered to God, the joy which is proper to the Lord's Day, or the proper relaxation of mind and body" ( CIC, can. 1247).

2194 The institution of Sunday helps all "to be allowed sufficient rest and leisure to cultivate their amilial, cultural, social, and religious lives" (GS 67 # 3).

2195 Every Christian should avoid making unnecessary demands on others that would hinder them from observing the Lord's Day.

第二章 「愛你的近人如你自己一樣」

耶穌對祂的門徒說:「你們該彼此相愛,如同我愛了你們一樣」(若 13:34)。

 

2196. 有人問及有關第一條誡命,耶穌回答說:「第一條是:『以色列!你 要聽!上主我們的天主是唯一的天主。你應當全心、全靈、全意、全 力愛上主你的天主』。第二條是:『你應當愛近人如你自己』。再沒 有別的比這更大的誡命了」(谷 12:29-31)。 聖保祿叫我們記得:「誰愛別人,就滿全了法律。其實,『不可姦 淫、不可殺人、不可偷盜、不可貪戀』,以及其他任何誡命,都包含 在這句話裡:就是『愛你的近人如你自己』。愛不加害於人,所以愛 就是法律的滿全」(羅 13:8-10)

 

第四條

第四誡

應孝敬你的父親和你的母親,好使你在上主你的天主賜給你的地方,延年益壽(出 20:12)。
祂屬他們管轄 (路 2:51)。

 

主耶穌親自提醒人記得這一條「天主誡命」的約束力(谷 7:8-13)。聖保祿宗徒則教導:「你們作子女的,要在主內聽從你們的父母,因為這是理所當然的。『孝敬你的父親和母親』,這是附有恩許的第一條誡命:『為使你得到幸福,並在地上延年益壽』」(弗 6:1-3)。

 

2197. 十誡第二塊約板的開始是第四誡。這指出愛德的次序。天主願意我們在祂以後,孝敬我們的父母,是他們給了我們生命,並傳給我們對天主的認識。我們應該尊敬天主為了我們的好處,而賦予他們權威的那些人。

 

2198. 這命令以正面的方式,指出當盡的義務。它宣告下列各條有關尊重生命、婚姻、現世財物、言語的誡命。這誡命構成教會之社會教導的基礎之一。

 

2199.第四誡明確指出子女對父母的關係,因為這關係是最普遍的。它也涉及家庭團體成員間的親屬關係。它要求對先人和對祖宗表示孝敬、親民對國家,對管理國家者或執政者的義務。
這條誡命也包括並暗示下列諸人的職責:父母、監護人、老師、上司、官員、執政者,以及所有對他人或一個團體行施權力的人。

 

2200. 遵守第四誡帶有酬報:「孝敬你的父親和你的母親,好使你在上主你的天主賜給你的地方,延年益壽」(出 20:12;申 5:16)。尊重這條誡命,除了贏得屬靈的果實之外,也帶來今世平安和順遂的果實。相反,不遵守這條誡命,為團體和個人招致嚴重的災禍。

 

一、天主計劃中的家庭

家庭的本質

 

2201. 夫婦團體是基於配偶雙方的合意而形成的。婚姻和家庭是導向配偶之間的幸福以及生養和教育子女。配偶的愛情和子女的生育,在同一家庭的成員之間,建立起人際的關係和首要的責任。

 

2202. 在婚姻中結合的一男一女連同他們的子女形成一個家庭。這制度先於所有公權力的承認;公權力有義務承認它。應將它作為正常的參考,應按照它確定不同等級的親屬關係。

 

2203. 在創造男人和女人的時候,天主就建立了人的家庭,並確定了基本的結構。家庭的成員是具有同樣尊嚴的人。為了家庭成員和社會的公益,家庭賦有不同的責任、權利和義務。

 

基督徒的家庭

 

2204. 「基督徒家庭實乃教會共融的一種明確啟示和實現,因此,它應該被稱為家庭教會」。家庭是一個信、望和愛的團體;家庭在教會內佔著一個特別重要的位置,一如在新約中所顯示的。

 

2205. 基督徒家庭是人際的共融,是「父」和「子」在聖神內共融的記號和形象。家庭的生育和教養是天父創造工程的反映。家庭奉召分享基督的祈禱和犧牲。每天的祈禱和天主聖言的誦讀使家庭中的愛德堅強。基督徒家庭有福傳和傳教的責任。

 

2206. 家庭內的關係,導致感受、情感和興趣的相近,這主要來自人的互相尊重。家庭是一個特恩的團體,奉召實現「夫妻間的共同計劃、共策共力,以及悉心合作來教育子女」。

 

 CHAPTER TWO

YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF

Jesus said to his disciples: "Love one another even as I have loved you."1

2196 In response to the question about the first of the commandments, Jesus says: "The first is, 'Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' the second is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these."2 
The apostle St. Paul reminds us of this: "He who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. the commandments, 'You shall not commit adultery, You shall not kill, You shall not steal, You shall not covet,' and any other commandment, are summed up in this sentence, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law."3

ARTICLE 4

THE FOURTH COMMANDMENT

Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which the Lord your God gives you.4

He was obedient to them.5

The Lord Jesus himself recalled the force of this "commandment of God."6 The Apostle teaches: "Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. 'Honor your father and mother,' (This is the first commandment with a promise.) 'that it may be well with you and that you may live long on the earth."'7

2197 The fourth commandment opens the second table of the Decalogue. It shows us the order of charity. God has willed that, after him, we should honor our parents to whom we owe life and who have handed on to us the knowledge of God. We are obliged to honor and respect all those whom God, for our good, has vested with his authority.

