卷一信仰的宣認 - 我信永恆的生命/I BELIEVE IN LIFE EVERLASTING

 

第十二條
「我信永恆的生命」

1020. 基督徒將自己的死亡與基督的死亡連在一起,他把死亡看成走向基督的路途、進入永生的門徑。當教會向臨終的基督徒最後一次念出基督寬恕人的赦罪經、傅了最後一次強化之油,並讓他領受臨終聖體,好使基督陪伴他,作他旅途上的食糧,教會向他溫和地保証說:

《病人傅油禮及牧民照顧》,「交付靈魂經」:親愛的弟兄/姊妹,你要離開這個世界了,讓你的靈魂去吧,因父及子及聖神之名。全能的天主父創造了你,永生之子耶穌基督為你而死在十字架上,同時又恩賜你聖神。願你今天能寓居在神聖耶路撒冷的平安中,偕同童貞瑪利亞、天主之母、聖若瑟、所有天使、聖人……願你回歸到造物主那裡,是祂從塵土中將你塑造出來。當你離開這個生命,願童貞瑪利亞和所有天使聖人來迎接你……願基督的容顏向你展露慈光和欣悅,願你從今天開始永遠享受真福。

Article 12

"I BELIEVE IN LIFE EVERLASTING"

1020 The Christian who unites his own death to that of Jesus views it as a step towards him and an entrance into everlasting life. When the Church for the last time speaks Christ's words of pardon and absolution over the dying Christian, seals him for the last time with a strengthening anointing, and gives him Christ in viaticum as nourishment for the journey, she speaks with gentle assurance:

Go forth, Christian soul, from this world

in the name of God the almighty Father,

who created you,

in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God,

who suffered for you,

in the name of the Holy Spirit,

who was poured out upon you.

Go forth, faithful Christian! 
May you live in peace this day,

may your home be with God in Zion,

with Mary, the virgin Mother of God,

with Joseph, and all the angels and saints.... 
May you return to [your Creator]

who formed you from the dust of the earth.

May holy Mary, the angels, and all the saints

come to meet you as you go forth from this life.... 
May you see your Redeemer face to face. 589

 

 
 

一、私審判

1021. 死亡是人生旅程的終結,人生是自由抉擇的時期:接受或拒絕天主在基督內顯示的慈恩。 新約談到審判時,所採用的基本脈絡是迎接基督第二次的來臨。可是新約也屢次肯定,人死後馬上就按其生前的功過和信德得到報應。貧窮拉匝祿的譬喻和基督在十字架上向右盜所說的話,同樣還有其他新約的章節都談及靈魂的終局,一個人的終局可以與另一個的不同。

1022. 每個人從死亡一刻開始,就在其不朽的靈魂上,將其一生呈報基督的私審判,領受永遠的報應:或者經歷一個煉淨期, 或者直接地進入天堂的榮福,或者直接自我判罪、墮入永罰。

十字聖若望,《愛與光的言論》:在人生的垂暮時,我們將按愛德受審。

 I. The Particular Judgment

1021 Death puts an end to human life as the time open to either accepting or rejecting the divine grace manifested in Christ.590 The New Testament speaks of judgment primarily in its aspect of the final encounter with Christ in his second coming, but also repeatedly affirms that each will be rewarded immediately after death in accordance with his works and faith. the parable of the poor man Lazarus and the words of Christ on the cross to the good thief, as well as other New Testament texts speak of a final destiny of the soul -a destiny which can be different for some and for others.591

1022 Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul at the very moment of his death, in a particular judgment that refers his life to Christ: either entrance into the blessedness of heaven-through a purification592 or immediately,593-or immediate and everlasting damnation.594

At the evening of life, we shall be judged on our love.595

 

二、天堂

1023. 那些在天主的恩寵和友誼中過世的人,在完全煉淨之後,將與基督永遠生活在一起。他們將永遠地肖似天主,因為他們是面對面地看到天主「實在怎樣」(若一 3:2):

