卷一信仰的宣認-我信聖神/I BELIEVE IN THE HOLY SPIRIT

Chinese English

第三章我信聖神

 

683. 「除非受聖神感動,沒有一個人能說:『耶穌是主』」(格前 12:3)。「天主派遣了自己兒子的聖神,到我們心內喊說:『阿爸,父啊!』」(迦 4:6)。這種信仰的知識,只有在聖神內才能得到。我們必須先受聖神的感動,才能跟耶穌接觸。祂先於我們及在我們內激發信仰。藉著我們的洗禮──信仰的第一件聖事,在教會內的聖神親密而個別地將生命傳給我們。那生命是源於父,並在子內賜給我們的。

聖依勒內•里昂,《宗徒論証》:聖洗賜給我們於天主父內、藉著祂的兒子並在聖神內重生的恩寵。因為那些有天主聖神的人,被引到聖言、即子那裡,而子則把他們介紹給聖父,而父則賜給他們不朽的生命。所以,沒有聖神,就不能見到天主子;沒有子,就沒有人能接近父,因為子就是父的體認,而認識天主子只有透過聖神才行。

684. 聖神藉祂的恩寵,是第一個在我們內激發信仰並把新生命賜給我們的,這新生命就是認識父和祂所派遣來的耶穌基督。然而聖神是聖三中最後一位被啟示的。「神學家」聖額我略‧納祥將以天主「俯就」的教育法解釋這種進展:

聖額我略•納祥,《神學演講》:舊約清楚地宣示父,而較隱暗地提及子。新約則彰顯子,只隱約地使人看到聖神的天主性。如今聖神在我們內居住,使我們對祂有更清楚的認識。誠然,當父的天主性還未宣認的時候,就公開地宣揚子,當子的天主性尚未被承認的時候,就加上了聖神,是不明智的,因為都是附加的包袱──恕我這樣大膽地說……只有透過「由光榮至光榮」的逐步進展,聖三的光輝才顯得更為晶瑩燦爛。

685. 相信聖神就是宣認聖神是聖三中的一位,與父、子同性同體,「並與聖父、聖子同受欽崇,同享光榮」(尼西亞‧君士坦丁堡信經)。為此,聖神的神聖奧跡已在聖三的「內在生命」(theologia)內討論過,這裡我們只從天主的「外在工程」(oikonomia)來討論聖神。

686.由救恩計劃的開始直到完成,聖神都是與父和子一起工作。不過,只在子過的赦免、肉身的復活和永生。 

 CHAPTER THREE

I BELIEVE IN THE HOLY SPIRIT

683 "No one can say 'Jesus is Lord' except by the Holy Spirit."1 "God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, 'Abba! Father!"'2 This knowledge of faith is possible only in the Holy Spirit: to be in touch with Christ, we must first have been touched by the Holy Spirit. He comes to meet us and kindles faith in us. By virtue of our Baptism, the first sacrament of the faith, the Holy Spirit in the Church communicates to us, intimately and personally, the life that originates in the Father and is offered to us in the Son.

Baptism gives us the grace of new birth in God the Father, through his Son, in the Holy Spirit. For those who bear God's Spirit are led to the Word, that is, to the Son, and the Son presents them to the Father, and the Father confers incorruptibility on them. and it is impossible to see God's Son without the Spirit, and no one can approach the Father without the Son, for the knowledge of the Father is the Son, and the knowledge of God's Son is obtained through the Holy Spirit.3

684 Through his grace, the Holy Spirit is the first to awaken faith in us and to communicate to us the new life, which is to "know the Father and the one whom he has sent, Jesus Christ."4 But the Spirit is the last of the persons of the Holy Trinity to be revealed. St. Gregory of Nazianzus, the Theologian, explains this progression in terms of the pedagogy of divine "condescension":

The Old Testament proclaimed the Father clearly, but the Son more obscurely. the New Testament revealed the Son and gave us a glimpse of the divinity of the Spirit. Now the Spirit dwells among us and grants us a clearer vision of himself. It was not prudent, when the divinity of the Father had not yet been confessed, to proclaim the Son openly and, when the divinity of the Son was not yet admitted, to add the Holy Spirit as an extra burden, to speak somewhat daringly.... By advancing and progressing "from glory to glory," the light of the Trinity will shine in ever more brilliant rays.5

685 To believe in the Holy Spirit is to profess that the Holy Spirit is one of the persons of the Holy Trinity, consubstantial with the Father and the Son: "with the Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified."6 For this reason, the divine mystery of the Holy Spirit was already treated in the context of Trinitarian "theology." Here, however, we have to do with the Holy Spirit only in the divine "economy."

686 The Holy Spirit is at work with the Father and the Son from the beginning to the completion of the plan for our salvation. But in these "end times," ushered in by the Son's redeeming Incarnation, the Spirit is revealed and given, recognized and welcomed as a person. Now can this divine plan, accomplished in Christ, the firstborn and head of the new creation, be embodied in mankind by the outpouring of the Spirit: as the Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting.

第八條

「我信聖神我信聖神」

687. 「除了天主聖神外,誰也不能明瞭天主的奧秘」(格前 2:11)。如今,啟示天主的聖神,使我們認識基督、祂的聖言、祂的活生生的話,但並不談及自己。「曾藉先知們發言的」聖神,使我們聽到父的話,但我們卻聽不到祂自己。我們只在祂向我們啟示聖言並準備我們在信仰中接受祂的行動中,才認識祂。給我們「揭露」基督的真理之神「不講祂自己」。這種特有的神性謙虛,可以解釋為何「世界不能接受」聖神,因為世界「看不見祂也不認識祂」;反之,那些信基督的人認識祂,因為祂「寓居」在他們內。

688.教會是生活在她所傳授的宗徒信仰內的共融,她是我們認識聖神的所在:
── 在祂所啟示的聖經中;
── 在聖傳中,教父們一直是其有效的証人;
── 在祂所扶助的教會訓導當局中;
── 在聖事性的禮儀中,聖神透過禮儀的言語和象徵,使我們與基督共融;
── 在祈禱中,祂為我們轉求;
── 在建立教會的神恩和職務中;
── 在使徒和傳教生活的標記中; ──在聖人們的見証中,祂藉此顯示祂的聖德並繼續救世的工程。


ARTICLE 8

"I BELIEVE IN THE HOLY SPIRIT"

687 "No one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God."7 Now God's Spirit, who reveals God, makes known to us Christ, his Word, his living Utterance, but the Spirit does not speak of himself. the Spirit who "has spoken through the prophets" makes us hear the Father's Word, but we do not hear the Spirit himself. We know him only in the movement by which he reveals the Word to us and disposes us to welcome him in faith. the Spirit of truth who "unveils" Christ to us "will not speak on his own."8 Such properly divine self-effacement explains why "the world cannot receive (him), because it neither sees him nor knows him," while those who believe in Christ know the Spirit because he dwells with them.9

688 The Church, a communion living in the faith of the apostles which she transmits, is the place where we know the Holy Spirit: 
- in the Scriptures he inspired; 
- in the Tradition, to which the Church Fathers are always timely witnesses; 
- in the Church's Magisterium, which he assists; 
- in the sacramental liturgy, through its words and symbols, in which the Holy Spirit puts us into communion with Christ; 
- in prayer, wherein he intercedes for us; 
- in the charisms and ministries by which the Church is built up; 
- in the signs of apostolic and missionary life; 
- in the witness of saints through whom he manifests his holiness and continues the work of salvation.