2198 This commandment is expressed in positive terms of duties to be fulfilled. It introduces the subsequent commandments which are concerned with particular respect for life, marriage, earthly goods, and speech. It constitutes one of the foundations of the social doctrine of the Church.

2199 The fourth commandment is addressed expressly to children in their relationship to their father and mother, because this relationship is the most universal. It likewise concerns the ties of kinship between members of the extended family. It requires honor, affection, and gratitude toward elders and ancestors. Finally, it extends to the duties of pupils to teachers, employees to employers, subordinates to leaders, citizens to their country, and to those who administer or govern it. This commandment includes and presupposes the duties of parents, instructors, teachers, leaders, magistrates, those who govern, all who exercise authority over others or over a community of persons.

2200 Observing the fourth commandment brings its reward: "Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which the LORD your God gives you."8 Respecting this commandment provides, along with spiritual fruits, temporal fruits of peace and prosperity. Conversely, failure to observe it brings great harm to communities and to individuals.

I. The Family in God's Plan

The nature of the family

2201 The conjugal community is established upon the consent of the spouses. Marriage and the family are ordered to the good of the spouses and to the procreation and education of children. the love of the spouses and the begetting of children create among members of the same family personal relationships and primordial responsibilities.

2202 A man and a woman united in marriage, together with their children, form a family. This institution is prior to any recognition by public authority, which has an obligation to recognize it. It should be considered the normal reference point by which the different forms of family relationship are to be evaluated.

2203 In creating man and woman, God instituted the human family and endowed it with its fundamental constitution. Its members are persons equal in dignity. For the common good of its members and of society, the family necessarily has manifold responsibilities, rights, and duties.

The Christian family

2204 "The Christian family constitutes a specific revelation and realization of ecclesial communion, and for this reason it can and should be called a domestic church."9 It is a community of faith, hope, and charity; it assumes singular importance in the Church, as is evident in the New Testament.10

2205 The Christian family is a communion of persons, a sign and image of the communion of the Father and the Son in the Holy Spirit. In the procreation and education of children it reflects the Father's work of creation. It is called to partake of the prayer and sacrifice of Christ. Daily prayer and the reading of the Word of God strengthen it in charity. the Christian family has an evangelizing and missionary task.

2206 The relationships within the family bring an affinity of feelings, affections and interests, arising above all from the members' respect for one another. the family is a privileged community called to achieve a "sharing of thought and common deliberation by the spouses as well as their eager cooperation as parents in the children's upbringing."11


二、家庭和社會

2207. 家庭是社會生活的原始細胞。家庭是自然的社團,在那裡,男人和女人被召在愛情和生命的恩賜中,彼此把自身獻給對方。家庭中的權威、穩定和人倫的生活構成社會生活中自由、安全和友愛的基礎。家庭是一個團體,在那裡,人自童年,就學習倫理的價值、開始恭敬天主,和妥善運用自由。家庭生活是社會生活的啟蒙。

 

2208. 家庭的生活方式應該使其成員學習關懷和擔當,以照顧年輕的人、老年的人、患病的人,殘障的人和貧窮的人。有許多家庭,在某些時刻,無法提供這類援助。這時,就需要別的人、別的家庭,並在輔助性的原則下,由社會供給那些家庭的急需:「在天主父前,純正無瑕的虔誠,就是看顧患難中的孤兒和寡婦,保持自己不受世俗的玷污」 (雅 1:27)。

 

2209. 家庭應該由社會藉適當措施給予協助和維護。不論在那裡,如有家庭無法達成其任務,別的社會團體有義務幫助和支持這家庭制度。依照輔助性的原則,龐大的社團應避免濫用權力或干預家庭的生活。

 

2210. 家庭對社會生活和福祉的重要性,為社會帶來一個獨特的責任,支持和穩固婚姻及家庭的責任。政府應以「承認及維護婚姻及家庭的真正性質,和保衛公共道德及促進家庭福利」,為一個重大的責任。

 

2211.政治團體有尊重、協助家庭的義務,尤其應給家庭確保下列各點:
──建立家庭、生育子女、並依照自己的道德和宗教信念教育子女的自由;
──保障夫妻關係和家庭制度的穩定;
──透過必要的方法和機構來宣認自己的信仰、傳授信仰以及在此信仰中教育子女的自由;
──私產、興辦事業、就業、享有居所及移居他國的權利;
──按當地的制度,享有醫療、老年照顧、家庭補助金的權利;
──安全和健康,特別免受毒品、色情產品、酗酒等等危害的保障;
──與其他家庭結社的自由,並在政府有代表。

 

2212. 第四誡闡明社會中的其他關係。在我們的兄弟姊妹身上,我們見到我們父母的子女;在我們的堂表兄弟姊妹身上,見到我們祖先的後裔;在我們的國民同胞身上,見到我們國家的子民;在領洗者的身上,見到我們慈母教會的孩子;在每個人身上看到的,是那位自願被稱為「我們的天父」者的兒子和女兒。由此,我們與近人之間的關係被確認為屬於個人的層次。近人並不是人類集團中的「個體」;他是「某某一個人」,他的來歷為眾所周知,是值得特別關注和尊重的。