本篤十二世,《讚美天主》憲令:讓我們以宗座權威斷定以下信條:在天主全面性的安排下,所有在基督受苦前過世的聖者的靈魂……和所有接受基督聖洗的信者靈魂,只要在他們死亡時,無須受煉淨的……,或假若他們不論過去或將來尚須受煉淨的,在死亡後已煉淨過的所有靈魂……即使在肉身復活和公審判前──在主救世主耶穌基督升天之後──的所有靈魂,不論過去的、現在的、將來的都會與基督一起活在天國和樂園中,同聖善的天使在一起。在吾主耶穌基督受苦受死後,這些靈魂,在榮福直觀中直到現在,仍然面對面地看天主的本質,不需任何受造物作媒界。

1024. 與天主聖三的這種完美生活,與聖三、童貞瑪利亞、天使和眾真福這種生命與愛的共融,稱為「天堂」。天堂是人最後的歸宿,也是人最深的期盼的圓滿實現,是決定性和至高的幸福境界。

1025.活在天堂就是「與基督在一起」。 被選的人「在祂內」活著,可是仍然在祂內保存著,更好說,找到他們真正的面貌、他們自己的名字:
聖安博,《路加福音闡釋》:因為生命就是與基督在一起:哪裡有基督,那裡就有生命,那裡就有天國。

1026. 耶穌基督以祂的死亡和復活為我們「開啟」了天堂。享受真福的生活就是圓滿地得到基督救贖工程的果實。基督接受那些信賴祂和忠於祂意願的人進入天上的榮耀。天堂是真福者的團體,在其中所有的人都與基督合為一體。

1027. 與天主並與所有在基督內眾生的幸福共融的這個奧跡,超過一切理解和表達。聖經用一些圖象為我們講述這奧跡:生命、光明、平安、婚宴、天國的美酒、天父的家、天上的耶路撒冷、樂園:「天主為愛祂的人所準備的,是眼所未見,耳所未聞,人心所未想到的」(格前 2:9)。

1028. 由於天主的超越性,除非祂自己揭示祂的奧跡予人直觀,同時給人直觀的能力,否則祂實在怎樣,是不能見到的。教會稱這種瞻仰天上榮耀中的天主為「榮福直觀」。

聖西彼廉,《書信集》:這將不是你的榮耀和福樂嗎?就是被容許參見天主,得到那榮譽,分享救恩和永光的喜樂,與主基督、你的天主在一起……在天國裡,置身於天 主的義人和朋友之中,享受那賺得的、永不腐朽的喜樂。

1029. 在天上的榮耀中,真福者會滿懷喜樂地繼續完成天主對其人群和整個受造界的旨意。他們已與基督為王;與祂一起「他們必要為王,至於無窮之世」(默 22:5)。

 II. Heaven

1023 Those who die in God's grace and friendship and are perfectly purified live for ever with Christ. They are like God for ever, for they "see him as he is," face to face:596

By virtue of our apostolic authority, we define the following: According to the general disposition of God, the souls of all the saints . . . and other faithful who died after receiving Christ's holy Baptism (provided they were not in need of purification when they died, . . . or, if they then did need or will need some purification, when they have been purified after death, . . .) already before they take up their bodies again and before the general judgment - and this since the Ascension of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ into heaven - have been, are and will be in heaven, in the heavenly Kingdom and celestial paradise with Christ, joined to the company of the holy angels. Since the Passion and death of our Lord Jesus Christ, these souls have seen and do see the divine essence with an intuitive vision, and even face to face, without the mediation of any creature.597

1024 This perfect life with the Most Holy Trinity - this communion of life and love with the Trinity, with the Virgin Mary, the angels and all the blessed - is called "heaven." Heaven is the ultimate end and fulfillment of the deepest human longings, the state of supreme, definitive happiness.

1025 To live in heaven is "to be with Christ." the elect live "in Christ,"598 but they retain, or rather find, their true identity, their own name.599

For life is to be with Christ; where Christ is, there is life, there is the kingdom.600

1026 By his death and Resurrection, Jesus Christ has "opened" heaven to us. the life of the blessed consists in the full and perfect possession of the fruits of the redemption accomplished by Christ. He makes partners in his heavenly glorification those who have believed in him and remained faithful to his will. Heaven is the blessed community of all who are perfectly incorporated into Christ.

