卷一信仰的宣認 - 諸聖的相通/THE COMMUNION OF SAINTS

第五節 諸聖的相通

946. 宗徒信經在宣認了「至公的聖教會」後,再加上「諸聖的相通 (諸聖的共融)」。這信條在某程度上是闡明上述的信條:「如果沒有諸位聖人組成的會眾,教會又將是怎樣的呢?」。諸聖的相通正是教會。

947. 「由於所有信友組成一個身體,他們彼此分享所有。……我們應這樣相信在教會之內有各種財富的共享。然而,在肢體中,最重要的是基督,因為祂是元首……因此,基督的功勞通傳給所有肢體,而這種傳遞是透過教會的聖事而進行的」。「正如這教會是由唯一而同一的聖神治理,她所領受的一切益處須成為共同的資產」。

948.因此,「諸聖的相通」一詞包含兩種緊密相連的意義:「神聖事物 (sancta) 的共享」和「聖人們 (sancti)之間的共融」。
東方禮的主祭在領聖體前舉揚祭品時通常宣布:「Sancta sanctis ! (看,那神聖事物給神聖的人)」。信友 (sancti)由基督的體血 (sancta)所養育,為能在聖神的共融 (Koinonia)內成長,並把這共融通傳給世界。

一、神聖財富的相通

949.在耶路撒冷的初期教會團體裡,門徒們「專心聽取宗徒的訓誨,時常團聚,擘餅,祈禱」(宗 2:42):
在信德內的共融。信友的信德是教會受自宗徒的信德,這是生命的寶藏,在彼此分享時更趨豐盛。

950. 聖事的共融。「所有聖事的效果屬於所有的人,因為每件聖事都是神聖的連繫,使所有人合而為一並與基督結合,尤其是聖洗,它好像是門,人通過它而進入教會。聖人的共融,也就是聖事的共融……。這『共融』的名稱可應用於每件聖事上,因為每件聖事都使我們結合於天主……。但這名稱較諸其他所有聖事更適用於感恩祭,因為主要是以感恩祭,共融才達致圓滿」。

951. 神恩的共融:在教會的共融裡,聖神為了建立教會而「給各界信友分施……特別的恩寵」。 不過,「聖神顯示在每人身上雖不同,但全是為人的好處」。

952. 「他們把一切都歸公用」(宗 4:32):「真正的基督徒所擁有的一切,都應視之為與眾人共享的財富。他應時時準備,熱切援助周遭有急需和可憐的人」。基督徒是上主產業的管理人。

953. 愛德的共融:在諸聖的相通中,「沒有一人是為自己而生的,也沒有一人是為自己而死的」(羅 14:7)。「若是一個肢體受苦,所有的肢體都一同受苦;若是一個肢體蒙受尊榮,所有的肢體都一同歡樂。你們便是基督的身體,各自都是肢體」(格前 12:26-27)。「愛不求己益」(格前 13:5)。我們與全人類(包括生者死者)的團結建基於諸聖的共融。在這團結中,我們以愛德所做最微小的行動,給眾人帶來裨益。一切罪惡都危害這共融。

二、天上教會和世上教會的共融

954. 教會的三種狀態。「基督們徒中一部分還在現世旅途中,他們期待著主在威嚴中與眾天使降來,摧毀死亡,使一切都屈服於祂的時刻;一部分已經度過此世而在煉淨中,最後,另一部分在光榮中,瞻仰『在圓滿真光中三位一體的天主的真貌』」:

可是,我們每人以不同的程度和方式,共融於同樣的愛主愛人之德中,向我們的天主詠唱同樣的光榮之歌。因為凡屬於基督並充滿祂聖神的人,形成一個教會,在基督內互相扶持,就如一個整體。

955.「旅途中的人,和安眠於基督平安內的兄弟姊妹們的連繫,絕不會中斷,而且,按照教會永恆的信仰,這一連繫會藉著神益的互通而加強」。

956. 諸聖的代禱。「天鄉的居民因與基督之間的聯繫較為密切,他們有助整個教會在聖德的根基上更加鞏固……。他們不斷地為我們轉求天父,把他們在世上靠著天人之間的唯一中保耶穌基督所立的功勞獻給天主……。所以,他們的手足關切之情,對軟弱的我們大有助益。」:

聖道明的遺言: 莫悲傷,莫哭泣,我死後,會對你們更有益;念在茲,助在茲,其成效,超過我生活在世。
聖女小德蘭,《遺言》:在今生,我無力,在天上,我會造福於大地 。

957. 與天上諸聖共融。「我們紀念天上的神聖,並不僅是為了他們的模範,而是要藉著手足之愛的實行,益發加強整個教會在聖神內的團結。一如旅途中基督徒的共融使我們更接近基督,同樣,與諸聖的相通,使我們和基督相連,從基督那裡,就如從他們的首領那裡,湧出一切恩寵以及天主子民本身的生命。」:

《聖玻里加殉道錄》:我們朝拜基督,因為祂是天主之子;但我們敬愛殉道烈士,因為他們是主的門徒;他們曾以出類拔萃的愛,效法吾主,奉祂為君王,為師傅。願我們能成為他們的伴侶和他們的同道。

958. 與亡者共融。「旅途中的教會深深體會耶穌基督整個奧體的這種共融精神,從基督教會的初期,便以極大的熱誠,孝敬追念已故的人;『為此,他為亡者獻贖罪祭,是為叫他們獲得罪赦』」(加下 12:46)。我們為他們祈禱,不但幫助他們,也使他們為我們的益處所作的代禱得以奏效。

959. 在天主唯一的家庭裡。「我們都是天主的兒女,都在基督內組成一個家庭,當我們因彼此的相愛、同聲讚美至聖聖三而彼此共融時,就是回應教會的親切召喚」。

撮要

960. 教會是「諸聖的相通」:這措辭首先是指「神聖事物」,尤其是聖體聖事,「藉這聖事,信友們的合一得以表達和實現,他們在基督內結成一體」。

961.「諸聖的相通」也指「諸聖」在基督內的共融,祂「為一切人而死」,以致每人在基督內及為基督而作的或忍受的一切,為眾人都有效益。

962. 「我們相信所有基督信徒們的共融,即那些在此世作旅客的,那些在淨煉中的亡者,以及那些在天堂上享真福的,共同形成的獨一教會。我們相信在這共融中,充滿慈悲和仁愛的天主及諸聖不斷地聆聽我們的祈禱」。

Paragraph 5. THE COMMUNION OF SAINTS

946 After confessing "the holy catholic Church," the Apostles' Creed adds "the communion of saints." In a certain sense this article is a further explanation of the preceding: "What is the Church if not the assembly of all the saints?"477 The communion of saints is the Church.

947 "Since all the faithful form one body, the good of each is communicated to the others.... We must therefore believe that there exists a communion of goods in the Church. But the most important member is Christ, since he is the head.... Therefore, the riches of Christ are communicated to all the members, through the sacraments."478 "As this Church is governed by one and the same Spirit, all the goods she has received necessarily become a common fund."479

948 The term "communion of saints" therefore has two closely linked meanings: communion in holy things (sancta)" and "among holy persons (sancti).

"Sancta sancti's! ("God's holy gifts for God's holy people") is proclaimed by the celebrant in most Eastern liturgies during the elevation of the holy Gifts before the distribution of communion. the faithful (sancta) are fed by Christ's holy body and blood (sancta) to grow in the communion of the Holy Spirit (koinonia) and to communicate it to the world.

I. COMMUNION IN SPIRITUAL GOODS

949 In the primitive community of Jerusalem, the disciples "devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of the bread and the prayers."480 
Communion in the faith. the faith of the faithful is the faith of the Church, received from the apostles. Faith is a treasure of life which is enriched by being shared.