 

2213. 人類的團體是由個人組成的。團體的良好治理,不只限於權利的保障和義務的實踐,如忠於契約。正確的關係,不論是在僱主與僱員之間,或是在政府與人民之間,都假定與生俱來的善意,符合人的尊嚴,關心正義及人類弟兄手足之情。

 

 II. The Family and Society

2207 The family is the original cell of social life. It is the natural society in which husband and wife are called to give themselves in love and in the gift of life. Authority, stability, and a life of relationships within the family constitute the foundations for freedom, security, and fraternity within society. the family is the community in which, from childhood, one can learn moral values, begin to honor God, and make good use of freedom. Family life is an initiation into life in society.

2208 The family should live in such a way that its members learn to care and take responsibility for the young, the old, the sick, the handicapped, and the poor. There are many families who are at times incapable of providing this help. It devolves then on other persons, other families, and, in a subsidiary way, society to provide for their needs: "Religion that is pure and undefiled before God and the Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction and to keep oneself unstained from the world."12

2209 The family must be helped and defended by appropriate social measures. Where families cannot fulfill their responsibilities, other social bodies have the duty of helping them and of supporting the institution of the family. Following the principle of subsidiarity, larger communities should take care not to usurp the family's prerogatives or interfere in its life.

2210 The importance of the family for the life and well-being of society13 entails a particular responsibility for society to support and strengthen marriage and the family. Civil authority should consider it a grave duty "to acknowledge the true nature of marriage and the family, to protect and foster them, to safeguard public morality, and promote domestic prosperity."14

2211 The political community has a duty to honor the family, to assist it, and to ensure especially: 
- the freedom to establish a family, have children, and bring them up in keeping with the family's own moral and religious convictions; 
- the protection of the stability of the marriage bond and the institution of the family; 
- the freedom to profess one's faith, to hand it on, and raise one's children in it, with the necessary means and institutions; 
- the right to private property, to free enterprise, to obtain work and housing, and the right to emigrate; 
- in keeping with the country's institutions, the right to medical care, assistance for the aged, and family benefits; 
- the protection of security and health, especially with respect to dangers like drugs, pornography, alcoholism, etc.; 
- the freedom to form associations with other families and so to have representation before civil authority.15

2212 The fourth commandment illuminates other relationships in society. In our brothers and sisters we see the children of our parents; in our cousins, the descendants of our ancestors; in our fellow citizens, the children of our country; in the baptized, the children of our mother the Church; in every human person, a son or daughter of the One who wants to be called "our Father." In this way our relationships with our neighbors are recognized as personal in character. the neighbor is not a "unit" in the human collective; he is "someone" who by his known origins deserves particular attention and respect.

2213 Human communities are made up of persons. Governing them well is not limited to guaranteeing rights and fulfilling duties such as honoring contracts. Right relations between employers and employees, between those who govern and citizens, presuppose a natural good will in keeping with the dignity of human persons concerned for justice and fraternity.

三、家庭成員的義務

子女的義務

 

2214. 天主的父性是人類父性的根源;是孝敬父母的基礎。子女,不論其年紀大小,對其父母的孝心,由連結他們的自然感情所滋養。這是天主的誡命所要求的。

 

2215. 對父母的尊敬 (孝道)是由知恩而來,對他們要知恩,因為他們以生命的禮物、以愛情、和工作,把孩子生於此世,並讓他們在身量、智慧和恩寵上成長。「你要全心孝敬你的父親,不要忘掉你母親的痛苦。你要記住:他們曾使你出生;他們對你的恩惠,你如何報答呢?」(德 7:29-30)。

 

2216. 兒女的孝道表現於真誠的受教和服從。「我兒,應堅守你父親的命令,不要放棄你母親的教訓……。他們在你行路時引領你,在你躺臥時看護你;在你醒來時與你交談」(箴 6:20-22)。「智慧之子,聽從父親的教訓;輕狂的人,不聽任何人規勸」(箴 13:1)。

 

2217.子女只要與父母同住,就應該服從父母為了子女或家庭的好處所下的命令。「作子女的,應該事事聽從父母,因為這是上主所喜悅的」(哥 3:20)。子女對教育他們的導師和那些父母所委託的人,凡合理的命令,也應聽從。但是子女如果按良心確信,聽從某一命令是不道德的,他就不該聽從。

 

隨著年齡的增加,子女應繼續尊敬父母。子女應該迎合父母的希望,樂意徵求父母的意見,甘心接受父母的合理訓誡。對父母的服從止於子女的成年獨立,但對父母的尊敬,卻是永久應盡的責任。因為,對父母的尊敬,其根源正是對天主的敬畏,是聖神七恩之一。

 

2218. 第四誡提醒身為子女的,一旦成年之後,對父母應盡的責任。子女應盡力之所能,在父母的老年、在患病的時候,在孤苦窮困的日子,提供物質和精神上的援助。耶穌要人盡好這知恩的義務。

 

上主願父親受兒女的尊敬,且確定了母親對子女的權利。孝敬父親的人,必能補贖罪過;孝敬母親的人,就如積蓄珍寶。孝敬父親的人,必在子女身上獲得喜樂,當他祈過;孝敬母親的人,就如積蓄珍寶。孝敬父親的人,必在子女身上獲得喜樂,當他祈 7)。

