卷三在基督內的生活/LIFE IN CHRIST

天主教教理
卷三在基督內的生活

1691. 「基督徒!你該認清你的尊嚴,你現在分享天主的性體;不要自暴自棄,再回到你舊時的罪惡生活中去。你要記住:誰是你的首領?你是誰的肢體?你要記得,你已從黑暗的勢力下被救出,轉入了天主的光明,天主的王國中了」。

1692. 信經宣認,天主在創造工程中所賜給人類的偉大恩典,但在救贖和聖化工程中,祂賜給的恩典更加偉大。信仰宣認的,由聖事所賦給:藉著「再生的聖事」,信友成為「天主的子女」(若 1:12;若一 3:1),「分享天主的性體」(伯後 1:4)。在信仰中認識了新的尊嚴,信友便被召,自此以後,「生活度日只應合乎基督的福音」(斐 1:27)。藉著聖事和祈禱,他們領受基督的聖寵和基督之神的恩賜,使他們有能力度此生活。

1693. 耶穌基督常做祂父所中悅的事。祂與父生活在完美的共融中。同樣,祂的門徒也被召在父的注視下生活,父在「暗中看見」,使他們成為「成全的,如同天父是成全的一樣」(瑪 5:47)。

1694. 基督徒藉著洗禮結合於基督,「死於罪惡,在基督耶穌內活於天主」(羅 6:11),這樣,就分享復活的主的生命。跟隨基督,並與祂聯合在一起, 基督徒能夠「勉力效法天主,如同蒙寵愛的兒女一樣,並在愛中生活」(弗 5:1),使自己的思念、言語、行為符合「耶穌基督所懷有的心情」(斐 2:5),並效法祂的榜樣。

1695. 基督徒「因著主耶穌基督之名,並因我們天主的聖神,成了義人」(格前 6:11),又「受祝聖,並蒙召為聖」(格前 1:2),他們已經成為「聖神的宮殿」。「子的聖神」教導他們祈求父聖神成為他們的生命,使他們力行,做愛德的事功,為「結出聖神的果實」(迦 5:22)。聖神治癒罪過的創傷,使我們「在心思念慮上改換一新」(弗 4:23),光照我們,堅強我們,使我們生活「像光明之子一樣」(弗 5:8),就是在一切事上實踐「良善、正義和誠實」(弗 5:9)。

1696. 基督的道路「導入生命」,它和「導入喪亡」的道路正好相反(瑪 7:13)。福音中兩條道路的比喻是教會常講的教理。這表示倫理的抉擇為我們的得救很重要。「有兩條道路,一條是生命之路,另一條是死亡之路;兩者之間,有很大的區別」。

1697.講授教理,重要的是很清楚地傳達走上基督道路的喜樂和要求。講授基督內「新生命」(羅 6:4)的教理應有以下幾個特色:
──是講授聖神的教理,祂是基督化生活的內在導師,祂是溫良的嘉賓和朋友,祂啟發、引導、整頓、鞏固這生命;
──是講授恩寵的教理,因為是由於恩寵我們才獲得救贖,更由於恩寵我們的作為才能結出永生的果實;
──是講授真福的教理,因為基督的道路總結在真福之內,它是人心嚮往的、唯一導向永福的道路;

── 是講授罪過和寬恕的教理,因為人不承認自己是罪人,便不能真正認識自己,而這是正直行事的條件;要是沒有給予寬恕,人無法承擔此真理;

──是講授人性德行的教理,它使人領會向善的正直態度,既美麗又吸引人;
──是講授基督徒信德、望德、愛德的教理,這一講授由聖賢們以其德表寬宏地啟發出來;

──是講授雙重愛德誡命的教理,它展現在十誡中;

──是講授教會的教理,因為在「諸聖共融」中藉著「精神財富」的多樣交流中,基督徒的生命才能成長、發展、交融。

1698. 這教理最先和最後的依據常是耶穌基督本人,祂是「道路、真理、生命」 (若 14:6)。在信德中瞻仰祂,基督信徒才能希望基督在他們身上成就祂的許諾,以基督愛他們的愛來愛祂,並勉力從事那些和自身的尊嚴相稱的工作:

聖若望•歐德,《論耶穌奇妙的心》:請你記住,我們的主耶穌基督是你的真正的頭,而你是祂的一個肢體。祂對你好像頭對肢體;祂的一切都是你的;祂的精神、心、身體、靈魂和祂的一切官能,你都該予以運用,好像你自己的一樣,用來服事、頌揚、愛慕、光榮天主。你屬於祂,宛如肢體屬於頭一樣。祂也切願運用你的一切好像祂自己的,來服事並光榮祂的父。

在我看來,生活原是基督 (斐 1:21)。

第一部分 人的召叫:在聖神內的生活

1699.在聖神內的生活實現人的召叫 (第一章)。這生活是由天主的愛和人的連帶責任構成的(第二章)。這是無條件賞賜的救恩(第三章)。

第一章人位格的尊嚴

1700. 人位格的尊嚴,歸根結柢,在於人是按照天主的肖象與模樣而受造的 (第一 條);這尊嚴的實現,便是人蒙召享受天主的真福 (第二條)。人自由地達致真福,乃屬於人的本性( 第三條)。從人的自由行為(第四條),可知人是否符合天主預許的、道德良心指証的美善 (第五條)。人不斷地建樹自我,並內在地成長:人的感性生活、精神生活,都是組成成長的材料 (第六條)。人藉著恩寵的幫助,日進於德 (第七條),避免罪惡,如不幸而犯罪,一如離家之蕩子投向天父的仁慈而得到寬恕 (第八條)。循此途徑,人乃達到圓滿的愛德。

PART THREE:

LIFE IN CHRIST

1691 "Christian, recognize your dignity and, now that you share in God's own nature, do not return to your former base condition by sinning. Remember who is your head and of whose body you are a member. Never forget that you have been rescued from the power of darkness and brought into the light of the Kingdom of God."1

1692 The Symbol of the faith confesses the greatness of God's gifts to man in his work of creation, and even more in redemption and sanctification. What faith confesses, the sacraments communicate: by the sacraments of rebirth, Christians have become "children of God,"2 "partakers of the divine nature."3 Coming to see in the faith their new dignity, Christians are called to lead henceforth a life "worthy of the gospel of Christ."4 They are made capable of doing so by the grace of Christ and the gifts of his Spirit, which they receive through the sacraments and through prayer.