一、聖子及聖神的聯合使命

689. 被父派遣到我們心中的那一位,即祂兒子的聖神,確實是天主。祂與聖父、聖子同性同體,無論在聖三的內在生命中,或在施與世人的愛中,都是不可分的。但在欽崇那賦予生命、同性同體、不可分的聖三的同時,教的。

690. 耶穌是基督──「受傅者」,因為聖神是祂的傅油,自降生以後所發生的一切,都是從這圓滿中發出的。最後,當基督受到光榮時,祂能聯同父在光榮中派遣聖神給那些信奉祂的人:把自己的光榮,即把那光榮祂的聖神賜給他們。從此,聯合的使命,在聖子的奧體上,即在父所收養的子女們身上展開:聖神使人成為嗣子的使命是使他們與基督結合,並活在基督內。

聖額我略•尼撒,《論聖神》:傅油的概念提示我們……在聖子與聖神之間並無任何距離。事實上,正如在身體表面與所傅的油之間,無論理智或感官都察覺不到有任何媒介,同樣,聖子與聖神的接觸也是直接無間的。因此,誰想藉信仰與聖子接觸,必須先藉接觸與聖油相遇。原來沒有甚麼部分不是由聖神所覆蓋的。因此,凡承認子為主的人,是在聖神內接受主,而聖神從各方面,迎接那些在信德中接近子的人。

 I. The Joint Mission of the Son and the Spirit

689 The One whom the Father has sent into our hearts, the Spirit of his Son, is truly God.10 Consubstantial with the Father and the Son, the Spirit is inseparable from them, in both the inner life of the Trinity and his gift of love for the world. In adoring the Holy Trinity, life-giving, consubstantial, and indivisible, the Church's faith also professes the distinction of persons. When the Father sends his Word, he always sends his Breath. In their joint mission, the Son and the Holy Spirit are distinct but inseparable. To be sure, it is Christ who is seen, the visible image of the invisible God, but it is the Spirit who reveals him.

690 Jesus is Christ, "anointed," because the Spirit is his anointing, and everything that occurs from the Incarnation on derives from this fullness.11 When Christ is finally glorified,12 he can in turn send the Spirit from his place with the Father to those who believe in him: he communicates to them his glory,13 that is, the Holy Spirit who glorifies him.14 From that time on, this joint mission will be manifested in the children adopted by the Father in the Body of his Son: the mission of the Spirit of adoption is to unite them to Christ and make them live in him:

The notion of anointing suggests . . . that there is no distance between the Son and the Spirit. Indeed, just as between the surface of the body and the anointing with oil neither reason nor sensation recognizes any intermediary, so the contact of the Son with the Spirit is immediate, so that anyone who would make contact with the Son by faith must first encounter the oil by contact. In fact there is no part that is not covered by the Holy Spirit. That is why the confession of the Son's Lordship is made in the Holy Spirit by those who receive him, the Spirit coming from all sides to those who approach the Son in faith.15

二、聖神的名字、稱呼和象徵

聖神專有的名字
691.「聖神」就是與父和子、同受我們欽崇和光榮的那一位的專稱。教會從主那裡領受了這名號,並在她新子女的洗禮中予以宣認。

「神」一詞譯自希伯來文 « Ruah»,其原意是氣息、空氣、風。耶穌正是利用風的可感覺形象,來向尼苛德摩講述新而超越的那一位,祂是天主的氣息、天主之神。另一方面,「聖」和「神」都是天主三位所共有的天主屬性。但聖經、禮儀和神學術語卻把這兩個詞放在一起,指明聖神那無可言喻的位格,以免與「聖」和「神」兩字的其他用途相混淆。

聖神的稱呼

692. 當耶穌宣告和許下聖神的來臨時,祂稱聖神為「師保」,其字面的意義是:「那被召到身邊者」«Ad-vocatus» (若 14:16,26; 15:26; 16:7)。「師保」通常被譯作「護慰者」,因耶穌是第一個護慰者。主自己也稱聖神為「真理之神」(若 16:13)。

693. 「聖神」這專稱在宗徒大事錄和書信中用得最多,在聖保祿書信中,我們也可以找到另一些稱呼:恩許之神、嗣子之神基督之神(羅 8:9)、上主之神 (格後 3:17)、天主之神(羅 8:9,14; 15:19;格前 6:11; 7:40);在聖伯多祿的書信中,則有光榮之神的稱呼(伯前 4:14)。

聖神的各種象徵
694. 水。水的象徵表示聖神在洗禮中的行動,因為在呼求聖神後,水就成了有效的新生聖事的
生,是在聖神內賜給我們的。「我們都因一個聖神受了洗,又都為一個聖神所滋潤」(格前 12:13)。因此,聖神本身也是活水,祂源自被釘在十字架上的基督,並在我們內湧出活水,使我們得到永生。
695. 傅油傅油。傅油的象徵也有聖神的涵意,甚至成了祂的同義詞。在基督徒的入門禮中,傅油是
傅油

堅振的聖事標記,故東方教會稱堅振為「傅油」。但為了理解它的圓滿能力,必須回到聖神所完成的第一次傅油,即耶穌的那次傅油。基督 (希伯來文的「默西亞」),解說「受傅者」,即傅上天主聖神的。在舊約中,有不少上主的「受傅者」,其中首要的就是達味君王。但耶穌以獨一無二的形式成了上主的受傅者:聖子所取的人性整個地「被傅以聖神」。耶穌被聖神立為「基督」。童貞瑪利亞因聖神懷孕了基督,聖神透過天使,宣布祂在誕生時已是基督,並催促西默盎前往聖殿去見上主的受傅者。基督治病施救時,充滿了聖神,從祂身上發出的能力也是聖神的。最後,使耶穌從死者中復活的是聖神。現在耶穌的人性已戰勝死亡並被立為默西亞,祂大量傾注聖神,直到「聖者們」與天主子的人性結合,建立「完美的人,達到基督圓滿年齡的程度」(弗 4:13):即聖奧思定所說的「整個的基督」。

696. 火。水表示聖神所賜的生命的誕生和繁殖能力,火則象徵聖神行動的轉化能力。「激烈如火」的先知厄里亞,「他的言詞熾熱如火炬」(德 48:1),因他的祈禱使天火降在加爾默耳山的祭品上,這事件是聖神之火的預象,火能改變所接觸的東西。「以厄里亞的精神和能力走在上主前面」(路 1:17)的洗者若翰,宣布基督就是那位「要以聖神和火付洗的人」 (路 3:16),這聖神就是耶穌所說的:「我來是為把火投在地上,我多麼切望它已經燃燒起來!」(路 12:49)。五旬節早上,聖神就是藉「火舌」的形狀降在門徒們的頭上,使他們充滿聖神(宗 2:3-4)。靈修傳統將保存這火的象徵,把它當作最能表達聖神行動的象徵之一,「你們不要熄滅聖神!」(得前 5:19)