950 Communion of the sacraments. "The fruit of all the sacraments belongs to all the faithful. All the sacraments are sacred links uniting the faithful with one another and binding them to Jesus Christ, and above all Baptism, the gate by which we enter into the Church. the communion of saints must be understood as the communion of the sacraments.... the name 'communion' can be applied to all of them, for they unite us to God.... But this name is better suited to the Eucharist than to any other, because it is primarily the Eucharist that brings this communion about."481

951 Communion of charisms. Within the communion of the Church, the Holy Spirit "distributes special graces among the faithful of every rank" for the building up of the Church.482 Now, "to each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good."483

952 "They had everything in common."484 "Everything the true Christian has is to be regarded as a good possessed in common with everyone else. All Christians should be ready and eager to come to the help of the needy . . . and of their neighbors in want."485 A Christian is a steward of the Lord's goods.486

953 Communion in charity. In the sanctorum communio, "None of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself."487 "If one member suffers, all suffer together; if one member is honored, all rejoice together. Now you are the body of Christ and individually members of it."488 "Charity does not insist on its own way."489 In this solidarity with all men, living or dead, which is founded on the communion of saints, the least of our acts done in charity redounds to the profit of all. Every sin harms this communion.

II. THE COMMUNION OF THE CHURCH OF HEAVEN AND EARTH

954 The three states of the Church. "When the Lord comes in glory, and all his angels with him, death will be no more and all things will be subject to him. But at the present time some of his disciples are pilgrims on earth. Others have died and are being purified, while still others are in glory, contemplating 'in full light, God himself triune and one, exactly as he is"':490

All of us, however, in varying degrees and in different ways share in the same charity towards God and our neighbours, and we all sing the one hymn of glory to our God. All, indeed, who are of Christ and who have his Spirit form one Church and in Christ cleave together.491

955 "So it is that the union of the wayfarers with the brethren who sleep in the peace of Christ is in no way interrupted, but on the contrary, according to the constant faith of the Church, this union is reinforced by an exchange of spiritual goods."492

956 The intercession of the saints. "Being more closely united to Christ, those who dwell in heaven fix the whole Church more firmly in holiness.... They do not cease to intercede with the Father for us, as they proffer the merits which they acquired on earth through the one mediator between God and men, Christ Jesus.... So by their fraternal concern is our weakness greatly helped."493

Do not weep, for I shall be more useful to you after my death and I shall help you then more effectively than during my life.494

 

I want to spend my heaven in doing good on earth.495

957 Communion with the saints. "It is not merely by the title of example that we cherish the memory of those in heaven; we seek, rather, that by this devotion to the exercise of fraternal charity the union of the whole Church in the Spirit may be strengthened. Exactly as Christian communion among our fellow pilgrims brings us closer to Christ, so our communion with the saints joins us to Christ, from whom as from its fountain and head issues all grace, and the life of the People of God itself"496:

We worship Christ as God's Son; we love the martyrs as the Lord's disciples and imitators, and rightly so because of their matchless devotion towards their king and master. May we also be their companions and fellow disciples!497

958 Communion with the dead. "In full consciousness of this communion of the whole Mystical Body of Jesus Christ, the Church in its pilgrim members, from the very earliest days of the Christian religion, has honored with great respect the memory of the dead; and 'because it is a holy and a wholesome thought to pray for the dead that they may be loosed from their sins' she offers her suffrages for them."498Our prayer for them is capable not only of helping them, but also of making their intercession for us effective.

959 In the one family of God. "For if we continue to love one another and to join in praising the Most Holy Trinity - all of us who are sons of God and form one family in Christ - we will be faithful to the deepest vocation of the Church."499

IN BRIEF

960 The Church is a "communion of saints": this expression refers first to the "holy things" (sancta), above all the Eucharist, by which "the unity of believers, who form one body in Christ, is both represented and brought about" (LG 3).

961 The term "communion of saints" refers also to the communion of "holy persons" (sancti) in Christ who "died for all," so that what each one does or suffers in and for Christ bears fruit for all.

962 "We believe in the communion of all the faithful of Christ, those who are pilgrims on earth, the dead who are being purified, and the blessed in heaven, all together forming one Church; and we believe that in this communion, the merciful love of God and his saints is always [attentive] to our prayers" (Paul VI, CPG # 30).