1693 Christ Jesus always did what was pleasing to the Father,5 and always lived in perfect communion with him. Likewise Christ's disciples are invited to live in the sight of the Father "who sees in secret,"6in order to become "perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect."7

1694 Incorporated into Christ by Baptism, Christians are "dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus" and so participate in the life of the Risen Lord.8 Following Christ and united with him,9 Christians can strive to be "imitators of God as beloved children, and walk in love"10 by conforming their thoughts, words and actions to the "mind . . . which is yours in Christ Jesus,"11 and by following his example.12

1695 "Justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God,"13 "sanctified . . . (and) called to be saints,"14 Christians have become the temple of the Holy Spirit.15 This "Spirit of the Son" teaches them to pray to the Father16 and, having become their life, prompts them to act so as to bear "the fruit of the Spirit"17 by charity in action. Healing the wounds of sin, the Holy Spirit renews us interiorly through a spiritual transformation.18 He enlightens and strengthens us to live as "children of light" through "all that is good and right and true."19

1696 The way of Christ "leads to life"; a contrary way "leads to destruction."20 The Gospel parable of the two ways remains ever present in the catechesis of the Church; it shows the importance of moral decisions for our salvation: "There are two ways, the one of life, the other of death; but between the two, there is a great difference."21

1697 Catechesis has to reveal in all clarity the joy and the demands of the way of Christ.22 Catechesis for the "newness of life"23 in him should be: 
-a catechesis of the Holy Spirit, the interior Master of life according to Christ, a gentle guest and friend who inspires, guides, corrects, and strengthens this life; 
-a catechesis of grace, for it is by grace that we are saved and again it is by grace that our works can bear fruit for eternal life; 
-a catechesis of the beatitudes, for the way of Christ is summed up in the beatitudes, the only path that leads to the eternal beatitude for which the human heart longs; 
-a catechesis of sin and forgiveness, for unless man acknowledges that he is a sinner he cannot know the truth about himself, which is a condition for acting justly; and without the offer of forgiveness he would not be able to bear this truth; 
-a catechesis of the human virtues which causes one to grasp the beauty and attraction of right dispositions towards goodness; 
-a catechesis of the Christian virtues of faith, hope, and charity, generously inspired by the example of the saints; -a catechesis of the twofold commandment of charity set forth in the Decalogue; 
-an ecclesial catechesis, for it is through the manifold exchanges of "spiritual goods" in the "communion of saints" that Christian life can grow, develop, and be communicated.

1698 The first and last point of reference of this catechesis will always be Jesus Christ himself, who is "the way, and the truth, and the life."24 It is by looking to him in faith that Christ's faithful can hope that he himself fulfills his promises in them, and that, by loving him with the same love with which he has loved them, they may perform works in keeping with their dignity:

I ask you to consider that our Lord Jesus Christ is your true head, and that you are one of his members. He belongs to you as the head belongs to its members; all that is his is yours: his spirit, his heart, his body and soul, and all his faculties. You must make use of all these as of your own, to serve, praise, love, and glorify God. You belong to him, as members belong to their head. and so he longs for you to use all that is in you, as if it were his own, for the service and glory of the Father.25

 

For to me, to live is Christ.26

ECTION ONE

MAN'S VOCATION LIFE IN THE SPIRIT

1699 Life in the Holy Spirit fulfills the vocation of man (chapter one). This life is made up of divine charity and human solidarity (chapter two). It is graciously offered as salvation (chapter three).

CHAPTER ONE

THE DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN PERSON

1700 The dignity of the human person is rooted in his creation in the image and likeness of God (article 1); it is fulfilled in his vocation to divine beatitude (article 2). It is essential to a human being freely to direct himself to this fulfillment (article 3). By his deliberate actions (article 4), the human person does, or does not, conform to the good promised by God and attested by moral conscience (article 5). Human beings make their own contribution to their interior growth; they make their whole sentient and spiritual lives into means of this growth (article 6). With the help of grace they grow in virtue (article 7), avoid sin, and if they sin they entrust themselves as did the prodigal son1 to the mercy of our Father in heaven (article 8). In this way they attain to the perfection of charity. 
 

第一條

人是天主的肖象

 

1701. 「基督,在揭示聖父及其聖愛的奧跡時,把人圓滿地展示給人自己,向人揭露其崇高的召叫」。就是在基督──「不可見的天主的肖象」(哥 1:15) 內,人才是依照造物主的「肖象和模樣」而受造的。就是在基督──贖主和救主內,人身上那被原罪扭曲了的天主肖象,得以重新恢復原始的美麗,並因天主的聖寵而變得高貴。

1702.天主的肖象臨在於每一個人。這肖象在人們的共融中,燦爛輝煌,一如天主三位之間的結合 (參閱第二章)。

1703. 人天生賦有一個「精神的、不死不滅的」靈魂,因此「在這大地上,唯有人這受造物是天主因人之為人而喜愛的」。人自受孕之初,就被預定要承受永遠的真福。

1704. 人分享天主之神的光明和德能。藉著理智,人能夠理解造物主為事物制定的秩序。藉著意志,人能夠自動地步向真實的美善。人在「尋求和愛好真理及美善」中,達到自己的完美。

1705.由於人有靈魂,有理智和意志的精神力量,天主賦予人自由,這是「天主肖象的傑出標誌」。

1706. 人憑理性,認得天主催促他「行善避惡」的聲音。每人應遵從這在良心內產生共鳴的法律,而此法律的實踐,則在於愛天主、愛近人。道德生活的操練,証實人位格的尊嚴。

1707. 「因惡魔的誘惑,於有史之初,人便濫用其自由」。人陷於誘惑,犯了罪。他仍保持著對善的嚮往,但他的本性帶著原罪的傷痕。於是他傾向於惡,並容易犯錯:

於是人在自身內便遭到分裂。人整個生活,無論是個人的或集體的,便形成善與惡、光明與黑暗之間的戲劇性的戰鬥。
1708.藉著苦難,基督自撒殫和罪惡中拯救了我們。祂給我們贏得了在聖神內的新生命。祂的聖寵把罪惡在我們身上所損壞的,予以修復。