697. 雲與光雲與光。這兩個象徵在聖神顯現時是分不開的。在舊約時代,上主臨現的記載裡,生活的天主救主是藉忽明忽暗的雲彩而啟示出來的。這雲彩卻同時掩蓋著祂光榮的超越性:在西乃山上與梅瑟一起的時候 、在會幕門口、在曠野的行程中,與撒羅滿一起在聖殿被祝聖的時候。如今,所有這些預象都由基督在聖神內實現。聖神降臨於童貞瑪利亞並「庇蔭」她,使她懷孕並產下耶穌。在山上顯聖容時,聖神在雲中降來遮蔽耶穌、梅瑟、厄里亞、伯多祿、雅各伯和若望,並「從雲中」發出聲音說:「這是我的兒子,我所揀選的,你們要聽從祂!」(路 9:34-35)。最後,在耶穌升天那一日,同樣的雲彩把耶穌從門徒們的眼前接去,並在祂帶著光榮再來時,啟示祂為人子。

698. 印記印記。這是一個與傅油相近的象徵。事實上,天主在基督身上蓋了祂的印(若 6:27),同時在基督內,父也要在我們身上蓋上祂的印 。為了表達聖神的傅油在洗禮、堅振和聖秩聖事中的不滅效果,印記 (sphragis)在某些神學傳統中,也用來表示只能領受一次的這三件聖事所蓋的不滅「神印」。

699. 手。耶穌藉覆手治好病人及祝福孩童。宗徒們因祂的名字同樣行事。更明顯的是藉著宗徒們的覆手而賦予聖神。希伯來書把覆手列入其教導的「基本內容」裡。教會在聖事的呼求聖神禱詞中保存了這種賦予聖神的標記。

700. 手指手指。是耶穌「仗賴天主的手指驅魔」(路 11:20)。如果上主的法律是「用天主的手指」(出 31:18)寫在石版上,那麼託付給宗徒們所保管的、「以生活的天主聖神所寫的基督的書信,不是寫在石版上,而是寫在血肉的心版上」 (格後 3:3)。〈造物者聖神,請降臨〉的讚美詩,呼求聖神為「父的右手指」。
神降下並居住在受洗者的純潔心靈中。在一些聖堂裡,聖體是被保存在懸於祭台上的鴿子形狀的金屬容器內 (columbarium)。在基督徒的繪畫中,傳統上以鴿子形象來表示聖神。

701. 鴿子鴿子。在洪水後(洪水象徵洗禮),諾厄放出的鴿子嘴裡啣著綠色的橄欖樹枝回來,表示陸

 II. The Name, Titles, and Symbols of the Holy Spirit

The proper name of the Holy Spirit

691 "Holy Spirit" is the proper name of the one whom we adore and glorify with the Father and the Son. the Church has received this name from the Lord and professes it in the Baptism of her new children.16

The term "Spirit" translates the Hebrew word ruah, which, in its primary sense, means breath, air, wind. Jesus indeed uses the sensory image of the wind to suggest to Nicodemus the transcendent newness of him who is personally God's breath, the divine Spirit.17 On the other hand, "Spirit" and "Holy" are divine attributes common to the three divine persons. By joining the two terms, Scripture, liturgy, and theological language designate the inexpressible person of the Holy Spirit, without any possible equivocation with other uses of the terms "spirit" and "holy."

Titles of the Holy Spirit

692 When he proclaims and promises the coming of the Holy Spirit, Jesus calls him the "Paraclete," literally, "he who is called to one's side," advocatus.18 "Paraclete" is commonly translated by "consoler," and Jesus is the first consoler.19 The Lord also called the Holy Spirit "the Spirit of truth."20

693 Besides the proper name of "Holy Spirit," which is most frequently used in the Acts of the Apostles and in the Epistles, we also find in St. Paul the titles: the Spirit of the promise,21 The Spirit of adoption,22 The Spirit of Christ,23 The Spirit of the Lord,24 and the Spirit of God25 - and, in St. Peter, the Spirit of glory.26

Symbols of the Holy Spirit

694 Water. the symbolism of water signifies the Holy Spirit's action in Baptism, since after the invocation of the Holy Spirit it becomes the efficacious sacramental sign of new birth: just as the gestation of our first birth took place in water, so the water of Baptism truly signifies that our birth into the divine life is given to us in the Holy Spirit. As "by one Spirit we were all baptized," so we are also "made to drink of one Spirit."27 Thus the Spirit is also personally the living water welling up from Christ crucified28 as its source and welling up in us to eternal life.29

695 Anointing. the symbolism of anointing with oil also signifies the Holy Spirit,30 to the point of becoming a synonym for the Holy Spirit. In Christian initiation, anointing is the sacramental sign of Confirmation, called "chrismation" in the Churches of the East. Its full force can be grasped only in relation to the primary anointing accomplished by the Holy Spirit, that of Jesus. Christ (in Hebrew "messiah") means the one "anointed" by God's Spirit. There were several anointed ones of the Lord in the Old Covenant, pre-eminently King David.31 But Jesus is God's Anointed in a unique way: the humanity the Son assumed was entirely anointed by the Holy Spirit. the Holy Spirit established him as "Christ."32 The Virgin Mary conceived Christ by the Holy Spirit who, through the angel, proclaimed him the Christ at his birth, and prompted Simeon to come to the temple to see the Christ of the Lord.33 The Spirit filled Christ and the power of the Spirit went out from him in his acts of healing and of saving.34 Finally, it was the Spirit who raised Jesus from the dead.35 Now, fully established as "Christ" in his humanity victorious over death, Jesus pours out the Holy Spirit abundantly until "the saints" constitute - in their union with the humanity of the Son of God - that perfect man "to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ":36 "the whole Christ," in St. Augustine's expression.

696 Fire. While water signifies birth and the fruitfulness of life given in the Holy Spirit, fire symbolizes the transforming energy of the Holy Spirit's actions. the prayer of the prophet Elijah, who "arose like fire" and whose "word burned like a torch," brought down fire from heaven on the sacrifice on Mount Carmel.37 This event was a "figure" of the fire of the Holy Spirit, who transforms what he touches. John the Baptist, who goes "before [the Lord] in the spirit and power of Elijah," proclaims Christ as the one who "will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire."38 Jesus will say of the Spirit: "I came to cast fire upon the earth; and would that it were already kindled!"39 In the form of tongues "as of fire," the Holy Spirit rests on the disciples on the morning of Pentecost and fills them with himself40 The spiritual tradition has retained this symbolism of fire as one of the most expressive images of the Holy Spirit's actions.41 "Do not quench the Spirit."42

697 Cloud and light. These two images occur together in the manifestations of the Holy Spirit. In the theophanies of the Old Testament, the cloud, now obscure, now luminous, reveals the living and saving God, while veiling the transcendence of his glory - with Moses on Mount Sinai,43 at the tent of meeting,44 and during the wandering in the desert,45 and with Solomon at the dedication of the Temple.46 In the Holy Spirit, Christ fulfills these figures. the Spirit comes upon the Virgin Mary and "overshadows" her, so that she might conceive and give birth to Jesus.47 On the mountain of Transfiguration, the Spirit in the "cloud came and overshadowed" Jesus, Moses and Elijah, Peter, James and John, and "a voice came out of the cloud, saying, 'This is my Son, my Chosen; listen to him!'"48 Finally, the cloud took Jesus out of the sight of the disciples on the day of his ascension and will reveal him as Son of man in glory on the day of his final coming.49

698 The seal is a symbol close to that of anointing. "The Father has set his seal" on Christ and also seals us in him.50 Because this seal indicates the indelible effect of the anointing with the Holy Spirit in the sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders, the image of the seal (sphragis) has been used in some theological traditions to express the indelible "character" imprinted by these three unrepeatable sacraments.