 

我兒,你父親年老了,你當扶助;在他有生之日,不要使他憂傷。若他智力衰弱了,你要對他有耐心,不要因你年富力強就藐視他;背棄父親的,形同褻聖;激怒母親的,已為上主所詛咒 (德 3:14-15,18)。

 

2219. 孝敬[父母]促進整個家庭生活的和諧,也涉及兄弟姊妹之間的關係。對父母尊敬使整個家庭充滿溫馨的氛圍。「孫兒是老人的冠冕」(箴 17:6)。「凡事要謙遜、溫和、忍耐,在愛德中彼此擔待」(弗 4:2)。

 

2220. 為基督徒,對那些帶給他們信德的恩典、聖洗的恩寵和在教會中生活的人,欠有一分特殊的恩情。他們可能是父母、家中的其他成員、祖父母、牧人、講授教理者、其他的導師或朋友。「我記得你那毫無虛偽的信德,這信德首先存在你外祖母羅依和你母親歐尼刻的心中,我深信也存在你的心中」(弟後 1:5)。

 

父母的責任

 

2221. 夫妻愛情的繁殖力,不只限於生育子女,更伸展至子女的道德教育和屬靈培植。「父母在教育中的地位如此重要,幾乎可以說是不能取代的」。父母教育子女的權利和義務是最原始的和不能轉讓的。

 

2222. 父母應該視他們的子女為天主的子女,並尊重子女的人格尊嚴。父母要以身作則,就是以自己服從天父聖意的榜樣,來教導子女實踐天主的法律。

 

2223. 父母是教育子女的最先負責人。為表現出這個責任,他們首先為子女 創立一個家,溫柔、寬恕、尊敬、忠實和無私的服務便是家規。家是 培育德行的適當場所。德行的培育要求學習自我的克制、健全的判斷、作自我的主人,這些都是真正自由的條件。父母應該教導子女使「身體和本能的層面隸屬於內心和屬靈的層面」。給自己的子女樹立良好的榜樣,是父母一個重大的職責。父母在子女面前能夠承認自己的過錯,就能夠更有效地引導和糾正自己的子女。

 

「疼愛自己兒子的,應當時常鞭策他,訓導自己兒子的,必會因他而得幸福」(德 30:1-2)。「你們作父母的,不要惹你們的子女發怒;但要用主的規範和訓誡,教養他們」(弗 6:4)。

 

2224.家構成一個自然的場合,把連帶責任和集體負責的精神傳授給人。父母應教導子女提防威脅人類社會的妥協和頹廢。

 

2225. 因著婚姻聖事的聖寵,父母接受了給子女傳授福音的責任和特權。子女自幼年開始,父母就應該給他們傳授信仰奧跡,對子女來說,父母是信仰奧跡的「啟蒙導師」。他們應使子女自童年即參加教會的生活。一個健康的家庭生活能夠培養每人的內在氣質,在一生的歲月裡,作為活潑信仰的正確前導和有力支持。

 

2226. 父母培育子女的信德,應從子女幼小的時候開始。當家庭成員,以符合福音的生活見証,互相幫助在信德中成長時,這培育已經在進行了。家庭內的教理講授先於、伴同並充實其他形式的信仰培育。父母負有使命教導子女學習祈禱,幫助他們發現作為天主兒女的召叫。堂區是舉行感恩祭的團體,也是信徒家庭禮儀生活的中心;堂區是一個給孩童和父母講解教理的好地方。

 

2227. 另一方面,子女對他們的父母在聖德上的增長,也有所貢獻。 所有的人和每一個人,為了冒犯、爭執、不義和疏忽的過錯,應該慷慨大量地、不厭其煩地,彼此諒解、寬恕。彼此的感情建議如此、基督的愛德要求如此。

 

2228. 在子女的孩童階段,父母的尊重和親情,首先表現於照顧和關懷,就是致力於使他們的子女成長,給子女提供物質和精神上的需要。在子女日漸長大時,父母那分始終如一的尊重和熱忱,促使他們教導子女如何正確地運用自己的理性和自由。

 

2229. 身為子女教育的首要負責人,父母有權為子女選擇一間符合他們自己信念的學校。這是基本的權利。父母有義務,盡其所能,選擇那些更能協助自己克盡基督徒教育職務的學校。政府有義務確保父母的這項權利,並保証真能行使此權利的實際條件。

 

2230. 子女成年後,便擁有為自己選擇職業和生活方式的權利和義務。他們 應在對父母的信任關係中,肩負起這新的責任,樂意徵求和尊重父母 的意見及忠告。父母則應該避免,在選擇職業或在物色配偶的事上, 強迫自己的子女。然而,這種克制,並不妨礙父母向子女提供正確的 見解,尤其當子女正在考慮建立一個家的時候。  

2231. 有些人,為了照顧自己的父母或兄弟姊妹,或為了專心一致地從事某項職業,或為了別的高尚的動機而終身不婚不嫁。這些人能夠對人類大家庭的福利,作出偉大的貢獻。

 

 III. The Duties of Family Members

The duties of children

2214 The divine fatherhood is the source of human fatherhood;16 this is the foundation of the honor owed to parents. the respect of children, whether minors or adults, for their father and mother17 is nourished by the natural affection born of the bond uniting them. It is required by God's commandment.18