1709. 誰信基督,便成為天主的嗣子。成為天主的嗣子,便是把人改造,使人隨從基督的榜樣;又使人能行為正直,實踐善事;與救主結合,信徒達到愛德,即聖德的極緻。人在聖寵內長大成熟,他的道德生活在天上的榮耀中,昇華為永遠的生命。

撮要
1710.「基督把人圓滿地展示給人自己,向人揭露其崇高的召叫」。

1711. 人與生俱來就有一個屬神的靈魂,具有理智和意志,所以自受孕的那一刻,就已導向天主,並被預定承受永遠的真福。人在「尋求和愛好真理及美善」中,追求其完美。

1712.人所擁有的真正自由是「天主肖象的傑出標誌」。
1713.人應該遵守道德律,它驅使人「行善避惡」,此道德律在他良心中產生迴響。
1714.人由於在其本性受到原罪的創傷,所以在運用其自由時,容易做錯和偏向惡行。
1715.那信從基督的,在聖神內獲得一個新生命。那在恩寵中茁壯和成熟的道德生活,須在天上的榮耀中完成。

 Article 1

MAN: THE IMAGE OF GOD

1701 "Christ, . . . in the very revelation of the mystery of the Father and of his love, makes man fully manifest to himself and brings to light his exalted vocation."2 It is in Christ, "the image of the invisible God,"3 that man has been created "in the image and likeness" of the Creator. It is in Christ, Redeemer and Savior, that the divine image, disfigured in man by the first sin, has been restored to its original beauty and ennobled by the grace of God.4

1702 The divine image is present in every man. It shines forth in the communion of persons, in the likeness of the union of the divine persons among themselves (cf chapter two).

1703 Endowed with "a spiritual and immortal" soul,5 The human person is "the only creature on earth that God has willed for its own sake."6 From his conception, he is destined for eternal beatitude.

1704 The human person participates in the light and power of the divine Spirit. By his reason, he is capable of understanding the order of things established by the Creator. By free will, he is capable of directing himself toward his true good. He finds his perfection "in seeking and loving what is true and good."7

1705 By virtue of his soul and his spiritual powers of intellect and will, man is endowed with freedom, an "outstanding manifestation of the divine image."8

1706 By his reason, man recognizes the voice of God which urges him "to do what is good and avoid what is evil."9 Everyone is obliged to follow this law, which makes itself heard in conscience and is fulfilled in the love of God and of neighbor. Living a moral life bears witness to the dignity of the person.

1707 "Man, enticed by the Evil One, abused his freedom at the very beginning of history."10 He succumbed to temptation and did what was evil. He still desires the good, but his nature bears the wound of original sin. He is now inclined to evil and subject to error: 
Man is divided in himself. As a result, the whole life of men, both individual and social, shows itself to be a struggle, and a dramatic one, between good and evil, between light and darkness.11

1708 By his Passion, Christ delivered us from Satan and from sin. He merited for us the new life in the Holy Spirit. His grace restores what sin had damaged in us.

1709 He who believes in Christ becomes a son of God. This filial adoption transforms him by giving him the ability to follow the example of Christ. It makes him capable of acting rightly and doing good. In union with his Savior, the disciple attains the perfection of charity which is holiness. Having matured in grace, the moral life blossoms into eternal life in the glory of heaven.

IN BRIEF

1710 "Christ . . . makes man fully manifest to man himself and brings to light his exalted vocation" (GS 22 # 1).

1711 Endowed with a spiritual soul, with intellect and with free will, the human person is from his very conception ordered to God and destined for eternal beatitude. He pursues his perfection in "seeking and loving what is true and good" (GS 15 # 2).

1712 In man, true freedom is an "outstanding manifestation of the divine image" (GS 17).

1713 Man is obliged to follow the moral law, which urges him "to do what is good and avoid what is evil" (cf GS 16). This law makes itself heard in his conscience.

1714 Man, having been wounded in his nature by original sin, is subject to error and inclined to evil in exercising his freedom.

1715 He who believes in Christ has new life in the Holy Spirit. the moral life, increased and brought to maturity in grace, is to reach its fulfillment in the glory of heaven.

 

第二條

 

我們蒙召享真福
一、真福

1716. 真福是耶穌宣講的核心。真福的宣告,重申從亞巴郎以來對選民所作的許諾。真福的宣示在於實現這些許諾,但不再是許給他們只擁有一塊現世的土地,而是擁有天國:

神貧的人是有福的,因為天國是他們的。
溫良的人是有福的,因為他們要承受土地。
哀慟的人是有福的,因為他們要受安慰。
飢渴慕義的人是有福的,因為他們要得飽飫。
憐憫人的人是有福的,因為他們要受憐憫。
心裡潔淨的人是有福的,因為他們要看見天主。
締造和平的人是有福的,因為他們要稱為天主的子女。
為義而受迫害的人是有福的,因為天國是他們的。
幾時人為了我而辱罵迫害你們,捏造一切壞話毀謗你們,你們是有福的。
你們歡喜踴躍罷!因為你們在天上的賞報是豐厚的 (瑪 5:3-12)。

1717. 真福刻劃出耶穌基督的面貌,並描寫其愛德;真福表達信徒參與基督苦難和復活榮耀的召叫;真福昭示基督徒生活中特有的行動與態度;真福是看似矛盾卻是正確的許諾,作為痛苦中希望的支持;真福向門徒宣告,他們已隱約地取得祝福和賞報;真福在童貞聖母和諸位聖賢的生活中已經揭開了序幕。

二、真福的渴望

1718.真福答覆了人對幸福的自然渴望。這渴望導源於天主;天主把它放在人的心中,為吸引人歸向祂,因為只有祂能使人滿足:
聖奧思定,《論至公交會的習俗》:我們一定都願意生活幸福,全人類中沒有一個人不同意這說法,甚至在這說法還沒有圓滿地道出之前就已同意。

聖奧思定,《懺悔錄》:那麼,主啊,我怎樣尋找祢呢?既然在尋找祢時,我的天主,我是在尋找幸福的生活,就請祢賜我尋找祢,為使我的靈魂得以生活,因為我身因我靈而生活,而我靈因祢而生活。

聖多瑪斯,《宗徒信經闡釋》:只有天主使人滿足。

1719. 真福昭示人存在的目的,人行為的終向:天主召叫我們分享祂自身的真福。這召叫針對每一個人,但也針對整個教會,就是所有接納許諾,又在信仰中因此許諾而生活的新子民。

 Article 2

OUR VOCATION TO BEATITUDE

I. The Beatitudes

1716 The Beatitudes are at the heart of Jesus' preaching. They take up the promises made to the chosen people since Abraham. the Beatitudes fulfill the promises by ordering them no longer merely to the possession of a territory, but to the Kingdom of heaven:

Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 
Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. 
Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. 
Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. 
Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. 
Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. 
Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God. 
Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 
Blessed are you when men revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account. 
Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven.12

1717 The Beatitudes depict the countenance of Jesus Christ and portray his charity. They express the vocation of the faithful associated with the glory of his Passion and Resurrection; they shed light on the actions and attitudes characteristic of the Christian life; they are the paradoxical promises that sustain hope in the midst of tribulations; they proclaim the blessings and rewards already secured, however dimly, for Christ's disciples; they have begun in the lives of the Virgin Mary and all the saints.