 
 

第六節 瑪利亞 ——基督之母、教會之母

963. 論述了童貞瑪利亞在基督與聖神奧跡裡所擔當的角色後,現在宜於細看她在教會奧跡裡的地位。「的確,童貞瑪利亞……被認為並尊奉為天主和救主的真正母親……。她也確為(基督)肢體的母親……因為她以愛德的合作,使信友在教會內得以誕生,作為以基督為首的身體的各肢體」。「……基督之母,教會之母」。

一、瑪利亞對教會的母愛

〔瑪利亞〕在世上與她的兒子完全結合

964. 瑪利亞對教會的角色與她跟基督的結合是不可分的,由此可見:「母子在救贖工程中這一結合,從童貞聖母懷孕基督開始,直到基督死亡,都一直表露無遺」。這結合在基督受難的時刻尤其顯著:

榮福童貞在信仰旅途上前進,忠實地保持了她和聖子間的契合,直到十字架下,她站在那裡,不無上主的安排,和她的獨子一起受了極大的痛苦,以慈母的心腸將自己和祂的犧牲聯繫起來,熱情地同意將親生的兒子奉獻為犧牲品;最後,在十字架上臨死的基督,用這句話,將她賜給門徒作為母親:「女人,請看妳的兒子」(若 19:26-27)。

965. 瑪利亞在聖子升天後,曾「以其祈禱協助了正在出生的教會」。 我們看到瑪利亞聯同宗徒和一些婦女,「也以她的祈禱,求賜聖神,這聖神在她領報時已將她置於自己的蔭庇下」 。

在蒙召升天時……

966. 「最後,被保護未染原罪瑕疵的無玷童貞,在結束了人間生活的過程後,身靈一同榮召升天,被上主擢升為宇宙之后,使她與她的聖子、萬君之主、罪惡與死亡的征服者,更形相似」。榮福童貞的升天,是奇妙地分享聖子的復活,也是其他基督徒復活的先聲:

拜占廷禮,聖母安眠節 (8 月 15 日) 禮儀詩節:
妳分娩時,保全童貞;妳安眠日,不棄塵世。天主母后,匯生命原,賴妳轉禱,死裡逃生。
在恩寵秩序中,,她是我們的母親她是我們的母親……

967. 由於童貞瑪利亞完全接受天父的旨意,即其聖子的救贖工程以及聖神的整個活動,她成了教會信德與愛德的模範。因此,她被「尊為教會最崇高、最卓越的成員」, 她甚至是教會「典型」(typus)的實現。

968. 就教會和整個人類而言,她的角色更形遠大。「她以服從、信德、希望和熾熱的愛情和救主無與倫比地合作,為重建人靈的超性生命。因此,在恩寵的秩序內,聖母是我們的母親」。

969. 「瑪利亞為母親的這個職分,在恩寵的救恩工程中,一直延續不斷:從天使來報時,她以信德表示同意,她並且毫不猶疑地在十字架下堅持此一同意,直到所有被選者獲得榮冠的時候。事實上,她升天以後,祂在救恩中的角色從未中止過,她以一再的轉求,繼續為我們獲取永生的恩惠。…… 因此在教會內,人呼求榮福童貞為辯護者、輔助者、救急者、中保」。

970. 「瑪利亞之為人類慈母的地位,絲毫不遮掩或削減基督為唯一中保的意義,反而突顯其力量。因為榮福童貞對人們所有的任何有益的影響,……是來自基督的豐富功績,依憑基督的中保身分,完全從屬於這種身分,並從而吸取其全部力量」。 「任何受造物都不能和降生成人的聖言及救主相提並論;不過正如基督的司祭職以不同方式為聖職人員和信眾所共享,天主的唯一美善實際上也以不同的形式分佈於受造物之中,同樣的,救主的唯一中保身分並不排除,反而激起受造物的合作,此合作發自唯一的源頭」。