699 The hand. Jesus heals the sick and blesses little children by laying hands on them.51 In his name the apostles will do the same.52 Even more pointedly, it is by the Apostles' imposition of hands that the Holy Spirit is given.53 The Letter to the Hebrews lists the imposition of hands among the "fundamental elements" of its teaching.54 The Church has kept this sign of the all-powerful outpouring of the Holy Spirit in its sacramental epicleses.

700 The finger. "It is by the finger of God that [Jesus] cast out demons."55 If God's law was written on tablets of stone "by the finger of God," then the "letter from Christ" entrusted to the care of the apostles, is written "with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone, but on tablets of human hearts."56 The hymn Veni Creator Spiritus invokes the Holy Spirit as the "finger of the Father's right hand."57

701 The dove. At the end of the flood, whose symbolism refers to Baptism, a dove released by Noah returns with a fresh olive-tree branch in its beak as a sign that the earth was again habitable.58 When Christ comes up from the water of his baptism, the Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove, comes down upon him and remains with him.59 The Spirit comes down and remains in the purified hearts of the baptized. In certain churches, the Eucharist is reserved in a metal receptacle in the form of a dove (columbarium) suspended above the altar. Christian iconography traditionally uses a dove to suggest the Spirit.

三、在恩許時期中的聖神和天主聖言

702. 從起初直到「時期一滿」(迦 4:4),天主聖言和聖神的聯合使命雖是隱藏 的,但卻在進行中。天主聖神是為默西亞的時期作準備,聖神與默西亞雖 然尚未完全啟示出來,但對此已有應許,使人能期待二者的來臨,並在其 顯現的日子,予以歡迎。因此,教會在閱讀舊約時,是在其中尋找那「曾 藉先知們發言」的聖神,要對我們所說的有關基督的事。 

「先知」一詞,依教會信仰是指所有在撰寫聖經時 (無論舊約或新約),受到聖神 默感的人。猶太傳統把聖經分為法律 (梅瑟五書)、先知 (相等於我們的歷史書和 先知書) 及著作(尤其是智慧文學,特別是聖詠)。 

在創造中
703.天主聖言和祂的氣息是所有受造物生存的根源。

拜占廷禮,主日晨禱第二式,禮儀詩節:聖神的特性就是管理、聖化及賦予受造物生命,因為祂是與父、子同體的天主……祂有主宰生命的權能,因為祂既是天主,就在父內透過子保管整個受造界。

704.「至於人,是天主用自己的手(就是子和聖神)塑造了他……並在塑造的肉體上描繪了自己的形象,務使那可見的也帶有天主的形象」。
恩許之神

705. 人自從被罪惡和死亡毀容後,仍是「天主的肖象」,聖子的肖象,但已失掉了「天主的光榮」(羅 3:23)和「模樣」。向亞巴郎所作的恩許,揭開了救恩計劃的序幕,在其最後階段,天主子將親自取得這「肖象」,並將再賜予它光榮,即是「賦予生命」的聖神,而恢復人跟父相似的「模樣」。

706. 超出人的一切期待, 天主應許要給亞巴郎一個後裔, 作為他信德的和聖神能力的成果。普世萬民都要因這後裔而蒙受祝福。這後裔就是基督,在祂內聖神的恩寵要使「那四散的天主兒女都聚集歸一」(若 11:52)。天主以誓詞保証要賜下祂的愛子和賜下「恩許的聖神……為使天主所置為嗣業的子民,蒙受完全的救贖」(弗 1:13-14)。

在天主顯現和法律中

707. 由聖祖至梅瑟,及由若蘇厄至開展大先知使命的神視中,天主的顯現照亮了恩許的途徑。基督徒傳統時常認為在這些天主顯現中,天主的聖言讓人看到和聽到祂,聖神的雲同時將祂啟示,又將祂「遮蔽」。

708.天主的這種教學法尤其在頒布法律時表現出來。天主賜下法律文字猶如賜下一位「啟蒙導師」,是為領導子民歸於基督(迦 3:24)。可是,由於法律無法挽救那缺乏天主「模樣」的人,加上由法律而引發對罪惡的日漸增強的意識,便燃起了對聖神的渴望。聖詠上的嗟嘆可以証明此點。

在王國和充軍中

709. 作為恩許和盟約標記的法律,理應能統御那出自亞巴郎信德的子民的心靈和制度。「如果你們聽從我的話,遵守我的盟約,你們為我將成為司祭的國家、聖潔的國民」(出 19:5-6)。但自達味之後,以色列順從了誘惑,要成為一個像其他國家一樣的王國。不過,向達味所應許的王國,將是聖神的工程,它屬於那些神貧的人。

710. 遺忘法律及不忠於盟約導致人死亡:充軍看來是恩許的落空,實際上卻顯出天主救主的奇妙信實,在聖神的引領下,也是一個所許諾的復興的開始。天主子民必須承受這一淨化;在天主的計劃中,充軍已帶著十字架的影子,而由充軍回來的貧苦「遺民」,是教會最鮮明的預象之一。

期待默西亞及其聖神

711. 「看哪!我要行一件新事」(依 43:19)。先知的路線是循著兩個方向發展,一個期待默西亞,另一個則宣告新的神;兩者都匯聚於小小的「遺民」身上,即那些期待著「以色列的安慰」和「耶路撒冷的救贖」(路 2:25,38)的貧苦民眾。

上面已談過耶穌如何實現有關祂的預言,下面我們只集中在那些更顯示默西亞與其聖神的關係的預言。

712. 所期待的默西亞面容的特徵在厄瑪奴耳篇(「依撒意亞因為看見了他 (基督 ) 的光榮」:若 12:41),尤其在依撒意亞先知書第十一章一至二節中已開始顯露出來:

由葉瑟的樹幹將生出一個嫩枝,由它的根上將發出一個幼芽。上主的神,
智慧和聰敏的神,
超見和剛毅的神,
明達和敬畏上主的神將住在祂內。

713. 默西亞的特徵特別在「上主僕人」的詩歌中啟示出來。這些詩歌昭示耶穌苦難的意義,並指出祂以甚麼方式傾注聖神,好能賦予大眾生命:不是以局外人的身分,而是藉著接受我們「奴僕的形體」(斐 2:7)。藉著接受我們的死亡,祂把自己的生命之神通傳給我們。