II. The Desire for Happiness

1718 The Beatitudes respond to the natural desire for happiness. This desire is of divine origin: God has placed it in the human heart in order to draw man to the One who alone can fulfill it:

We all want to live happily; in the whole human race there is no one who does not assent to this proposition, even before it is fully articulated.13

 

How is it, then, that I seek you, Lord? Since in seeking you, my God, I seek a happy life, let me seek you so that my soul may live, for my body draws life from my soul and my soul draws life from you.14

 

God alone satisfies.15

1719 The Beatitudes reveal the goal of human existence, the ultimate end of human acts: God calls us to his own beatitude. This vocation is addressed to each individual personally, but also to the Church as a whole, the new people made up of those who have accepted the promise and live from it in faith.

 

三、基督徒的真福

1720. 對天主召人享受真福,新約用了許多說法,為標示此真福的特色:天國的臨近;看見天主:「心裡潔淨的人是有福的,因為他們要看見天主」(瑪 5:8);進入主人的福樂;進入天主的安息(希 4:7-11):

聖奧思定,《天主之城》:在那裡,我們將安息,我們將看見;我們將看見,我們將愛慕;我們將愛慕,我們將頌揚。看,這將是沒有終結的終結。除了抵達沒有終結的王國,我們能有別的終結嗎?

1721. 因為天主把我們安置在世界上,是為了認識祂,事奉祂,愛慕祂,因此而抵達樂園。真福使我們分享天主的性體(伯後 1:4)和永生。得到了永生,人便進入基督的光榮和天主聖三生命的福樂。

1722. 這樣的真福超越人的理解和人自身的能力。真福是天主無條件賞賜的恩典。因此人稱真福是超性的,猶如稱那準備人進入天主福樂的恩寵是超性的一樣。

聖依勒內•里昂,《駁斥異端》:「心裡潔淨的人是有福的,因為他們要看見天主」。固然,天主的偉大和祂神妙無比的榮耀,「誰也不能見到天主而仍然活著」,因為父是不可捉摸的;但天主因祂對人的慈愛、寬容及全能,祂竟恩賜敬愛祂的人得以享見祂;因為「在人所不能的,在天主卻是可能的」。

1723. 預許的真福使我們正視決定性的倫理抉擇。真福邀請我們清洗我們的心靈,滌除不良的本能,以求愛天主在萬有之上。真福教導我們真正的幸福不在財富或安逸,不在人間的光榮或權勢,不在任何人的事業,縱使非常有用,如:學術、科技、藝術,也不在任何受造之物,而只在萬善、諸愛之源的天主:

約翰亨利•紐曼,《對混合教派的演講》5,89-90「論聖德」:財富是今日的偉大的神明;對它,芸芸眾生,大批人群,本能地叩首膜拜。人們以富貴來衡量幸福,甚至也以富貴來釐定尊卑。……這一切乃出自一個信念,就是財富能成就一切。於是財富成了今日的一個偶像,另一個偶像便是聲譽。……所謂聲譽,就是名滿天下,稱譽世界 (也可以稱為新聞人物),已被認同為善的化身,善的至尊,也成了真正崇拜的對象。

1724. 天主十誡、山中聖訓、宗徒的傳授,都給我們描繪了導向天國的道路。我們以每天的行為,藉著聖神的恩寵,逐步努力前進。又藉著基督聖言的灌溉,在教會內,為了天主的光榮,慢慢地結出果實。

撮要


1725.真福是重申並完成天主自亞巴郎以來所作過的多項許諾,使其導向天國,這正好回應天主安放在人心內對幸福的渴求。
1726.真福昭示天主召叫我們最終的目標:王國、享見天主、天主性體的分享、永遠的生命、天父的子女和天主內的安息。


1727.永生的真福是天主無條件的恩賜,是超性的,就如導人進入永生的恩寵一般。
1728.真福將我們置身在一些關鍵性的抉擇前,對世物作取捨;這些真福淨化我們的心靈,為使我們學習愛天主在萬有之上。


1729.天上的真福奠定分辨的標準,使能按天主的法律運用世物。

 III. Christian Beatitude

1720 The New Testament uses several expressions to characterize the beatitude to which God calls man: 
- the coming of the Kingdom of God;16 
- the vision of God: "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God"17 
- entering into the joy of the Lord;18 
- entering into God's rest:19

There we shall rest and see, we shall see and love, we shall love and praise. Behold what will be at the end without end. For what other end do we have, if not to reach the kingdom which has no end?20

1721 God put us in the world to know, to love, and to serve him, and so to come to paradise. Beatitude makes us "partakers of the divine nature" and of eternal life.21 With beatitude, man enters into the glory of Christ22 and into the joy of the Trinitarian life.

1722 Such beatitude surpasses the understanding and powers of man. It comes from an entirely free gift of God: whence it is called supernatural, as is the grace that disposes man to enter into the divine joy.

"Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God."