1027 This mystery of blessed communion with God and all who are in Christ is beyond all understanding and description. Scripture speaks of it in images: life, light, peace, wedding feast, wine of the kingdom, the Father's house, the heavenly Jerusalem, paradise: "no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man conceived, what God has prepared for those who love him."601

1028 Because of his transcendence, God cannot be seen as he is, unless he himself opens up his mystery to man's immediate contemplation and gives him the capacity for it. the Church calls this contemplation of God in his heavenly glory "the beatific vision":

How great will your glory and happiness be, to be allowed to see God, to be honored with sharing the joy of salvation and eternal light with Christ your Lord and God, . . . to delight in the joy of immortality in the Kingdom of heaven with the righteous and God's friends.602

1029 In the glory of heaven the blessed continue joyfully to fulfill God's will in relation to other men and to all creation. Already they reign with Christ; with him "they shall reign for ever and ever."603

 

三、最後的煉淨或煉獄

1030. 那些死在天主的恩寵和友誼中的,但尚未完全淨化的人,雖然他們的永遠得救已確定,可是在死後仍須經過煉淨,為得到必需的聖德,進入天堂的福樂中。

1031. 教會稱被選者最後的煉淨為煉獄,那絕不可與被判入地獄者的處罰相比。教會特別在翡冷翠和特倫多大公會議中欽定有關煉獄的信條。教會的聖傳參照聖經某些章節談到煉淨之火:

聖大額我略,《對話集》:有關一些輕微的罪過,我們必須相信,在公審判前是有煉淨之火的。那自稱為「真理」的一位曾肯定過,假如有人口裡褻瀆聖神,不論今世或在來世,都不會被赦免的 (瑪 12:31)。由此引申有某些罪過可在今世得以赦免,另一些則在來世得以淨化。

1032. 這煉獄的訓導是依據為亡者祈禱的做法,對此聖經早已說過:「為此,他 (猶大瑪加伯)為亡者獻贖罪祭,是為叫他們獲得罪赦」(加下 12:46)。教會自始便紀念亡者,為他們奉獻祈禱,尤其是感恩祭,為使他們得到煉淨,進入天主的榮福直觀中。教會也鼓勵人為亡者行施捨、得大赦和做補贖:

金口聖若望,《格林多前書講道集》:讓我們援助和懷念他們。假如約伯的兒子能因父親的犧牲而得到淨化,那麼為何我們懷疑為亡者的奉獻不會帶給他們安慰呢?我們無須猶疑去幫助亡者,為他們獻上祈禱。

 III. The Final Purification, or Purgatory

1030 All who die in God's grace and friendship, but still imperfectly purified, are indeed assured of their eternal salvation; but after death they undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven.

1031 The Church gives the name Purgatory to this final purification of the elect, which is entirely different from the punishment of the damned.604 The Church formulated her doctrine of faith on Purgatory especially at the Councils of Florence and Trent. the tradition of the Church, by reference to certain texts of Scripture, speaks of a cleansing fire:605

As for certain lesser faults, we must believe that, before the Final Judgment, there is a purifying fire. He who is truth says that whoever utters blasphemy against the Holy Spirit will be pardoned neither in this age nor in the age to come. From this sentence we understand that certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come.606

1032 This teaching is also based on the practice of prayer for the dead, already mentioned in Sacred Scripture: "Therefore Judas Maccabeus] made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin."607 From the beginning the Church has honored the memory of the dead and offered prayers in suffrage for them, above all the Eucharistic sacrifice, so that, thus purified, they may attain the beatific vision of God.608 The Church also commends almsgiving, indulgences, and works of penance undertaken on behalf of the dead:

Let us help and commemorate them. If Job's sons were purified by their father's sacrifice, why would we doubt that our offerings for the dead bring them some consolation? Let us not hesitate to help those who have died and to offer our prayers for them.609

 

四、地獄

1033. 除非我們自由地選擇愛天主,就不能與祂契合。假如我們犯嚴重的罪過反對祂,反對近人,反對自已,我們就不能愛祂:「那不愛的,就存在死亡內。凡惱恨自己弟兄的,便是殺人的;你們也知道:凡殺人的,便沒有永遠的生命存在他內」(若一 3:15)。我們的主早已說過,假如我們不對貧窮者、弱小者在其急需中施予援手,我們就會與祂分離。 若人在大罪中過世時沒有悔意,沒有接受天主的慈愛,這表示他藉著自由的抉擇永遠與主分離。換言之,就是將自己排除與天主和真福者的共融之外,這種決定性的、自我排除的境況就稱為「地獄」。