714.為此,基督開始宣講福音時,把依撒意亞的這篇文字應用在自己身上(路 4:18-19):

上主的神臨到我身上,因為祂給我傅了油,
派遣我向貧窮人傳報喜訊,向俘虜宣告釋放,
向盲者宣告復明,
使受壓迫者獲得自由,宣布上主恩慈之年。

715. 直接有關派遣聖神的先知記載,乃是天主用恩許的言語,以慈愛和忠誠的語調,向自己子民的心靈所說的神諭。聖伯多祿則在五旬節早上宣揚這些神諭的實現。依照這些恩許,在「末期」天主聖神將要更新人心,在他們心中寫上新的法律,祂要聚集四散和分裂的子民,並使之和好;祂要轉化先前的創造,而天主將與人類和平相處。

716. 「貧窮」的人即那些謙卑、溫良、完全信賴天主奇妙計劃的百姓,即那些只期待默西亞正義而非世人正義的人,這些人在預備基督來臨的恩許期間,最終是聖神隱秘使命的偉大成就。他們那種受聖神淨化和光照的心,就是在聖詠中所透露的。在這些窮人中,聖神要為上主準備「一個善良的百姓」(路 1:17)。


III. God's Spirit and Word in the Time of the Promises

702 From the beginning until "the fullness of time,"60 The joint mission of the Father's Word and Spirit remains hidden, but it is at work. God's Spirit prepares for the time of the Messiah. Neither is fully revealed but both are already promised, to be watched for and welcomed at their manifestation. So, for this reason, when the Church reads the Old Testament, she searches there for what the Spirit, "who has spoken through the prophets," wants to tell us about Christ.61

By "prophets" the faith of the Church here understands all whom the Holy Spirit inspired in the composition of the sacred books, both of the Old and the New Testaments. Jewish tradition distinguishes first the Law (the five first books or Pentateuch), then the Prophets (our historical and prophetic books) and finally the Writings (especially the wisdom literature, in particular the Psalms).62

In creation

703 The Word of God and his Breath are at the origin of the being and life of every creature:63

It belongs to the Holy Spirit to rule, sanctify, and animate creation, for he is God, consubstantial with the Father and the Son.... Power over life pertains to the Spirit, for being God he preserves creation in the Father through the Son.64

704 "God fashioned man with his own hands [that is, the Son and the Holy Spirit] and impressed his own form on the flesh he had fashioned, in such a way that even what was visible might bear the divine form."65

The Spirit of the promise

705 Disfigured by sin and death, man remains "in the image of God," in the image of the Son, but is deprived "of the glory of God,"66 of his "likeness." the promise made to Abraham inaugurates the economy of salvation, at the culmination of which the Son himself will assume that "image"67 and restore it in the Father's "likeness" by giving it again its Glory, the Spirit who is "the giver of life."

706 Against all human hope, God promises descendants to Abraham, as the fruit of faith and of the power of the Holy Spirit.68 In Abraham's progeny all the nations of the earth will be blessed. This progeny will be Christ himself,69 in whom the outpouring of the Holy Spirit will "gather into one the children of God who are scattered abroad."70 God commits himself by his own solemn oath to giving his beloved Son and "the promised Holy Spirit . . . [who is] the guarantee of our inheritance until we acquire possession of it."71

In Theophanies and the Law

707 Theophanies (manifestations of God) light up the way of the promise, from the patriarchs to Moses and from Joshua to the visions that inaugurated the missions of the great prophets. Christian tradition has always recognized that God's Word allowed himself to be seen and heard in these theophanies, in which the cloud of the Holy Spirit both revealed him and concealed him in its shadow.

708 This divine pedagogy appears especially in the gift of the Law.72 God gave the letter of the Law as a "pedagogue" to lead his people towards Christ.73 But the Law's powerlessness to save man deprived of the divine "likeness," along with the growing awareness of sin that it imparts,74 enkindles a desire for the Holy Spirit. the lamentations of the Psalms bear witness to this.

In the Kingdom and the Exile

709 The Law, the sign of God's promise and covenant, ought to have governed the hearts and institutions of that people to whom Abraham's faith gave birth. "If you will obey my voice and keep my covenant, . . . you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation."75 But after David, Israel gave in to the temptation of becoming a kingdom like other nations. the Kingdom, however, the object of the promise made to David,76 would be the work of the Holy Spirit; it would belong to the poor according to the Spirit.

710 The forgetting of the Law and the infidelity to the covenant end in death: it is the Exile, apparently the failure of the promises, which is in fact the mysterious fidelity of the Savior God and the beginning of a promised restoration, but according to the Spirit. the People of God had to suffer this purification.77 In God's plan, the Exile already stands in the shadow of the Cross, and the Remnant of the poor that returns from the Exile is one of the most transparent prefigurations of the Church.

Expectation of the Messiah and his Spirit

711 "Behold, I am doing a new thing."78 Two prophetic lines were to develop, one leading to the expectation of the Messiah, the other pointing to the announcement of a new Spirit. They converge in the small Remnant, the people of the poor, who await in hope the "consolation of Israel" and "the redemption of Jerusalem."79

We have seen earlier how Jesus fulfills the prophecies concerning himself. We limit ourselves here to those in which the relationship of the Messiah and his Spirit appears more clearly.

712 The characteristics of the awaited Messiah begin to appear in the "Book of Emmanuel" ("Isaiah said this when he saw his glory,"80 speaking of Christ), especially in the first two verses of Isaiah 11: 81

There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse,

and a branch shall grow out of his roots.

and the Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him,

the spirit of wisdom and understanding,

the spirit of counsel and might,

the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD.

713 The Messiah's characteristics are revealed above all in the "Servant songs."82 These songs proclaim the meaning of Jesus' Passion and show how he will pour out the Holy Spirit to give life to the many: not as an outsider, but by embracing our "form as slave."83 Taking our death upon himself, he can communicate to us his own Spirit of life.

714 This is why Christ inaugurates the proclamation of the Good News by making his own the following passage from Isaiah:84

The Spirit of the LORD God is upon me, because the LORD has anointed me to bring good tidings to the afflicted; he has sent me to bind up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound; to proclaim the year of the LORD'S favor.

715 The prophetic texts that directly concern the sending of the Holy Spirit are oracles by which God speaks to the heart of his people in the language of the promise, with the accents of "love and fidelity."85St. Peter will proclaim their fulfillment on the morning of Pentecost.86 According to these promises, at the "end time" the Lord's Spirit will renew the hearts of men, engraving a new law in them. He will gather and reconcile the scattered and divided peoples; he will transform the first creation, and God will dwell there with men in peace.