It is true, because of the greatness and inexpressible glory of God, that "man shall not see me and live," for the Father cannot be grasped. But because of God's love and goodness toward us, and because he can do all things, he goes so far as to grant those who love him the privilege of seeing him.... For "what is impossible for men is possible for God."23

1723 The beatitude we are promised confronts us with decisive moral choices. It invites us to purify our hearts of bad instincts and to seek the love of God above all else. It teaches us that true happiness is not found in riches or well-being, in human fame or power, or in any human achievement - however beneficial it may be - such as science, technology, and art, or indeed in any creature, but in God alone, the source of every good and of all love:

All bow down before wealth. Wealth is that to which the multitude of men pay an instinctive homage. They measure happiness by wealth; and by wealth they measure respectability.... It is a homage resulting from a profound faith ... that with wealth he may do all things. Wealth is one idol of the day and notoriety is a second.... Notoriety, or the making of a noise in the world - it may be called "newspaper fame" - has come to be considered a great good in itself, and a ground of veneration.24

1724 The Decalogue, the Sermon on the Mount, and the apostolic catechesis describe for us the paths that lead to the Kingdom of heaven. Sustained by the grace of the Holy Spirit, we tread them, step by step, by everyday acts. By the working of the Word of Christ, we slowly bear fruit in the Church to the glory of God.25

IN BRIEF

1725 The Beatitudes take up and fulfill God's promises from Abraham on by ordering them to the Kingdom of heaven. They respond to the desire for happiness that God has placed in the human heart.

1726 The Beatitudes teach us the final end to which God calls us: the Kingdom, the vision of God, participation in the divine nature, eternal life, filiation, rest in God.

1727 The beatitude of eternal life is a gratuitous gift of God. It is supernatural, as is the grace that leads us there.

1728 The Beatitudes confront us with decisive choices concerning earthly goods; they purify our hearts in order to teach us to love God above all things.

1729 The beatitude of heaven sets the standards for discernment in the use of earthly goods in keeping with the law of God.

 

第三條

人的自由

 

1730. 天主造了有理性的人,賦給他位格的尊嚴,具有對自己行為的主動力與主控力。「天主『賦給他自決的能力』(德 15:14),目的在使人自動尋找造物主,並自由地依附祂,而抵達其圓滿幸福的境界」:

聖依勒內•里昂,《駁斥異端》:人賦有理性,因而肖似天主,人生來是自由的,是自己行為的主人。

一、自由和責任

1731. 自由是紮根於理性和意志的能力,它使人能行動或不行動,能做這事或做那事,如此能採取自主的行動。藉著自由意志,每個人支配自己。自由在人身上是一股在真理和美善中成長和成熟的力量。當自由以天主、我們的真福為依歸時,便達致其完美的境界。

1732. 只要自由尚未決定性地固定於其最終的美善──天主── 則常有在善惡之間作抉擇的可能,亦即在成全上成長或衰退,甚至犯罪的可能。自由令行為真正有人的特色。自由成了讚揚或責備、功績或過錯的根源。

1733.人越是為善,越是自由。除了為美善和正義服務,沒有真正的自由。選擇不服從及邪惡是濫用自由,使人淪為「罪惡的奴隸」。

1734. 自由使人對自己的行為負責,責任的大小則在於行為自願的程度。德行的進步、美善的認識、修養的功夫,均增強意志主宰其行為的能力。
1735.一個行為的歸咎和責任,可因無知、疏忽、暴力、恐懼、習慣、激情,和其他心理或社會因素而減輕或甚至免除。

1736.所有直接有意的行為,都歸於做此行為的人:

因此,原祖在樂園裡犯罪後,上主質問亞當說:「你為甚麼作了這事?」(創 3:13)對加音也是一樣。基於同一理由,在達味和烏黎雅的妻子通姦,又用計殺死了烏黎雅之後,先知納堂也同樣質問了君王達味。

一個行為可能是間接願意的,即當這個行為的發生是由於疏忽了一件當知或當做的事,例如,由於不懂交通規則而發生的意外事故。

1737. 非當事人所要的後果是容許發生的,例如,一個母親為了侍候病床上的孩子,以致弄得筋疲力盡。無意把後果作為目的或方法時,不好的後果不該歸咎於當事人,例如為了援救一個身陷危險的人,導致自己的死亡。為使不好的後果能歸咎於人,該後果必須是可預見的,並且當事人有可能加以迴避。例如,醉後駕駛,導致他人死亡,便是一例。

1738. 自由是在人際關係中行使的。每一個有位格的人,是依照天主的肖象而受造的,具有自然的權利,要被承認為有自由和負責的個體。每人都有義務尊重別人的此項權利。行使自由的權利是一種要求,與人的尊嚴是分不開的,尤其在倫理和宗教的領域內。這權利應獲得民法的承認,並在公益和公共秩序的範圍內受到保障。

二、救恩計劃中人的自由

1739. 自由與罪。人的自由是有限的、可能犯錯的。事實上,人犯了錯。他自由地犯了罪。在拒絕天主愛的計劃時,他欺騙了自己;他淪為罪的奴隸。由這原始的錯亂,產生了其他許多的錯亂。人類的歷史,自一開始,見証了由人心產生的種種不幸和迫害,都是妄用自由的後果。

1740. 對自由的種種威脅。自由的運用並不意味著甚麼都可以講或甚麼都可以做的權利。聲稱「人、自由的主體,自給自足,在世間享用事物上,以達到滿足他個人利益為終向」,這說法是錯誤的。再者,為正確地運用自由所需要的經濟和社會、政治和文化方面的條件,多次受到忽略或違犯。這些盲目和不義的情況加重道德生活的負擔,導致強者和弱者陷於違反愛德的誘惑。背離了道德律,人損害他本身的自由,把自我囚禁起來,斷絕兄弟手足的情誼,反抗天主的真理。

1741. 解放和救恩解放和救恩。基督以其光榮的十字架,為所有的人帶來了救恩。基督把人自奴役他們的罪惡中贖回。「基督解救我們,是為使我們獲得自由」(迦 5:1)。在基督內,我們分享「使我們獲得自由」(若 8:32)的真理。聖神已成為我們的恩賜,依照宗徒的教導,「主的神在那裡,那裡就有自由」(格後 3:17)。從現在開始,我們以「天主子女的自由」(羅 8:21)為榮。

1742. 自由和恩寵。如果我們的自由,符合天主安置在人心中對真理和美善的感悟,基督的聖寵絕不會與之競爭,恰好相反,一如基督徒的經驗,尤其在祈禱中所指証的,我們越順從恩寵的推動,我們內心的自由和我們在諸考驗中的堅定也越增長,面對外在世界的壓力和強迫就是考驗的例子。藉著恩寵的運作,聖神教育我們,走向屬靈的自由,為使我們在教會內和在世界上,作為祂工程的自由合作人。