1034. 耶穌屢次談到「地獄」,「不滅的火」, 這火是為那些至死不肯相信、不肯悔改的人而保留的,在火裡他們的靈魂和肉身都會一起喪亡。耶穌嚴厲地宣布,祂「要差遣祂的天使,將一切作惡的人收集起來,……扔到火窯裡」(瑪13:41-42),並宣判:「可咒罵的,離開我,到永火裡去吧!」(瑪 25:41)

1035. 教會訓導聲明地獄的存在和永久性。那些在死罪中過世的靈魂會立刻下地獄,受地獄的苦痛,就是「永火」。地獄主要的痛苦是與天主永遠的分離,因為人只可從天主那裡得到生命和福樂,人是為此被創造,並不斷地渴求這生命和福樂。

1036. 聖經和教會訓導對地獄的聲明是為喚起人的責任,人以永遠的歸宿為目標,該負責地運用他的自由。同時這些聲明成為請人皈依的迫切呼籲:「你們要從窄門進去,因為寬門和大路導入喪亡;但有許多的人從那裡進去。那導入生命的門是多麼窄,路是多麼狹!找到它的人的確不多」(瑪 7:13-14)。

我們不知道何時何日,我們必須遵從主的勸告,時常警惕,期望在結束了我們現世生命的唯一旅程之後,能與主同赴天宴,並加入受祝福者的行列,不要像懶惰的惡僕,被貶入永火及外面的黑暗中,那裡將有「哀號切齒」。

1037. 天主並沒有預定任何人下地獄。 因為下地獄是故意離棄天主的行為,亦即大罪,在大罪中罪人至死不悔改。在感恩祭和信友每日的祈禱中,教會懇求天主的仁慈,祂並不願意「任何人喪亡,只願眾人回心轉意」(伯後 3:9):

《羅馬彌撒經書》,感恩經第一式:主,所以我們懇求祢,惠然收納,祢的僕人和祢全家所奉獻的這項禮品,使我們一生平安度日,脫免永罰,並得列入祢簡選的人群中。

 IV. Hell

1033 We cannot be united with God unless we freely choose to love him. But we cannot love God if we sin gravely against him, against our neighbor or against ourselves: "He who does not love remains in death. Anyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding in him."610 Our Lord warns us that we shall be separated from him if we fail to meet the serious needs of the poor and the little ones who are his brethren.611 To die in mortal sin without repenting and accepting God's merciful love means remaining separated from him for ever by our own free choice. This state of definitive self-exclusion from communion with God and the blessed is called "hell."

1034 Jesus often speaks of "Gehenna" of "the unquenchable fire" reserved for those who to the end of their lives refuse to believe and be converted, where both soul and body can be lost.612 Jesus solemnly proclaims that he "will send his angels, and they will gather . . . all evil doers, and throw them into the furnace of fire,"613 and that he will pronounce the condemnation: "Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire!"614

1035 The teaching of the Church affirms the existence of hell and its eternity. Immediately after death the souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell, where they suffer the punishments of hell, "eternal fire."615 The chief punishment of hell is eternal separation from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs.

1036 The affirmations of Sacred Scripture and the teachings of the Church on the subject of hell are a call to the responsibility incumbent upon man to make use of his freedom in view of his eternal destiny. They are at the same time an urgent call to conversion: "Enter by the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the way is easy, that leads to destruction, and those who enter by it are many. For the gate is narrow and the way is hard, that leads to life, and those who find it are few."616

Since we know neither the day nor the hour, we should follow the advice of the Lord and watch constantly so that, when the single course of our earthly life is completed, we may merit to enter with him into the marriage feast and be numbered among the blessed, and not, like the wicked and slothful servants, be ordered to depart into the eternal fire, into the outer darkness where "men will weep and gnash their teeth."617

1037 God predestines no one to go to hell;618 for this, a willful turning away from God (a mortal sin) is necessary, and persistence in it until the end. In the Eucharistic liturgy and in the daily prayers of her faithful, the Church implores the mercy of God, who does not want "any to perish, but all to come to repentance":619

Father, accept this offering

from your whole family.