716 The People of the "poor"87 - those who, humble and meek, rely solely on their God's mysterious plans, who await the justice, not of men but of the Messiah - are in the end the great achievement of the Holy Spirit's hidden mission during the time of the promises that prepare for Christ's coming. It is this quality of heart, purified and enlightened by the Spirit, which is expressed in the Psalms. In these poor, the Spirit is making ready "a people prepared for the Lord."88

四、圓滿時期的基督的神

前驅若翰、、先知和洗者

717. 「曾有一人,是由天主派遣來的,名叫若翰」(若 1:6)。若翰「還在母胎中就已充滿聖神」(路 1:15,41),這是由於基督的緣故。祂剛由瑪利亞因聖神而受孕。於是瑪利亞對依撒伯爾「探訪」,就成了「天主對自己百姓的眷顧」。

718. 若翰就是「那位要來的厄里亞」(瑪 17:10-13);聖神之火在他內使他成為那要來的上主的前驅。聖神在前驅若翰身上完成了「為上主準備一個善良百姓」(路 1:17)的工作。

719. 洗者若翰「比先知還大」(路 7:26),在他身上聖神完成了祂「藉先知們的發言」。若翰也結束由厄里亞所開始的先知時期他宣布以色列的安慰近了;他是要來的安慰者的「聲音」(若 1:23)。一如真理之神要做的,若翰來「是為給光作証」 (若 1:7)依若翰的看法,聖神就這樣完成了「先知們的探求」和天使們的「渴望」:「你看見聖神降下,停在誰身上,誰就是那要以聖神施洗的人。我看見了,我便作証:祂就是天主子……看,天主的羔羊!」(若 1:33-36)。

720. 最後,聖神藉洗者若翰的預示,開始了那偕同基督並在基督內要實現的事:即重新還給人天主的「模樣」。若翰的洗禮是為使人悔改,那藉水和聖神而受洗的卻是新生命的誕生。

「滿被聖寵者滿被聖寵者,,喜樂吧喜樂吧!」

721. 至聖天主之母、終身童貞瑪利亞,是子和聖神的使命在圓滿時期的傑作。由於聖神準備了瑪利亞,父才首次在救恩計劃中,找到聖子和聖神能在人類中居住的寓所。為此,教會聖傳多次把智慧書上最美麗的章節貼合在瑪利亞身上:瑪利亞在禮儀中被歌頌和描述為「上智之座」。

聖神要在基督和教會內完成的「天主妙工」都在她身上展示出來。

722. 聖神以自已的聖寵準備了瑪利亞。「住有整個圓滿天主性」(哥 2:9)的那一位的母親,確實適宜是「充滿聖寵的」。作為最謙卑和最能接受全能者無可言喻恩賜的受造物,她的始胎無玷純粹出自恩寵。加俾額爾天使有理由地祝賀她為「熙雍女子」:「你應歡樂!」。當瑪利亞懷著永遠的聖子,在聖神內高唱聖歌向父感恩時,就是整個天主子民,也即是教會在向天主感恩。

723.聖神在瑪利亞身上實現聖父的仁慈計劃。瑪利亞就是協同聖神並藉著聖神而懷孕,並生下天主子。她的童貞由於聖神的德能和她信仰的力量,成為獨一無二的多產的根源。

724. 聖神在瑪利亞身上,顯示聖父的愛子已成了貞女之子。瑪利亞是天主決定性顯現的火中荊棘:她充滿聖神,顯示出在卑微肉驅中的聖言,更讓那些窮人和萬民的首批代表認識祂。

725. 最後,聖神藉瑪利亞開始使「天主慈愛的對象」──人,與基督共融。謙卑的人常是首先接受祂的:如牧童、賢士、西默盎和亞納、加納的新婚夫婦和首批門徒。

726. 在聖神結束這項使命時,瑪利亞成了「女人」、新厄娃、「眾生之母」、「整個基督」的母親。她以這種身分,與那十二位一起「同心合意地專務祈禱」(宗 1:14),直到「末期」的黎明,即聖神在五旬節早晨,藉教會的出現而揭開的末期。

耶穌基督

727. 在圓滿時期內,子和聖神的全部使命可包括在這事實內,即子由降生那一刻起,便是父的神所傅者:耶穌是基督、默西亞。
信經整個第二章都應在此光照下閱讀。基督的全部工程其實是子和聖神的聯合使命。這裡只提及耶穌恩許派遣聖神以及主獲得榮耀之後恩賜聖神之事。

728. 耶穌只有在自己因死亡和復活而受到光榮時,才會完全啟示聖神。不過祂是逐步地揭露聖神。即使當祂表示自己的肉要為世界的生命而成為食糧時,祂對民眾所作的訓言也如此。此外,耶穌也向尼苛德摩、撒瑪黎雅婦人和向那些參加帳棚節的人提及聖神。當祂向門徒講論祈禱,他們將來要作的見証時,也公開地談到聖神。

729. 耶穌唯獨到了祂受光榮的那時辰,才應許聖神的降臨,因為祂的死亡和復活將實現向先祖們所作的許諾:聖父因耶穌的祈禱將賜下另一位護慰者、真理之神。聖父因耶穌的名字派遣聖神;耶穌將從父那裡派遣祂,因為祂出自父。聖神將會來臨,我們將會認識祂,祂將時常與我們在一起,住在我們中間;祂將教導我們一切,使我們記起基督對我們所說的話,並且祂為耶穌作証;聖神要把我們引入一切真理,並光榮基督;祂要指証世界有關罪惡、正義和審判。

730. 最後,耶穌的時辰到了:耶穌在以自己的死亡戰勝死亡的那一刻,把自己的氣(神)交在父手中,這樣,「當祂藉著父的光榮,從死者中復活後」(羅 6:4), 就能立刻向門徒們「噓氣」,賞給他們聖神。從那個時辰起,基督和聖神的使命就是教會的使命:「就如父派遣了我,我也同樣派遣你們」 (若 20:21)。

五、末期中的聖神和教會

五旬節

731. 五旬節那天(逾越期七週結束時),基督的逾越就在聖神的傾注中完成,這聖神是以天主性位格的身分顯示、賞賜、和通傳給人的:主基督從祂的圓滿中,豐厚地傾注了聖神。

732. 這一天,天主聖三被完全啟示了出來。從那天起,基督所宣布的神國開放給那些信從祂的人。他們在信仰和卑微的肉軀中,已參與聖三的共融。聖神藉著祂那無止境的來臨,把世界帶入了「末期」,即教會的時期,而教會則是一個已承襲的、但尚未圓滿的神國。

拜占廷禮,五旬節晚禱禮儀詩節(領聖體後重複):我們看到了真光,接受了天上的聖神,我們找到了真正的信仰:我們欽崇那不可分的聖三,因為是聖三拯救了我們。


聖神────天主的恩賜

733. 「天主是愛」(若一 4:8,16),而愛是第一個恩賜,它包括所有其他的恩賜。這分天主的愛「藉著所賜與我們的聖神,已傾注在我們心中了」(羅 5:5)。
734.由於我們因著罪惡已經死亡,或至少已受了傷,故此愛的恩賜的第一個效果就是赦免我們的罪。聖神的共融在教會內(格後 13:13)還給受洗者因罪而失落的天主模樣。