《羅馬彌撒經書》,第三十二主日集禱經:全能仁慈的天主,求祢剷除對我們不利的一切障礙,使我們能以清明的身心,自由地奉行祢的旨意。
撮要
1743.「天主賦給人自決的能力」(德 15:14), 為使他能自由地依附造物主,並因而抵達圓滿的幸福。
1744.自由就是行動或不行動,和自主地採取行動的能力。當自由是以天主、至高的美善為依歸時,會使人的行為達致完美。
1745.自由使行為有真正人的特色,使人對自己的行為負責,因為這是按自己的意願而完成的。人自由的行為確是歸自己所有。
1746.一個行為的歸咎或責任,可因無知、暴力、恐懼、和其他心理或社會因素,而減輕或免除。
1747.行使自由的權利是一種與人的尊嚴分不開的要求,尤其在宗教和道德的領域內。自由的運用並不意味甚麼都可講或甚麼都可做的權利。
1748.「基督解救了我們,是為了使我們獲得自由」(迦 5:1)。

 Article 3

MAN'S FREEDOM

1730 God created man a rational being, conferring on him the dignity of a person who can initiate and control his own actions. "God willed that man should be 'left in the hand of his own counsel,' so that he might of his own accord seek his Creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him."26

Man is rational and therefore like God; he is created with free will and is master over his acts.27

I. Freedom and Responsibility

1731 Freedom is the power, rooted in reason and will, to act or not to act, to do this or that, and so to perform deliberate actions on one's own responsibility. By free will one shapes one's own life. Human freedom is a force for growth and maturity in truth and goodness; it attains its perfection when directed toward God, our beatitude.

1732 As long as freedom has not bound itself definitively to its ultimate good which is God, there is the possibility of choosing between good and evil, and thus of growing in perfection or of failing and sinning. This freedom characterizes properly human acts. It is the basis of praise or blame, merit or reproach.

1733 The more one does what is good, the freer one becomes. There is no true freedom except in the service of what is good and just. the choice to disobey and do evil is an abuse of freedom and leads to "the slavery of sin."28

1734 Freedom makes man responsible for his acts to the extent that they are voluntary. Progress in virtue, knowledge of the good, and ascesis enhance the mastery of the will over its acts.

1735 Imputability and responsibility for an action can be diminished or even nullified by ignorance, inadvertence, duress, fear, habit, inordinate attachments, and other psychological or social factors.

1736 Every act directly willed is imputable to its author:

Thus the Lord asked Eve after the sin in the garden: "What is this that you have done?"29 He asked Cain the same question.30 The prophet Nathan questioned David in the same way after he committed adultery with the wife of Uriah and had him murdered.31 
An action can be indirectly voluntary when it results from negligence regarding something one should have known or done: for example, an accident arising from ignorance of traffic laws.

1737 An effect can be tolerated without being willed by its agent; for instance, a mother's exhaustion from tending her sick child. A bad effect is not imputable if it was not willed either as an end or as a means of an action, e.g., a death a person incurs in aiding someone in danger. For a bad effect to be imputable it must be foreseeable and the agent must have the possibility of avoiding it, as in the case of manslaughter caused by a drunken driver.

1738 Freedom is exercised in relationships between human beings. Every human person, created in the image of God, has the natural right to be recognized as a free and responsible being. All owe to each other this duty of respect. the right to the exercise of freedom, especially in moral and religious matters, is an inalienable requirement of the dignity of the human person. This right must be recognized and protected by civil authority within the limits of the common good and public order.32

II. Human Freedom in the Economy of Salvation

1739 Freedom and sin. Man's freedom is limited and fallible. In fact, man failed. He freely sinned. By refusing God's plan of love, he deceived himself and became a slave to sin. This first alienation engendered a multitude of others. From its outset, human history attests the wretchedness and oppression born of the human heart in consequence of the abuse of freedom.

1740 Threats to freedom. the exercise of freedom does not imply a right to say or do everything. It is false to maintain that man, "the subject of this freedom," is "an individual who is fully self-sufficient and whose finality is the satisfaction of his own interests in the enjoyment of earthly goods."33 Moreover, the economic, social, political, and cultural conditions that are needed for a just exercise of freedom are too often disregarded or violated. Such situations of blindness and injustice injure the moral life and involve the strong as well as the weak in the temptation to sin against charity. By deviating from the moral law man violates his own freedom, becomes imprisoned within himself, disrupts neighborly fellowship, and rebels against divine truth.

1741 Liberation and salvation. By his glorious Cross Christ has won salvation for all men. He redeemed them from the sin that held them in bondage. "For freedom Christ has set us free."34 In him we have communion with the "truth that makes us free."35 The Holy Spirit has been given to us and, as the Apostle teaches, "Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom."36 Already we glory in the "liberty of the children of God."37

1742 Freedom and grace. the grace of Christ is not in the slightest way a rival of our freedom when this freedom accords with the sense of the true and the good that God has put in the human heart. On the contrary, as Christian experience attests especially in prayer, the more docile we are to the promptings of grace, the more we grow in inner freedom and confidence during trials, such as those we face in the pressures and constraints of the outer world. By the working of grace the Holy Spirit educates us in spiritual freedom in order to make us free collaborators in his work in the Church and in the world:

Almighty and merciful God,

in your goodness take away from us all that is harmful,

so that, made ready both in mind and body,

we may freely accomplish your will.38

IN BRIEF

1743 "God willed that man should be left in the hand of his own counsel (cf  Sir 15:14), so that he might of his own accord seek his creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him" (GS 17 # 1).

1744 Freedom is the power to act or not to act, and so to perform deliberate acts of one's own. Freedom attains perfection in its acts when directed toward God, the sovereign Good.

1745 Freedom characterizes properly human acts. It makes the human being responsible for acts of which he is the voluntary agent. His deliberate acts properly belong to him.

1746 The imputability or responsibility for an action can be diminished or nullified by ignorance, duress, fear, and other psychological or social factors.

1747 The right to the exercise of freedom, especially in religious and moral matters, is an inalienable requirement of the dignity of man. But the exercise of freedom does not entail the putative right to say or do anything.

1748 "For freedom Christ has set us free" ( Gal 5:1).