2215 Respect for parents (filial piety) derives from gratitude toward those who, by the gift of life, their love and their work, have brought their children into the world and enabled them to grow in stature, wisdom, and grace. "With all your heart honor your father, and do not forget the birth pangs of your mother. Remember that through your parents you were born; what can you give back to them that equals their gift to you?"19

2216 Filial respect is shown by true docility and obedience. "My son, keep your father's commandment, and forsake not your mother's teaching.... When you walk, they will lead you; when you lie down, they will watch over you; and when you awake, they will talk with you."20 "A wise son hears his father's instruction, but a scoffer does not listen to rebuke."21

2217 As long as a child lives at home with his parents, the child should obey his parents in all that they ask of him when it is for his good or that of the family. "Children, obey your parents in everything, for this pleases the Lord."22 Children should also obey the reasonable directions of their teachers and all to whom their parents have entrusted them. But if a child is convinced in conscience that it would be morally wrong to obey a particular order, he must not do so. 
As they grow up, children should continue to respect their parents. They should anticipate their wishes, willingly seek their advice, and accept their just admonitions. Obedience toward parents ceases with the emancipation of the children; not so respect, which is always owed to them. This respect has its roots in the fear of God, one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

2218 The fourth commandment reminds grown children of their responsibilities toward their parents. As much as they can, they must give them material and moral support in old age and in times of illness, loneliness, or distress. Jesus recalls this duty of gratitude.23

For the Lord honored the father above the children, and he confirmed the right of the mother over her sons. Whoever honors his father atones for sins, and whoever glorifies his mother is like one who lays up treasure. Whoever honors his father will be gladdened by his own children, and when he prays he will be heard. Whoever glorifies his father will have long life, and whoever obeys the Lord will refresh his mother.24 
O son, help your father in his old age, and do not grieve him as long as he lives; even if he is lacking in understanding, show forbearance; in all your strength do not despise him.... Whoever forsakes his father is like a blasphemer, and whoever angers his mother is cursed by the Lord.25

2219 Filial respect promotes harmony in all of family life; it also concerns relationships between brothers and sisters. Respect toward parents fills the home with light and warmth. "Grandchildren are the crown of the aged."26 "With all humility and meekness, with patience, [support] one another in charity."27

2220 For Christians a special gratitude is due to those from whom they have received the gift of faith, the grace of Baptism, and life in the Church. These may include parents, grandparents, other members of the family, pastors, catechists, and other teachers or friends. "I am reminded of your sincere faith, a faith that dwelt first in your grandmother Lois and your mother Eunice and now, I am sure, dwells in you."28

The duties of parents

2221 The fecundity of conjugal love cannot be reduced solely to the procreation of children, but must extend to their moral education and their spiritual formation. "The role of parents in education is of such importance that it is almost impossible to provide an adequate substitute."29 The right and the duty of parents to educate their children are primordial and inalienable.30

2222 Parents must regard their children as children of God and respect them as human persons. Showing themselves obedient to the will of the Father in heaven, they educate their children to fulfill God's law.

2223 Parents have the first responsibility for the education of their children. They bear witness to this responsibility first by creating a home where tenderness, forgiveness, respect, fidelity, and disinterested service are the rule. the home is well suited for education in the virtues. This requires an apprenticeship in self-denial, sound judgment, and self-mastery - the preconditions of all true freedom. Parents should teach their children to subordinate the "material and instinctual dimensions to interior and spiritual ones."31 Parents have a grave responsibility to give good example to their children. By knowing how to acknowledge their own failings to their children, parents will be better able to guide and correct them:

He who loves his son will not spare the rod.... He who disciplines his son will profit by him.32 
Fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but bring them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord.33

2224 The home is the natural environment for initiating a human being into solidarity and communal responsibilities. Parents should teach children to avoid the compromising and degrading influences which threaten human societies.

2225 Through the grace of the sacrament of marriage, parents receive the responsibility and privilege of evangelizing their children. Parents should initiate their children at an early age into the mysteries of the faith of which they are the "first heralds" for their children. They should associate them from their tenderest years with the life of the Church.34 A wholesome family life can foster interior dispositions that are a genuine preparation for a living faith and remain a support for it throughout one's life.

2226 Education in the faith by the parents should begin in the child's earliest years. This already happens when family members help one another to grow in faith by the witness of a Christian life in keeping with the Gospel. Family catechesis precedes, accompanies, and enriches other forms of instruction in the faith. Parents have the mission of teaching their children to pray and to discover their vocation as children of God.35 The parish is the Eucharistic community and the heart of the liturgical life of Christian families; it is a privileged place for the catechesis of children and parents.

2227 Children in turn contribute to the growth in holiness of their parents.36 Each and everyone should be generous and tireless in forgiving one another for offenses, quarrels, injustices, and neglect. Mutual affection suggests this. the charity of Christ demands it.37

2228 Parents' respect and affection are expressed by the care and attention they devote to bringing up their young children and providing for their physical and spiritual needs. As the children grow up, the same respect and devotion lead parents to educate them in the right use of their reason and freedom.