Grant us your peace in this life,

save us from final damnation,

and count us among those you have chosen.620

 

五、最後審判

1038. 所有亡者復活之後,不論「義人或惡人」(宗 24:15)都該經歷最後的審判。「那時候凡在墳墓裡的都要聽見他(人子)的聲音而出來:行過善的,復活進入生命;作過惡的,復活而受審判」(若 5:28-29)。那時基督「將在自己的光榮中,與眾天使……一切民族,都要聚在祂面前,祂要把他們彼此分開,如同牧人分開綿羊和山羊一樣:把綿羊放在自己的右邊,山羊在左邊……這些人要進入永罰,而義人卻要進入永生」(瑪 25:31,32,46)。

1039. 面對作為真理的基督,每個人與天主的真實關係將決定性地披露無遺。最後審判將啟示每個人在現世所行的善或未盡的本分,及其最終後果:
辰,只有祂決定基督何時再來。通過祂的聖子耶穌,祂將對歷史作出決定性的發言。我們將知悉整個創世工程和救恩計劃的終極意義,同時將明白天主的眷顧,怎樣通過奇妙的途徑,引導萬有邁向最後的目標。最後審判要啟示天主的正義,勝於任何受造物所行的不義,因為祂的愛比死亡更強烈。

聖奧思定,《講道集》:壞人的一切惡行都記錄下來,他們卻不知道。末日,「天主將不會保持緘默」(詠 50:3) ……祂轉向惡人,向他們說:「我曾將我可愛的窮人為你

們放在世上。我就是他們的首領,在天上坐在我父的右邊,可是在地上我的肢體卻捱飢受餓。假如你們曾施捨過給我的肢體,你們的施捨本該到達他們的首領處。當我將可愛的窮人放在世上,我是要他們成為你們的運輸者,將你們的善行搬到我的寶庫裡,你們卻沒有將任何東西交到他們手上,為此你們從我身上也得不到甚麼」。

1041. 當天主還賜給人「悅納的時候和救恩的日子」(格後 6:2)時,最後審判的訊息呼喚人皈依。它啟發對天主聖善的敬畏,使人為天國正義而獻身,宣告「所希望的真福」(鐸 2:13)、主的再來,「因為祂要來,在祂的聖徒身上受光榮,在一切信眾身上受讚美」(得後 1:10)。

六、新天新地的希望

1042.在時期的終結,天國將達到圓滿。公審判之後,靈魂和肉身受到光榮的義人將與基督永遠為王,而宇宙自身也將得以更新:

那時教會……將在天上的光榮中,才圓滿地實現,那就是萬物復興的時候,也就是和人類緊相連接、又藉人類以達其終向的普世萬物,將和人類一起,在基督內達到圓滿境界。

1043. 這個奧妙的更新將使人類和世界都得以轉化。聖經稱之為「新天新地」(伯後 3:13),就是天主計劃決定性的實現,「天上和地上的萬有,總歸於基督元首」(弗 1:10)。

1044. 在這個新宇宙、 天上的耶路撒冷裡,天主寓居在眾人當中。祂「要拭去他們臉上的一切眼淚;以後再也沒有死亡,再也沒有悲傷,沒有哀號,沒有苦楚,因為先前的都已過去了」(默 21:4)。

1045. 就人而論, 這個圓滿將是人類成為一體的最終實現,這人類的一體性是天主創造之初就願意的,也是旅途教會「作為聖事」所象徵的。那些曾與基督結合的人將組成得救的團體、天主的「聖城」(默 21:2)、「羔羊的新娘」(默 21:9),這團體不再受罪惡、不潔、私愛所損傷,因為這一切只摧毀或傷害地上人們的團體。榮福直觀將是福樂、平安和彼此共融的永不枯竭的泉源,因為在直觀中天主將向被選者無窮無盡地顯示自己。

1046.就世界而論,啟示肯定人和物質世界具有深邃的共同歸宿:

凡受造之物都熱切地等待天主子女的顯揚……懷有希望,脫離敗壞的控制。……因為我們知道,直到如今,一切受造之物都一同歎息,同受產痛。不但是萬物,就是連我們這已蒙受聖神初果的,也在自己心中嘆息,等待著我們肉身的救贖(羅 8:19-23)。

1047.有形可見的宇宙本身也因而註定要得到轉化,「為使世界本身恢復原的耶穌基督內的榮耀。

1048. 「對大地及人類終窮的時刻我們一無所知,亦不知萬物將如何改變。但為罪惡所玷污的這個世界的面目,必將逝去。我們可從啟示得知,天主將替我們準備一個新的住所、新的天地,那裡正義常存,幸福將要滿足並超出人心所能想到的一切和平的願望」。

1049. 「但期待新天地的希望,不僅不應削弱,而且應增進我們建設此世的心火。因為新的人類大家庭的雛型,是滋長發育在今世的,並已能給予人一些新天地的預象。故此,現世的進步雖然與基督王國的廣揚有其分別,但就現世的進展而論,它有益於改善人類的社會,故此,極為有利於天主的王國」。

1050. 「事實上……一切出於自然和人類努力所結的美果,我們把這些美果遵從主的命令並在祂的神內,傳播到世上。其後,當基督將永恆而普遍的王國交還聖父時,我們要再度看到這些美妙的成果,將是毫無玷污而光輝奪目的」。那時天主在永生中將成為「萬物之中的萬有」(格前 15:28):

聖濟利祿•耶路撒冷,《慕道期甄選者的教理講授》:實存而真正的生命,是父通過子在聖神內將天上的恩賜,傾注在眾生中,一無例外。又因著祂的仁慈,我們,作為人,也領受永生的不朽許諾。

撮要
1051.基督是生者和死者的審判者。根據祂在人死亡那一刻所做的私審判,每個人在其不朽的靈魂上會領受永遠的報應。

1052. 「我們相信所有在基督恩寵內死去的靈魂……是死亡彼岸的天主子民,在復活的那天,當這些靈魂和自己的肉身重新結合時,死亡將被決定性地征服」。

1053. 「我們相信在天堂上,圍繞耶穌和瑪利亞的眾多靈魂組成天上的教會,他們在那永恆的真福中,看見天主實在怎樣,同時他們以不同的程度與眾聖天使聯合,一起跟榮耀中的基督執行天主的統治,他們以手足之情的關懷,為我們轉禱,扶持我們的軟弱」。

1054. 那些在天主恩寵和友誼中過世的,而尚未完全煉淨的人,雖然他們永遠的得救已確定,在死後要經過煉淨,為能獲得必需的聖德,進入天主的榮耀。

1055.因著「諸聖相通」的事實,教會將亡者交託給天主的仁慈,為他們奉獻祈禱,尤其是感恩聖祭。
獄」。
1057.地獄最主要的痛苦在於永遠與天主分離,人只有在天主內,才能有生命和福樂,人為此被造,對此渴求。

1058. 教會祈禱,勿讓任何人喪亡:「主,請不要讓我有一刻與祢分離。」假如「沒有人能自救」是真實的話,那麼,天主「願意所有的人得救」(弟前 2:4)和「為天主一切都可能」(瑪 19:26)也是同樣地真實。

1059.「至聖的羅馬教會相信和堅決宣認,在公審判之日,所有的人都連同自己的身體,出現在基督審判座前,對自己的行為作交代」。

1060. 在時期的終結,天主的王國將達到圓滿。義人將與基督為王,其身體和靈魂受到榮耀,直到永遠,同時整個物質世界都會轉化。天主必在永生中成為「萬物之中的萬有」(格前 15:28)。

阿們 (AMEN)

1061. 信經與聖經的最後一部書(默示錄)一樣, 以希伯來文「阿們」結束。「阿們」也多次出現在新約祈禱文的結尾。同樣,教會的祈禱文都以「阿們」結束。

1062. 「阿們」與「信」的字根,在希伯來文裡是相同的。這字根表示堅固、可靠、忠實。因此,不難明白「阿們」可以說是天主對我們的信實和我們對天主的信靠。

1063. 在依撒意亞先知書裡,可找到「真實的天主」,依字面講起來就是「阿們的天主」,表示天主忠於祂的許諾:「所以那在地上為自己求福的,要向真實(阿們)的天主求福」(依 65:16)。我們的主也時常用「阿們」, 有時還重複使用, 為強調祂教導的真實性,祂的權威是建立在天主的真實上。