735. 於是聖神賜下我們嗣業的「抵押」或「初果」,即聖三本身的生命,這生命在於愛人如同天主愛了我們一樣。這愛是在基督內新生命的本原,這生命成為可能的,因為我們接受「聖神的德能」(宗 1:8)。

736. 因著聖神這種德能,天主的子女才能結出果實。那位把我們接在真正葡萄樹上的,必要使我們結出「聖神的果實,就是仁愛、喜樂、平安、忍耐、良善、溫和、忠信、柔和、節制」(迦 5:22-23)。「聖神是我們的生命」:我們越是棄絕自己,就越能「依照聖神的引導而行事」(迦 5:25)。

737. 藉著與聖神共融,聖神使人變成屬神的,使人重返樂園、恢復義子的地位、敢稱天主為父、能分享基督的恩寵、被稱為光明之子、能有分於永遠的光榮。

聖神和教會

737. 基督和聖神的使命是在基督的奧體和聖神的宮殿──教會內完成的。此後,這聯合使命帶領基督信徒在聖神內與父共融:聖神準備世人,先賜以恩寵,把他們引向基督。聖神又把復活的主顯示給他們,使他們記起祂所說過的話,使他們明白祂的死亡和復活。聖神又把基督的奧跡呈現在他們面前,尤其是在聖體聖事中,為使他們和好並與天主共融,好能結出「豐富的果實」(若 15:5,8,16)。

738. 因此,教會的使命並不是基督和聖神的使命的附加品,而是其聖事:整個教會及其每一肢體,被派遣去宣布、見証、實現並傳揚聖三共融的奧跡 (這將是下一條的論題):

聖濟利祿•加力山卓,《若望福音詮釋》:我們眾人都領受了唯一和同樣的神,就是聖神,我們彼此之間並與天主都融合為一。因為我們人數雖然眾多,並且基督讓父的神和祂自己的神居在我們每人身上,然而這唯一不可分的神卻親自把那些彼此有別的人引歸為一……並使大家在祂內顯出是一個整體。正如基督的神聖人性能力可使那些祂所寓居的人變成同一身體,同樣那住在眾人身上的唯一而不可分的聖神,也引領眾人達致精神的合一。

739. 由於聖神是基督的傅油,是基督──身體的頭──把祂傾注在自己的肢體上,以便滋養、醫治他們,在彼此的服務上加以組織,賦予他們活力,派他們作証,聯同他們與自己一起奉獻給聖父及為整個世界轉求。是基督藉著教會的聖事,把祂的聖神,即聖化者,通傳給自己的肢體(這將是教理卷二的論題)。

740. 在教會聖事中給予信徒們的這些「天主妙工」,將遵從聖神在基督內結出它們新生命中的果實 (這將是教理卷三的論題)。
741.「聖神也扶助我們的軟弱,因為我們不知道我們如何祈求才對,而聖神卻以無可言喻的歎息,代我們轉求」(羅 8:26)。聖神、天主工程的技師,乃祈禱的導師 (這將是教理卷四的論題)。

撮要


742.「為証實你們確實是天主的子女,天主派遣了自己兒子的聖神,到我們心內喊說:『阿爸,父啊!』」(迦 4:6)。


743.從起初直到世代終結,當天主派遣祂的聖子時,也常派遣聖神:聖子和聖神的使命是相聯而不能分的。

744. 時期一滿,聖神在瑪利亞身上完成了基督來到天主子民中的各項準備。透過聖神在瑪利亞身上的工作,父賞給了世人厄瑪奴耳,即與我們同在的天主(瑪 1:23)。

745.天主子降生時藉著聖神的傅油,被祝聖為基督(默西亞)。


746.耶穌藉著祂的死亡和復活,被立為光榮中的「主和默西亞」(宗 2:36)。從祂的圓滿中,祂把聖神傾注於宗徒和教會身上。


747.聖神是基督元首在自己肢體上所傾注的,聖神建立、激勵並聖化教會。教會是聖三與人類共融的聖事。

IV. The Spirit of Christ in the Fullness of Time

John, precursor, prophet, and baptist

717 "There was a man sent from God, whose name was John."89 John was "filled with the Holy Spirit even from his mother's womb"90 by Christ himself, whom the Virgin Mary had just conceived by the Holy Spirit. Mary's visitation to Elizabeth thus became a visit from God to his people.91

718 John is "Elijah (who) must come."92 The fire of the Spirit dwells in him and makes him the forerunner of the coming Lord. In John, the precursor, the Holy Spirit completes the work of "[making] ready a people prepared for the Lord."93

719 John the Baptist is "more than a prophet."94 In him, the Holy Spirit concludes his speaking through the prophets. John completes the cycle of prophets begun by Elijah.95 He proclaims the imminence of the consolation of Israel; he is the "voice" of the Consoler who is coming.96 As the Spirit of truth will also do, John "came to bear witness to the light."97 In John's sight, the Spirit thus brings to completion the careful search of the prophets and fulfills the longing of the angels.98 "He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain, this is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit. and I have seen and have borne witness that this is the Son of God.... Behold, the Lamb of God."99

720 Finally, with John the Baptist, the Holy Spirit begins the restoration to man of "the divine likeness," prefiguring what he would achieve with and in Christ. John's baptism was for repentance; baptism in water and the Spirit will be a new birth.100

"Rejoice, you who are full of grace"

721 Mary, the all-holy ever-virgin Mother of God, is the masterwork of the mission of the Son and the Spirit in the fullness of time. For the first time in the plan of salvation and because his Spirit had prepared her, the Father found the dwelling place where his Son and his Spirit could dwell among men. In this sense the Church's Tradition has often read the most beautiful texts on wisdom in relation to Mary.101 Mary is acclaimed and represented in the liturgy as the "Seat of Wisdom." 
In her, the "wonders of God" that the Spirit was to fulfill in Christ and the Church began to be manifested:

722 The Holy Spirit prepared Mary by his grace. It was fitting that the mother of him in whom "the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily"102 should herself be "full of grace." She was, by sheer grace, conceived without sin as the most humble of creatures, the most capable of welcoming the inexpressible gift of the Almighty. It was quite correct for the angel Gabriel to greet her as the "Daughter of Zion": "Rejoice."103 It is the thanksgiving of the whole People of God, and thus of the Church, which Mary in her canticle104 lifts up to the Father in the Holy Spirit while carrying within her the eternal Son.

723 In Mary, the Holy Spirit fulfills the plan of the Father's loving goodness. With and through the Holy Spirit, the Virgin conceives and gives birth to the Son of God. By the Holy Spirit's power and her faith, her virginity became uniquely fruitful.105

724 In Mary, the Holy Spirit manifests the Son of the Father, now become the Son of the Virgin. She is the burning bush of the definitive theophany. Filled with the Holy Spirit she makes the Word visible in the humility of his flesh. It is to the poor and the first representatives of the gentiles that she makes him known.106

725 Finally, through Mary, the Holy Spirit begins to bring men, the objects of God's merciful love,107 into communion with Christ. and the humble are always the first to accept him: shepherds, magi, Simeon and Anna, the bride and groom at Cana, and the first disciples.