2229 As those first responsible for the education of their children, parents have the right to choose a school for them which corresponds to their own convictions. This right is fundamental. As far as possible parents have the duty of choosing schools that will best help them in their task as Christian educators.38 Public authorities have the duty of guaranteeing this parental right and of ensuring the concrete conditions for its exercise.

2230 When they become adults, children have the right and duty to choose their profession and state of life. They should assume their new responsibilities within a trusting relationship with their parents, willingly asking and receiving their advice and counsel. Parents should be careful not to exert pressure on their children either in the choice of a profession or in that of a spouse. This necessary restraint does not prevent them - quite the contrary from giving their children judicious advice, particularly when they are planning to start a family.

2231 Some forgo marriage in order to care for their parents or brothers and sisters, to give themselves more completely to a profession, or to serve other honorable ends. They can contribute greatly to the good of the human family.

四、家庭和天國

2232. 家庭的關係雖然重要,但不是絕對的。正如孩子朝向他人性及屬靈的成熟與自主,漸漸長大成人,同樣,他來自天主的特別聖召,也更明確而有力地顯示出來。對此召叫,父母應加以尊重,並應促使他們的子女作出回應。必須深信,基督徒最基本的召叫是跟隨耶穌:「誰愛父親或母親超過我,不配是我的;誰愛兒子或女兒超過我,不配是我的」(瑪 10:37)。

 

2233. 成為耶穌的門徒,就是應邀成為天主家庭的一員,依照祂的生活方式度日:「不拘誰,凡遵行我在天之父旨意的,他就是我的兄弟、姊妹和母親」(瑪 12:49)。

 

如果主耶穌從他們的子女中召選一人跟隨祂,為了天國而守貞,過獻身或鐸職的生活,對此,父母要懷著喜樂和感激之心情,予以接受和尊重。

 

五、公民社會中的公權力

2234.第四誡命令我們也要尊敬所有為了我們的好處,自天主領受對社會有權力的人。第四誡說明行使權力者,以及那由公權力受益者的責任。
公權力的義務

 

2235. 凡執行權力的人,應視之為一種服務。「誰願意在你們中成為大的,就當作你們的僕役」(瑪 20:26)。在倫理上,行使權力的標準應是來自天主、本身合理和特定對象。沒有人可以命令或制訂違反人的尊嚴和自然律的事宜。

 

2236. 權力的行使旨在表明一個正確的價值等級,使眾人更容易地運用自由和負起責任。當權者應明智地實行「分配的正義」,要依據每個人的需要和貢獻,同時顧及彼此間的融洽和安寧。他們應該小心提防,勿使他們採用的規則和措施,導致個人的利益違反團體的利益。

 

2237.政治權力應該尊重人的基本權利。政治權力應合乎人道地執行正義,尊重每個人的、特別是家庭的和受剝削者的權利。

 

在公益的大前提下,與公民資格相連的政治權利,可以,而且應該給與人民。如果沒有合法和恰當的理由,政府不得中止該項權利。行使政治權利的目的,是為了促進國家和全人類的公益。

 

公民的義務

 

2238. 服從權威的人,應視他們的上司如同天主的代表,為天主所指派的天主財物的管家:「你們要為主的緣故,服從人立的一切制度。……你們要做自由的人,卻不可做以自由為掩飾邪惡的人,但該做天主的僕人」(伯前 2:13,16)。公民的忠誠合作包括合理指責的權利,有時甚至是一項責任,以指陳他們認為有損人的尊嚴和團體福利的措施。

 

2239. 公民的義務是與政府合作,在真理、正義、連帶責任和自由的氣氛下,給社會的福利作出貢獻。愛國及服務國家是基於感恩責任,並由愛德而來。順從合法當局和為公益服務,要求公民在政治團體生活裡克盡己職。

 

2240.對權威的服從和對公益的共同負責,在道德上要求國民盡納稅的義務、行使選舉的權利以及保衛國家:

 

凡人應得的,你們要付清;該給誰完糧,就完糧;該給誰納稅,就納稅;該敬畏的,就敬畏;該尊敬的,就尊敬 (羅 13:7)。
宗徒勸勉我們要為君王和所有掌權的人祈禱和感恩,「為叫我們能以全心的虔敬和端莊,度寧靜平安的生活」(弟前 2:2)。

 

《致狄奧尼書》:基督徒居住在他們自己的國家內,但一如有住所的外國人。他們履行公民所有的義務,又如外國人承擔所有的任務……。他們遵守所定的法律,而他們的生活方式卻超越法律之上……。天主給他們指定的崗位是那麼高貴,不許他們擅離職守。

 

2241. 資源富足的國家應盡其所能,接納在本國無法找到安全與生活必需品的外國人。公權力應尊重自然權利,即把客人安置於接納他們者的保護之下。

 

政府當局為了公義,得依據其權限,使移民權利的執行,隸屬於不同的法定條件之下,尤其移民應尊重對接納國應盡的義務。移民應懷著感激之情,尊重接納國的物質和精神的遺產、遵守當地的法律,以及分擔應盡的責任。

 

2242. 若執政當局發出的指令違反道德秩序的要求、人的基本權利、或福音的教導,公民依照良心有責任不予順從。若執政當局的要求違反正直的良心,則在服務天主與服務政治團體的區分上,得到拒絕服從政府的理由。「凱撒的,就應歸還凱撒;天主的就應歸還天主」 (瑪 22:21)。「聽天主的命應勝過聽人的命」(宗 5:29)。