二、對榮福童貞的敬禮

971. 「萬世萬代都要稱我有福」(路 1:48):「教會對榮福童貞的孝愛是基督徒敬禮的本質」。 榮福童貞「理當受到教會特別的崇敬。從很古老的時代,榮福童貞已被尊以『天主之母』的榮銜,信友們在一切危難急需中,都呼求聖母,藉此投奔她的護佑……。這項敬禮……雖具絕無僅有的特徵,但對降生的聖言,對聖父及聖神的欽崇禮,仍然有本質上的區別,而且聖母的敬禮特別能促進這項欽崇禮」。 教會對聖母的敬禮包括敬禮天主之母的禮儀慶節以及敬禮聖母的經文,例如:玫瑰經的內容是「整部福音的撮要」。

三、瑪利亞——教會末世的聖相

972. 論述了教會、其起源、使命和終向後,我們的總結最好是轉向瑪利亞,從她身上默觀教會在其奧跡中、在其「信仰的朝聖旅途」上的面貌,以及旅途終結時達至天鄉的境況。瑪利亞「在至聖與不可分的聖三光榮中」,「在諸聖的共融中」等候著教會,這教會尊敬瑪利亞為主的母親和自己的母親:

耶穌的母親現在身靈同在天上安享榮福,她正是教會將來圓滿結束時的預象與開端;同時,在此人世,她給旅途中的天主子民明白指出確切的希望與安慰,直到主的日子來臨的時候。

撮要

973 .瑪利亞領報時說「爾旨承行」(Fiat),並接納降生的奧跡,已經在其聖子所要完成的整個工程上合作。哪裡聖子是救主和奧體的元首,那裡瑪利亞就是母親。

974. 榮福童貞瑪利亞在結束其塵世生命後,她的身體和靈魂同被提升到天上的榮耀中,她在那裡已分享她聖子復活的光榮,成為奧體所有肢體復活的先聲。

975.「我們相信榮福天主之母、新的厄娃、教會之母,在天上繼續對基督的肢體執行其母親的任務」。

 Paragraph 6. MARY - MOTHER OF CHRIST, MOTHER OF THE CHURCH

963 Since the Virgin Mary's role in the mystery of Christ and the Spirit has been treated, it is fitting now to consider her place in the mystery of the Church. "The Virgin Mary . . . is acknowledged and honored as being truly the Mother of God and of the redeemer.... She is 'clearly the mother of the members of Christ' ... since she has by her charity joined in bringing about the birth of believers in the Church, who are members of its head."500 "Mary, Mother of Christ, Mother of the Church."501

I. MARY'S MOTHERHOOD WITH REGARD TO THE CHURCH

Wholly united with her Son . . .

964 Mary's role in the Church is inseparable from her union with Christ and flows directly from it. "This union of the mother with the Son in the work of salvation is made manifest from the time of Christ's virginal conception up to his death";502 it is made manifest above all at the hour of his Passion:

Thus the Blessed Virgin advanced in her pilgrimage of faith, and faithfully persevered in her union with her Son unto the cross. There she stood, in keeping with the divine plan, enduring with her only begotten Son the intensity of his suffering, joining herself with his sacrifice in her mother's heart, and lovingly consenting to the immolation of this victim, born of her: to be given, by the same Christ Jesus dying on the cross, as a mother to his disciple, with these words: "Woman, behold your son."503

965 After her Son's Ascension, Mary "aided the beginnings of the Church by her prayers."504 In her association with the apostles and several women, "we also see Mary by her prayers imploring the gift of the Spirit, who had already overshadowed her in the Annunciation."505

. . . also in her Assumption

966 "Finally the Immaculate Virgin, preserved free from all stain of original sin, when the course of her earthly life was finished, was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory, and exalted by the Lord as Queen over all things, so that she might be the more fully conformed to her Son, the Lord of lords and conqueror of sin and death."506 The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin is a singular participation in her Son's Resurrection and an anticipation of the resurrection of other Christians:

In giving birth you kept your virginity; in your Dormition you did not leave the world, O Mother of God, but were joined to the source of Life. You conceived the living God and, by your prayers, will deliver our souls from death.507

. . . she is our Mother in the order of grace

967 By her complete adherence to the Father's will, to his Son's redemptive work, and to every prompting of the Holy Spirit, the Virgin Mary is the Church's model of faith and charity. Thus she is a "preeminent and . . . wholly unique member of the Church"; indeed, she is the "exemplary realization" (typus)508 of the Church.