726 At the end of this mission of the Spirit, Mary became the Woman, the new Eve ("mother of the living"), the mother of the "whole Christ."108 As such, she was present with the Twelve, who "with one accord devoted themselves to prayer,"109 at the dawn of the "end time" which the Spirit was to inaugurate on the morning of Pentecost with the manifestation of the Church.

Christ Jesus

727 The entire mission of the Son and the Holy Spirit, in the fullness of time, is contained in this: that the Son is the one anointed by the Father's Spirit since his Incarnation - Jesus is the Christ, the Messiah. 
Everything in the second chapter of the Creed is to be read in this light. Christ's whole work is in fact a joint mission of the Son and the Holy Spirit. Here, we shall mention only what has to do with Jesus' promise of the Holy Spirit and the gift of him by the glorified Lord.

728 Jesus does not reveal the Holy Spirit fully, until he himself has been glorified through his Death and Resurrection. Nevertheless, little by little he alludes to him even in his teaching of the multitudes, as when he reveals that his own flesh will be food for the life of the world.110 He also alludes to the Spirit in speaking to Nicodemus,111 to the Samaritan woman,112 and to those who take part in the feast of Tabernacles.113 To his disciples he speaks openly of the Spirit in connection with prayer114 and with the witness they will have to bear.115

729 Only when the hour has arrived for his glorification does Jesus promise the coming of the Holy Spirit, since his Death and Resurrection will fulfill the promise made to the fathers.116 The Spirit of truth, the other Paraclete, will be given by the Father in answer to Jesus' prayer; he will be sent by the Father in Jesus' name; and Jesus will send him from the Father's side, since he comes from the Father. the Holy Spirit will come and we shall know him; he will be with us for ever; he will remain with us. the Spirit will teach us everything, remind us of all that Christ said to us and bear witness to him. the Holy Spirit will lead us into all truth and will glorify Christ. He will prove the world wrong about sin, righteousness, and judgment.

730 At last Jesus' hour arrives:117 he commends his spirit into the Father's hands118 at the very moment when by his death he conquers death, so that, "raised from the dead by the glory of the Father,"119 he might immediately give the Holy Spirit by "breathing" on his disciples.120 From this hour onward, the mission of Christ and the Spirit becomes the mission of the Church: "As the Father has sent me, even so I send you."121

V. The Spirit and the Church In the Last Days

Pentecost

731 On the day of Pentecost when the seven weeks of Easter had come to an end, Christ's Passover is fulfilled in the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, manifested, given, and communicated as a divine person: of his fullness, Christ, the Lord, pours out the Spirit in abundance.122

732 On that day, the Holy Trinity is fully revealed. Since that day, the Kingdom announced by Christ has been open to those who believe in him: in the humility of the flesh and in faith, they already share in the communion of the Holy Trinity. By his coming, which never ceases, the Holy Spirit causes the world to enter into the "last days," the time of the Church, the Kingdom already inherited though not yet consummated.

We have seen the true Light, we have received the heavenly Spirit, we have found the true faith: we adore the indivisible Trinity, who has saved us.123

The Holy Spirit - God's gift

733 "God is Love"124 and love is his first gift, containing all others. "God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us."125

734 Because we are dead or at least wounded through sin, the first effect of the gift of love is the forgiveness of our sins. the communion of the Holy Spirit126 in the Church restores to the baptized the divine likeness lost through sin.

735 He, then, gives us the "pledge" or "first fruits" of our inheritance: the very life of the Holy Trinity, which is to love as "God (has) loved us."127 This love (the "charity" of  1 Cor 13) is the source of the new life in Christ, made possible because we have received "power" from the Holy Spirit.128

736 By this power of the Spirit, God's children can bear much fruit. He who has grafted us onto the true vine will make us bear "the fruit of the Spirit: . . . love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control."129 "We live by the Spirit"; the more we renounce ourselves, the more we "walk by the Spirit."130

Through the Holy Spirit we are restored to paradise, led back to the Kingdom of heaven, and adopted as children, given confidence to call God "Father" and to share in Christ's grace, called children of light and given a share in eternal glory.131

The Holy Spirit and the Church

737 The mission of Christ and the Holy Spirit is brought to completion in the Church, which is the Body of Christ and the Temple of the Holy Spirit. This joint mission henceforth brings Christ's faithful to share in his communion with the Father in the Holy Spirit. the Spirit prepares men and goes out to them with his grace, in order to draw them to Christ. the Spirit manifests the risen Lord to them, recalls his word to them and opens their minds to the understanding of his Death and Resurrection. He makes present the mystery of Christ, supremely in the Eucharist, in order to reconcile them, to bring them into communion with God, that they may "bear much fruit."132

738 Thus the Church's mission is not an addition to that of Christ and the Holy Spirit, but is its sacrament: in her whole being and in all her members, the Church is sent to announce, bear witness, make present, and spread the mystery of the communion of the Holy Trinity (the topic of the next article):

All of us who have received one and the same Spirit, that is, the Holy Spirit, are in a sense blended together with one another and with God. For if Christ, together with the Father's and his own Spirit, comes to dwell in each of us, though we are many, still the Spirit is one and undivided. He binds together the spirits of each and every one of us, . . . and makes all appear as one in him. For just as the power of Christ's sacred flesh unites those in whom it dwells into one body, I think that in the same way the one and undivided Spirit of God, who dwells in all, leads all into spiritual unity.133

739 Because the Holy Spirit is the anointing of Christ, it is Christ who, as the head of the Body, pours out the Spirit among his members to nourish, heal, and organize them in their mutual functions, to give them life, send them to bear witness, and associate them to his self-offering to the Father and to his intercession for the whole world. Through the Church's sacraments, Christ communicates his Holy and sanctifying Spirit to the members of his Body. (This will be the topic of Part Two of the Catechism.)

740 These "mighty works of God," offered to believers in the sacraments of the Church, bear their fruit in the new life in Christ, according to the Spirit. (This will be the topic of Part Three.)

741 "The Spirit helps us in our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes with sighs too deep for words."134 The Holy Spirit, the artisan of God's works, is the master of prayer. (This will be the topic of Part Four.)

IN BRIEF

742 "Because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, 'Abba! Father!"' ( Gal 4:6).

743 From the beginning to the end of time, whenever God sends his Son, he always sends his Spirit: their mission is conjoined and inseparable.

744 In the fullness of time the Holy Spirit completes in Mary all the preparations for Christ's coming among the People of God. By the action of the Holy Spirit in her, the Father gives the world Emmanuel "God-with-us" ( Mt 1:23).

745 The Son of God was consecrated as Christ (Messiah) by the anointing of the Holy Spirit at his Incarnation (cf  Ps 2:6-7).

746 By his Death and his Resurrection, Jesus is constituted in glory as Lord and Christ (cf  Acts 2:36). From his fullness, he poured out the Holy Spirit on the apostles and the Church.

747 The Holy Spirit, whom Christ the head pours out on his members, builds, animates, and sanctifies the Church. She is the sacrament of the Holy Trinity's communion with men.

 

文件動作