 

假如政府擅自越權、欺壓國民,國民不應拒絕實踐為促進公益的客觀要求。然而,國民有權維護自身及其他國民的的權利,免受政府濫用權力的危害。不過應尊重自然律及福音原則所劃定的界限。

 

2243. 抗拒政權的欺壓不能合法地訴諸武力,除非下列五個條件同時具備:一、基本權利的侵犯是確實的、嚴重的、長期的;二、已經用盡了其他所有的方法;三、不引起更惡劣的紛亂;四、有成功希望的充分理由;五、依情理說已看不出有更好的解決之道。

 

政治團體與教會

 

2244. 每一個制度由其對人及人之終向的看法,得到啟發 (即使是隱約的),而由此引申出判斷的參考、價值的等級及行為的標準。大多數的社會團體,都以人貴於事作它們制度的參考。只有天主啟示的宗教清楚地承認天主、造物主和救世主,是人的原始和終向。教會邀請執政者依照有關天主和人的真理所得到的啟發,來衡量他們的判斷與決定:

 

若社會無視這啟發,或自鳴獨立於天主之外而拒絕接受,勢必將自作聰明,或借用一個意識型態,作為他們的依據和目標;而且,因為不許人們維護一個辨別善惡的客觀標準,就把極權強加於人和其終向。這種現象或明目張膽地,或遮遮掩掩地,在歷史上屢見不鮮。

 

2245. 教會,鑑於她的任務和她的管轄範圍,與政治團體不作任何形式的混淆。教會同時是人具有超然特色的記號和保障。「教會尊重並鼓勵國民的政治自由和責任」。

 

2246.「在人的基本權利及人靈得救要求時」,教會基於其使命,有權「在政治的事件上,亦發表其道德判斷。教會依照不同的時代及環境,只運用一切符合福音精神及公益的方法」。
撮要
2247.「孝敬你的父母」(申 5:16;谷 7:10)。
2248.按照第四誡,天主願意我們在祂以後,孝敬我們的父母,並尊敬那些祂為了我們的好處而賦予權威的人。
2249.夫婦的團體,是基於新郎和新娘所訂的盟約及合意而建立的。婚姻和家庭是為導向夫妻的幸福,以及生養和教育子女。
2250.「個人、社會與教會的幸福,都與健全的夫婦和家庭生活息息相關」。
2251.子女應對他們的父母表示尊敬、感謝、合理的服從和幫助。孝順促進整個家庭生活的和諧。
2252.父母是培育自己子女之信德、祈禱和一切德行的最先負責人。他們有責任,在一切可能的範圍內,供應子女精神和物質的需要。
2253.父母應尊重和鼓勵子女們的召叫,他們應提醒自己並教導子女,基督徒首要的召叫是跟隨耶穌。
2254.公權力應尊重人的基本權利和行使自由的條件。
2255.公民的義務是同政府合作,在真理、正義、連帶責任和自由的氣氛下,致力於社會的建設。
2256.如果執政當局的命令違背道德的要求,公民憑良心有責任不去順從。「聽天主的命勝過聽人的命」(宗 5:29)。

 

2257. 每一個社會皆以某種對人及人之終向的看法,作為自己判斷及行為的依歸。對人和神的看法,離開了福音的照明,社會就很容易淪為極權的統治。

IV. The Family and the Kingdom

2232 Family ties are important but not absolute. Just as the child grows to maturity and human and spiritual autonomy, so his unique vocation which comes from God asserts itself more clearly and forcefully. Parents should respect this call and encourage their children to follow it. They must be convinced that the first vocation of the Christian is to follow Jesus: "He who loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; and he who loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me."39

2233 Becoming a disciple of Jesus means accepting the invitation to belong to God's family, to live in conformity with His way of life: "For whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother, and sister, and mother."40 
Parents should welcome and respect with joy and thanksgiving the Lord's call to one of their children to follow him in virginity for the sake of the Kingdom in the consecrated life or in priestly ministry.

V. The Authorities In Civil Society

2234 God's fourth commandment also enjoins us to honor all who for our good have received authority in society from God. It clarifies the duties of those who exercise authority as well as those who benefit from it.

Duties of civil authorities

2235 Those who exercise authority should do so as a service. "Whoever would be great among you must be your servant."41 The exercise of authority is measured morally in terms of its divine origin, its reasonable nature and its specific object. No one can command or establish what is contrary to the dignity of persons and the natural law.

2236 The exercise of authority is meant to give outward expression to a just hierarchy of values in order to facilitate the exercise of freedom and responsibility by all. Those in authority should practice distributive justice wisely, taking account of the needs and contribution of each, with a view to harmony and peace. They should take care that the regulations and measures they adopt are not a source of temptation by setting personal interest against that of the community.42

2237 Political authorities are obliged to respect the fundamental rights of the human person. They will dispense justice humanely by respecting the rights of everyone, especially of families and the disadvantaged. 
The political rights attached to citizenship can and should be granted according to the requirements of the common good. They cannot be suspended by public authorities without legitimate and proportionate reasons. Political rights are meant to be exercised for the common good of the nation and the human community.