968 Her role in relation to the Church and to all humanity goes still further. "In a wholly singular way she cooperated by her obedience, faith, hope, and burning charity in the Savior's work of restoring supernatural life to souls. For this reason she is a mother to us in the order of grace."509

969 "This motherhood of Mary in the order of grace continues uninterruptedly from the consent which she loyally gave at the Annunciation and which she sustained without wavering beneath the cross, until the eternal fulfilment of all the elect. Taken up to heaven she did not lay aside this saving office but by her manifold intercession continues to bring us the gifts of eternal salvation .... Therefore the Blessed Virgin is invoked in the Church under the titles of Advocate, Helper, Benefactress, and Mediatrix."510

970 "Mary's function as mother of men in no way obscures or diminishes this unique mediation of Christ, but rather shows its power. But the Blessed Virgin's salutary influence on men . . . flows forth from the superabundance of the merits of Christ, rests on his mediation, depends entirely on it, and draws all its power from it."511 "No creature could ever be counted along with the Incarnate Word and Redeemer; but just as the priesthood of Christ is shared in various ways both by his ministers and the faithful, and as the one goodness of God is radiated in different ways among his creatures, so also the unique mediation of the Redeemer does not exclude but rather gives rise to a manifold cooperation which is but a sharing in this one source."512

II. DEVOTION TO THE BLESSED VIRGIN

971 "All generations will call me blessed": "The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship."513 The Church rightly honors "the Blessed Virgin with special devotion. From the most ancient times the Blessed Virgin has been honored with the title of 'Mother of God,' to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs.... This very special devotion ... differs essentially from the adoration which is given to the incarnate Word and equally to the Father and the Holy Spirit, and greatly fosters this adoration."514 The liturgical feasts dedicated to the Mother of God and Marian prayer, such as the rosary, an "epitome of the whole Gospel," express this devotion to the Virgin Mary.515

III. MARY - ESCHATOLOGICAL ICON OF THE CHURCH

972 After speaking of the Church, her origin, mission, and destiny, we can find no better way to conclude than by looking to Mary. In her we contemplate what the Church already is in her mystery on her own "pilgrimage of faith," and what she will be in the homeland at the end of her journey. There, "in the glory of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity," "in the communion of all the saints,"516 The Church is awaited by the one she venerates as Mother of her Lord and as her own mother.

In the meantime the Mother of Jesus, in the glory which she possesses in body and soul in heaven, is the image and beginning of the Church as it is to be perfected in the world to come. Likewise she shines forth on earth until the day of the Lord shall come, a sign of certain hope and comfort to the pilgrim People of God.517

IN BRIEF

973 By pronouncing her "fiat" at the Annunciation and giving her consent to the Incarnation, Mary was al ready collaborating with the whole work her Son was to accomplish. She is mother wherever he is Savior and head of the Mystical Body.

974 The Most Blessed Virgin Mary, when the course of her earthly life was completed, was taken up body and soul into the glory of heaven, where she already shares in the glory of her Son's Resurrection, anticipating the resurrection of all members of his Body.

975 "We believe that the Holy Mother of God, the new Eve, Mother of the Church, continues in heaven to exercise her maternal role on behalf of the members of Christ" (Paul VI, CPG # 15).

 第十條

「我信罪過的赦免我信罪過的赦免」

976. 宗徒信經把赦免罪過的信理不但與聖神的信理,也與教會以及諸聖相通的信理連繫起來。復活的基督給宗徒派遣聖神時,將自己赦罪的神聖權柄授予他們:「你們領受聖神吧!你們赦免誰的罪,就給誰赦免;你們存留誰的,就給誰存留」(若 20:22-23)。

(教理卷二將清楚論述如何藉著聖洗、懺悔聖事和其他聖事,尤其是感恩祭,以獲得罪赦。因此,這裡只須提及幾項基本的資料。)

 Article 10

"I BELIEVE IN THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS"

976 The Apostle's Creed associates faith in the forgiveness of sins not only with faith in the Holy Spirit, but also with faith in the Church and in the communion of saints. It was when he gave the Holy Spirit to his apostles that the risen Christ conferred on them his own divine power to forgive sins: "Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained."518

(Part Two of the catechism will deal explicitly with the forgiveness of sins through Baptism, the sacrament of Penance, and the other sacraments, especially the Eucharist. Here it will suffice to suggest some basic facts briefly.)