 

第四條

人行為的道德性

 

1749. 自由使人成為道德的主體。當人以自願的方式做事,可以說人是其行為之父。人的行為,就是在良心判斷之後自由選擇的行為,是可依道德觀來評定行為是好或是壞的。

一、道德性的泉道德性的泉源

1750.人行為的道德性取決於:
──選擇的對象;
──追求的目的或意向;對象、意向和環境構成人行為道德性的「泉源」,或組成要素。

1751. 選擇的對象是意志故意投向的一個善。對象構成人行為的因素。選擇的對象確定一個意願行為的道德性,是根據理智承認它和判斷它是否合乎真實的善。道德性的客觀準則,經由良心指証,陳述善與惡的理性秩序。

1752. 面對著對象,意向常站在行動主體的一邊。因為意向與行為的意願的泉源相連,並由終向決定行為,因此意向對行為的道德品質,是一個基本的因素。目的是意向的第一個鵠的,用以指定行為中所追求的目標。意向是意志投向目的的動向;意向注視行動的鵠的。意向指向行動所期待的善。意向不只限於指點我們的個別行為,更能調配許多不同的行為,歸向同一的目標;意向能夠引導人的一生走向最終的目的。例如,一次服務原以幫助近人為目標,但能同時受到天主聖愛的啟發,以愛天主作為我們所有行為的最後目的。同一個行為也能夠受到多種意向的影響,譬如,服務是為了得到某種益處,或為了獲得虛榮。

1753. 一個良好的意向(如:幫助近人)不能使一件本身放任的行為(撒謊、誹謗)成為良好而正當的。目的並不使方法成為正當的。由此,人不能為了拯救一個民族,而把處罰一個無辜的人視為合法的方法。反過來說,一個附加上去的不良意向(如虛假光榮)卻能使一個本身可以是良好的行為(如施捨),成為不良的。

1754. 環境,包括後果在內,是道德行為的次要因素。環境的影響在於加重或減輕人行為道德的善或惡(例如偷竊的數量)。環境也能夠減少或增加行動者的責任(如因怕死而做)。環境本身不能改變行為原有的道德性質;環境不能使一個內在惡的行為,成為良好或正當的。

二、善行與惡行

1755. 道德上良好的行為,同時假定對象、目的和環境都是良好的。一個不好的目的使行為敗壞,即使這行為的對象本身是好的(如祈禱和禁食「為給人看見」)。

選擇的對象 只就其本身來說,便能使一個行為全面敗壞。有一些具體的行為──如淫亂,常是錯誤的選擇,因為選擇這些行為,牽涉意願上的錯亂,亦即是一個道德的惡。

1756. 因此,斷定人行為的道德性,只考慮引起行為的意向,或是作為框架的環境(氛圍、社會壓力、強迫或行動的需要等等),是錯誤的。有些行為,因其本身,在其本身,不論處於何環境,不論有何意向,因其對象的關係,常是嚴重不道德的。例如,褻瀆神明和宣發假誓,謀殺和通姦。人總不可為得到一個善而作惡。

撮要
1757.對象、意向和環境構成人行為道德性的三個「泉源」。
1758.選擇的對象確定一個意願行為的道德性,根據理性認可它和判斷它是好是壞。
1759.「人不能以良好的意向使不良的行為成為正當的」。目的並不使方法成為正當的。
1760.道德上良好的行為假定有良好的對象、目的和環境。
1761.有一些具體的行為,若選擇了,不論怎樣都是錯事,因為選擇這些行為牽涉意願上的錯亂,亦即是一個道德惡。人總不可為得到某一個善而行惡。


 Article 4

THE MORALITY OF HUMAN ACTS

1749 Freedom makes man a moral subject. When he acts deliberately, man is, so to speak, the father of his acts. Human acts, that is, acts that are freely chosen in consequence of a judgment of conscience, can be morally evaluated. They are either good or evil.

I. The Sources of Morality

1750 The morality of human acts depends on: 
- the object chosen; 
- the end in view or the intention; 
- the circumstances of the action. 
The object, the intention, and the circumstances make up the "sources," or constitutive elements, of the morality of human acts.

1751 The object chosen is a good toward which the will deliberately directs itself. It is the matter of a human act. the object chosen morally specifies the act of the will, insofar as reason recognizes and judges it to be or not to be in conformity with the true good. Objective norms of morality express the rational order of good and evil, attested to by conscience.

1752 In contrast to the object, the intention resides in the acting subject. Because it lies at the voluntary source of an action and determines it by its end, intention is an element essential to the moral evaluation of an action. the end is the first goal of the intention and indicates the purpose pursued in the action. the intention is a movement of the will toward the end: it is concerned with the goal of the activity. It aims at the good anticipated from the action undertaken. Intention is not limited to directing individual actions, but can guide several actions toward one and the same purpose; it can orient one's whole life toward its ultimate end. For example, a service done with the end of helping one's neighbor can at the same time be inspired by the love of God as the ultimate end of all our actions. One and the same action can also be inspired by several intentions, such as performing a service in order to obtain a favor or to boast about it.

1753 A good intention (for example, that of helping one's neighbor) does not make behavior that is intrinsically disordered, such as lying and calumny, good or just. the end does not justify the means. Thus the condemnation of an innocent person cannot be justified as a legitimate means of saving the nation. On the other hand, an added bad intention (such as vainglory) makes an act evil that, in and of itself, can be good (such as almsgiving).39

1754 The circumstances, including the consequences, are secondary elements of a moral act. They contribute to increasing or diminishing the moral goodness or evil of human acts (for example, the amount of a theft). They can also diminish or increase the agent's responsibility (such as acting out of a fear of death). Circumstances of themselves cannot change the moral quality of acts themselves; they can make neither good nor right an action that is in itself evil.

II. Good Acts and Evil Acts

1755 A morally good act requires the goodness of the object, of the end, and of the circumstances together. An evil end corrupts the action, even if the object is good in itself (such as praying and fasting "in order to be seen by men"). 
The object of the choice can by itself vitiate an act in its entirety. There are some concrete acts - such as fornication - that it is always wrong to choose, because choosing them entails a disorder of the will, that is, a moral evil.

1756 It is therefore an error to judge the morality of human acts by considering only the intention that inspires them or the circumstances (environment, social pressure, duress or emergency, etc.) which supply their context. There are acts which, in and of themselves, independently of circumstances and intentions, are always gravely illicit by reason of their object; such as blasphemy and perjury, murder and adultery. One may not do evil so that good may result from it.