The duties of citizens

2238 Those subject to authority should regard those in authority as representatives of God, who has made them stewards of his gifts:43 "Be subject for the Lord's sake to every human institution.... Live as free men, yet without using your freedom as a pretext for evil; but live as servants of God."44 Their loyal collaboration includes the right, and at times the duty, to voice their just criticisms of that which seems harmful to the dignity of persons and to the good of the community.

2239 It is the duty of citizens to contribute along with the civil authorities to the good of society in a spirit of truth, justice, solidarity, and freedom. the love and service of one's country follow from the duty of gratitude and belong to the order of charity. Submission to legitimate authorities and service of the common good require citizens to fulfill their roles in the life of the political community.

2240 Submission to authority and co-responsibility for the common good make it morally obligatory to pay taxes, to exercise the right to vote, and to defend one's country:

Pay to all of them their dues, taxes to whom taxes are due, revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due, honor to whom honor is due.45

 

[Christians] reside in their own nations, but as resident aliens. They participate in all things as citizens and endure all things as foreigners.... They obey the established laws and their way of life surpasses the laws.... So noble is the position to which God has assigned them that they are not allowed to desert it.46

The Apostle exhorts us to offer prayers and thanksgiving for kings and all who exercise authority, "that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life, godly and respectful in every way."47

2241 The more prosperous nations are obliged, to the extent they are able, to welcome the foreigner in search of the security and the means of livelihood which he cannot find in his country of origin. Public authorities should see to it that the natural right is respected that places a guest under the protection of those who receive him.

Political authorities, for the sake of the common good for which they are responsible, may make the exercise of the right to immigrate subject to various juridical conditions, especially with regard to the immigrants' duties toward their country of adoption. Immigrants are obliged to respect with gratitude the material and spiritual heritage of the country that receives them, to obey its laws and to assist in carrying civic burdens.

2242 The citizen is obliged in conscience not to follow the directives of civil authorities when they are contrary to the demands of the moral order, to the fundamental rights of persons or the teachings of the Gospel. Refusing obedience to civil authorities, when their demands are contrary to those of an upright conscience, finds its justification in the distinction between serving God and serving the political community. "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's."48 "We must obey God rather than men":49

When citizens are under the oppression of a public authority which oversteps its competence, they should still not refuse to give or to do what is objectively demanded of them by the common good; but it is legitimate for them to defend their own rights and those of their fellow citizens against the abuse of this authority within the limits of the natural law and the Law of the Gospel.50

2243 Armed resistance to oppression by political authority is not legitimate, unless all the following conditions are met: 1) there is certain, grave, and prolonged violation of fundamental rights; 2) all other means of redress have been exhausted; 3) such resistance will not provoke worse disorders; 4) there is well-founded hope of success; and 5) it is impossible reasonably to foresee any better solution.

The political community and the Church

2244 Every institution is inspired, at least implicitly, by a vision of man and his destiny, from which it derives the point of reference for its judgment, its hierarchy of values, its line of conduct. Most societies have formed their institutions in the recognition of a certain preeminence of man over things. Only the divinely revealed religion has clearly recognized man's origin and destiny in God, the Creator and Redeemer. the Church invites political authorities to measure their judgments and decisions against this inspired truth about God and man:

Societies not recognizing this vision or rejecting it in the name of their independence from God are brought to seek their criteria and goal in themselves or to borrow them from some ideology. Since they do not admit that one can defend an objective criterion of good and evil, they arrogate to themselves an explicit or implicit totalitarian power over man and his destiny, as history shows.51

2245 The Church, because of her commission and competence, is not to be confused in any way with the political community. She is both the sign and the safeguard of the transcendent character of the human person. "The Church respects and encourages the political freedom and responsibility of the citizen."52

2246 It is a part of the Church's mission "to pass moral judgments even in matters related to politics, whenever the fundamental rights of man or the salvation of souls requires it. the means, the only means, she may use are those which are in accord with the Gospel and the welfare of all men according to the diversity of times and circumstances."53

IN BRIEF

2247 "Honor your father and your mother" ( Deut 5:16;  Mk 7:10).

2248 According to the fourth commandment, God has willed that, after him, we should honor our parents and those whom he has vested with authority for our good.

2249 The conjugal community is established upon the covenant and consent of the spouses. Marriage and family are ordered to the good of the spouses, to the procreation and the education of children.

2250 "The well-being of the individual person and of both human and Christian society is closely bound up with the healthy state of conjugal and family life" (GS 47 # 1).

2251 Children owe their parents respect, gratitude, just obedience, and assistance. Filial respect fosters harmony in all of family life.

2252 Parents have the first responsibility for the education of their children in the faith, prayer, and all the virtues. They have the duty to provide as far as possible for the physical and spiritual needs of their children.

2253 Parents should respect and encourage their children's vocations. They should remember and teach that the first calling of the Christian is to follow Jesus.

2254 Public authority is obliged to respect the fundamental rights of the human person and the conditions for the exercise of his freedom.

2255 It is the duty of citizens to work with civil authority for building up society in a spirit of truth, justice, solidarity, and freedom.

2256 Citizens are obliged in conscience not to follow the directives of civil authorities when they are contrary to the demands of the moral order. "We must obey God rather than men" ( Acts 5:29).

2257 Every society's judgments and conduct reflect a vision of man and his destiny. Without the light the Gospel sheds on God and man, societies easily become totalitarian.

   
   
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

文件動作