 

一、只有一個聖洗為得罪赦

977. 我們的主把罪過的赦免、信仰和聖洗連繫起來:「你們往普天下去,向一切受造物宣傳福音,信而受洗的必要得救」(谷 16:15-16)。聖洗是赦罪的第一件和主要的聖事,因為它使我們結合於基督;基督為了我們的罪而死,為了我們的成義而復活, 好使「我們也同樣在新生活中度生」(羅 6:4)。

978. 「當我們作出首次信仰的宣認,接受那潔淨我們的洗禮時,我們所得到的罪赦是那樣圓滿和完整,以致我們再沒有任何罪過需要洗滌,不管是原罪,抑或是因我們意願所犯的本罪,我們也無需做任何補贖……。然而,聖洗的恩寵並不使人擺脫本性的一切軟弱。相反地,我們仍要抵抗私慾偏情的衝動,因為它們不斷使我們陷於邪惡」。

979. 在對抗犯罪的傾向時,誰有足夠的勇氣和警覺來避免罪惡的每一傷害呢?「如果教會必須有赦罪的權柄,便不應視洗禮為唯一的方法,來使用從耶穌基督所領受的天國鑰匙。教會應可以赦免所有悔罪者的過錯,因為直到生命末刻,他們仍會犯罪」。

980.藉著懺悔聖事,領了洗的人可以與天主並與教會和好:
教父們很合理地稱懺悔為「產痛的洗禮」。 對那些在領洗後跌倒犯罪的人來說,為靈魂的得救,懺悔聖事是必需的,正如聖洗本身是為那些尚未重生的人一樣。

 I. One Baptism for the Forgiveness of Sins

977 Our Lord tied the forgiveness of sins to faith and Baptism: "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to the whole creation. He who believes and is baptized will be saved."519 Baptism is the first and chief sacrament of forgiveness of sins because it unites us with Christ, who died for our sins and rose for our justification, so that "we too might walk in newness of life."520

978 "When we made our first profession of faith while receiving the holy Baptism that cleansed us, the forgiveness we received then was so full and complete that there remained in us absolutely nothing left to efface, neither original sin nor offenses committed by our own will, nor was there left any penalty to suffer in order to expiate them.... Yet the grace of Baptism delivers no one from all the weakness of nature. On the contrary, we must still combat the movements of concupiscence that never cease leading us into evil "521

979 In this battle against our inclination towards evil, who could be brave and watchful enough to escape every wound of sin? "If the Church has the power to forgive sins, then Baptism cannot be her only means of using the keys of the Kingdom of heaven received from Jesus Christ. the Church must be able to forgive all penitents their offenses, even if they should sin until the last moment of their lives."522

980 It is through the sacrament of Penance that the baptized can be reconciled with God and with the Church:

Penance has rightly been called by the holy Fathers "a laborious kind of baptism." This sacrament of Penance is necessary for salvation for those who have fallen after Baptism, just as Baptism is necessary for salvation for those who have not yet been reborn.523

 

二、鑰匙的權力

981. 基督在復活後派遣祂的宗徒,「因祂的名向萬邦宣講悔改,以得罪之赦」 (路 24:47)。宗徒們及其繼承者為實踐這「和好的職務」(格後 5:18),不但向人宣告天主的寬恕,這寬恕是基督為我們賺取的,且呼籲人們皈依和相信,同時藉聖洗向他們通傳罪赦,也藉從基督得到鑰匙的權力,使人可與天主並與教會和好:

聖奧思定,《講道集》:教會領受了天國的鑰匙,是為在教會內藉基督的血和聖神的行動赦免罪過。是在這教會內,那因罪惡而死的靈魂得以重生,好能與基督一起生活,是祂的恩寵救了我們。

982. 任何罪過,不管如何嚴重,聖教會沒有不可赦免的。「任何人,無論如何罪大惡極,只要真誠悔改,都應滿懷信任地,期望得到寬恕」。基督為所有的人而死,祂願意寬恕之門在教會內時常為那些悔改的人敞開。

983.教理講授要盡力喚醒並培養信友相信復活的基督賦予教會一分無比偉大的恩賜:藉著宗徒及其繼承人的職務,教會有真正寬赦罪過的使命和權力:

聖安博,《論懺悔》:主願意祂的門徒具有極大的權力:祂願意祂卑微的僕人因祂的名完成祂在世時所做的一切。

金口聖若望,《論司祭職》:天主沒有把這權柄交給天使,也沒有交給總領天使,卻交給了司鐸。……天主自高天認可地上司鐸所做的一切。

聖奧思定,《講道集》:如果罪過在教會內不蒙赦免的話,那就沒有希望,沒有永生與永遠釋放的希望。感謝天主,祂給了教會這樣的恩賜。


984.信經把「罪過的赦免」與對聖神的信仰宣認聯繫起來。原來,當復活的基督把聖神賜給宗徒們時,也把赦罪的權柄交託給他們了。


985.洗禮是獲罪赦的第一件和主要的聖事:它使我們與死而復活的基督結合,並賜給我們聖神。


986.依照基督的意願,教會擁有赦免已受洗者所犯之罪的權柄,通常由主教和司鐸們在懺悔聖事內執行。


987.「司鐸和聖事純粹是赦罪的工具;我們的主、耶穌基督、唯一救恩的主宰及分施者,藉著這些工具清除我們的罪污,並賦予成義的恩寵」。

 II. The Power of the Keys

981 After his Resurrection, Christ sent his apostles "so that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name to all nations."524 The apostles and their successors carry out this "ministry of reconciliation," not only by announcing to men God's forgiveness merited for us by Christ, and calling them to conversion and faith; but also by communicating to them the forgiveness of sins in Baptism, and reconciling them with God and with the Church through the power of the keys, received from Christ:525

[The Church] has received the keys of the Kingdom of heaven so that, in her, sins may be forgiven through Christ's blood and the Holy Spirit's action. In this Church, the soul dead through sin comes back to life in order to live with Christ, whose grace has saved us.526

982 There is no offense, however serious, that the Church cannot forgive. "There is no one, however wicked and guilty, who may not confidently hope for forgiveness, provided his repentance is honest.527Christ who died for all men desires that in his Church the gates of forgiveness should always be open to anyone who turns away from sin.528

983 Catechesis strives to awaken and nourish in the faithful faith in the incomparable greatness of the risen Christ's gift to his Church: the mission and the power to forgive sins through the ministry of the apostles and their successors:

The Lord wills that his disciples possess a tremendous power: that his lowly servants accomplish in his name all that he did when he was on earth.529 
Priests have received from God a power that he has given neither to angels nor to archangels .... God above confirms what priests do here below.530 
Were there no forgiveness of sins in the Church, there would be no hope of life to come or eternal liberation. Let us thank God who has given his Church such a gift.531

984 The Creed links "the forgiveness of sins" with its profession of faith in the Holy Spirit, for the risen Christ entrusted to the apostles the power to forgive sins when he gave them the Holy Spirit.

985 Baptism is the first and chief sacrament of the forgiveness of sins: it unites us to Christ, who died and rose, and gives us the Holy Spirit.

986 By Christ's will, the Church possesses the power to forgive the sins of the baptized and exercises it through bishops and priests normally in the sacrament of Penance.

987 "In the forgiveness of sins, both priests and sacraments are instruments which our Lord Jesus Christ, the only author and liberal giver of salvation, wills to use in order to efface our sins and give us the grace of justification" (Roman Catechism, I, 11, 6).

 

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