IN BRIEF

1757 The object, the intention, and the circumstances make up the three "sources" of the morality of human acts.

1758 The object chosen morally specifies the act of willing accordingly as reason recognizes and judges it good or evil.

1759 "An evil action cannot be justified by reference to a good intention" (cf St. Thomas Aquinas, Dec. praec. 6). the end does not justify the means.

1760 A morally good act requires the goodness of its object, of its end, and of its circumstances together.

1761 There are concrete acts that it is always wrong to choose, because their choice entails a disorder of the will, i.e., a moral evil. One may not do evil so that good may result from it.

 

第五條

情慾的道德性

1762.有位格的人以他自願的行為而導向真福。人體驗的情慾或情感,能夠使他傾向於真福,並有所貢獻。

一、情慾


1763.「情慾」一詞是基督徒傳統的用詞。情感或情慾是指感性的激情或感動;情慾使人在面對所感受到的或想像到的善或是惡,傾向行動或不行動。

 

1764. 情慾是由人心理層面的自然因素所組成,情慾提供感性生活和精神生活之間交往的通道並保障其聯繫。我們的主曾指出,人的心為情慾活動湧流不息的泉源。

1765. 情慾有許多種。最基本的情慾便是受到善的吸引而產生的愛情。愛情對不在目前的善產生渴求,和得到它的希望。這動向的完成在於獲享善的快感和喜樂。惡的體會則產生憎恨、厭惡和恐懼惡的來臨。這動向的終結則在於對當前惡的哀愁,或抗拒惡的憤怒。

1766.「愛是要別人得到幸福」。所有其他的情感都以此人心對善的原始嚮往作為泉源。唯有善才值得愛。「若愛是惡的,情慾也是惡的;若愛是善的,

二、情慾與道德生活

1767. 情慾本身既非善亦非惡。情慾得到的道德評價,只看情慾是否有效地受理性和意志的管轄。情慾稱之為自願的,「或者因為情慾受到意志的指使,或者因為意志不加以阻止」。情慾是否是道德善或人性善的成全,要看它是否接受理性規範。

1768. 強烈的感受不決定一個人的道德和聖德;這些感受好似一座水庫,可以從中源源不絕地汲取表達道德生活的形象和情感。當情慾有助於一個善的行為,在道德上便是善的,反過來說,便是惡的。正直的意志把所接納的感性推動導向美善和真福;不良的意志則屈服於無規律的情慾之下,給情慾火上加油。情感的觸動和感受能為德行所提升,或為惡習所敗壞。

1769. 在基督信徒的生活裡,聖神所達成的工作是推動整個的人,包括其痛苦、恐懼、悲傷,一如主在山園中和苦難中所顯示的。在基督內,人性的感受能夠在愛德和天主的真福中達致圓滿。

1770. 人在道德上的完美,不僅在於人為意志所驅使而向善,也靠感性對善的慾望,一如聖詠所說:「我的心靈以及我的肉身,向生活的天主踴躍歡欣」 (詠 84:3)。

撮要


1771.「情慾」一詞是指情感或感受。人透過自己的情感的觸動,預先感受到甚麼是善和懷疑甚麼是惡。


1772.最主要的情慾是愛和恨,渴求和驚懼,欣悅、哀愁和憤怒。
1773.情慾作為感性上的傾向,本身沒有道德上的善或惡可言,而要看這些情感是否出自理智和意志,才談得上道德的善或惡。


1774.情感的觸動與感受能為德行所提升,或為惡習所敗壞。

1775.人在道德感受上的成全,在於人不但為意志所驅使而向善,而且也為其「心」所驅使。
 Article 5

THE MORALITY OF THE PASSIONS

1762 The human person is ordered to beatitude by his deliberate acts: the passions or feelings he experiences can dispose him to it and contribute to it.

I. Passions

1763 The term "passions" belongs to the Christian patrimony. Feelings or passions are emotions or movements of the sensitive appetite that incline us to act or not to act in regard to something felt or imagined to be good or evil.

1764 The passions are natural components of the human psyche; they form the passageway and ensure the connection between the life of the senses and the life of the mind. Our Lord called man's heart the source from which the passions spring.40

1765 There are many passions. the most fundamental passion is love, aroused by the attraction of the good. Love causes a desire for the absent good and the hope of obtaining it; this movement finds completion in the pleasure and joy of the good possessed. the apprehension of evil causes hatred, aversion, and fear of the impending evil; this movement ends in sadness at some present evil, or in the anger that resists it.

1766 "To love is to will the good of another."41 All other affections have their source in this first movement of the human heart toward the good. Only the good can be loved.42 Passions "are evil if love is evil and good if it is good."43

II. Passions and Moral Life

1767 In themselves passions are neither good nor evil. They are morally qualified only to the extent that they effectively engage reason and will. Passions are said to be voluntary, "either because they are commanded by the will or because the will does not place obstacles in their way."44 It belongs to the perfection of the moral or human good that the passions be governed by reason.45

1768 Strong feelings are not decisive for the morality or the holiness of persons; they are simply the inexhaustible reservoir of images and affections in which the moral life is expressed. Passions are morally good when they contribute to a good action, evil in the opposite case. the upright will orders the movements of the senses it appropriates to the good and to beatitude; an evil will succumbs to disordered passions and exacerbates them. Emotions and feelings can be taken up into the virtues or perverted by the vices.

1769 In the Christian life, the Holy Spirit himself accomplishes his work by mobilizing the whole being, with all its sorrows, fears and sadness, as is visible in the Lord's agony and passion. In Christ human feelings are able to reach their consummation in charity and divine beatitude.

1770 Moral perfection consists in man's being moved to the good not by his will alone, but also by his sensitive appetite, as in the words of the psalm: "My heart and flesh sing for joy to the living God."46

IN BRIEF

1771 The term "passions" refers to the affections or the feelings. By his emotions man intuits the good and suspects evil.

1772 The principal passions are love and hatred, desire and fear, joy, sadness, and anger.

1773 In the passions, as movements of the sensitive appetite, there is neither moral good nor evil. But insofar as they engage reason and will, there is moral good or evil in them.

1774 Emotions and feelings can be taken up in the virtues or perverted by the vices.

1775 The perfection of the moral good consists in man's being moved to the good not only by his will but also by his "heart."

   
   
   
文件動作