1064. 信經最後的「阿們」是表示再說和肯定最先的兩個字:「我信」。信,就是對天主的話、許諾、誡命說「阿們」,那就是完全把自己交給具有無限慈愛及完全信實的那一位。基督信徒每天的生活是對我們洗禮中宣認的「我信」說「阿們」:

聖奧思定,《講道集》:願信經對你有如一面鏡子。在鏡子中看看你自己:看你是否相信你聲稱所信的一切。願你天天以你的信德為樂。

1065. 耶穌基督自己是「阿們」(默 3:14),祂是天父對我們之愛的決定性「阿內都成了『是』,為此也藉著祂,我們才答應『阿們』,使光榮藉我們歸於天主」(格後 1:20)。

全能的天主聖父,
一切崇敬和榮耀,
藉著基督,偕同基督,在基督內,
並聯合聖神,
都歸於祢,直到永遠。

阿們。 
 V. The Last Judgment

1038 The resurrection of all the dead, "of both the just and the unjust,"621 will precede the Last Judgment. This will be "the hour when all who are in the tombs will hear [the Son of man's] voice and come forth, those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment."622 Then Christ will come "in his glory, and all the angels with him .... Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, and he will place the sheep at his right hand, but the goats at the left.... and they will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life."623

1039 In the presence of Christ, who is Truth itself, the truth of each man's relationship with God will be laid bare.624 The Last Judgment will reveal even to its furthest consequences the good each person has done or failed to do during his earthly life:

All that the wicked do is recorded, and they do not know. When "our God comes, he does not keep silence.". . . he will turn towards those at his left hand: . . . "I placed my poor little ones on earth for you. I as their head was seated in heaven at the right hand of my Father - but on earth my members were suffering, my members on earth were in need. If you gave anything to my members, what you gave would reach their Head. Would that you had known that my little ones were in need when I placed them on earth for you and appointed them your stewards to bring your good works into my treasury. But you have placed nothing in their hands; therefore you have found nothing in my presence."625

1040 The Last Judgment will come when Christ returns in glory. Only the Father knows the day and the hour; only he determines the moment of its coming. Then through his Son Jesus Christ he will pronounce the final word on all history. We shall know the ultimate meaning of the whole work of creation and of the entire economy of salvation and understand the marvellous ways by which his Providence led everything towards its final end. the Last Judgment will reveal that God's justice triumphs over all the injustices committed by his creatures and that God's love is stronger than death.626

1041 The message of the Last Judgment calls men to conversion while God is still giving them "the acceptable time, . . . the day of salvation."627 It inspires a holy fear of God and commits them to the justice of the Kingdom of God. It proclaims the "blessed hope" of the Lord's return, when he will come "to be glorified in his saints, and to be marvelled at in all who have believed."628

 

VI. Hope of the New Heaven and the New Earth

1042 At the end of time, the Kingdom of God will come in its fullness. After the universal judgment, the righteous will reign for ever with Christ, glorified in body and soul. the universe itself will be renewed:

The Church . . . will receive her perfection only in the glory of heaven, when will come the time of the renewal of all things. At that time, together with the human race, the universe itself, which is so closely related to man and which attains its destiny through him, will be perfectly re-established in Christ.629

1043 Sacred Scripture calls this mysterious renewal, which will transform humanity and the world, "new heavens and a new earth."630 It will be the definitive realization of God's plan to bring under a single head "all things in [Christ], things in heaven and things on earth."631

1044 In this new universe, the heavenly Jerusalem, God will have his dwelling among men.632 "He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning nor crying nor pain any more, for the former things have passed away."633

1045 For man, this consummation will be the final realization of the unity of the human race, which God willed from creation and of which the pilgrim Church has been "in the nature of sacrament."634Those who are united with Christ will form the community of the redeemed, "the holy city" of God, "the Bride, the wife of the Lamb."635 She will not be wounded any longer by sin, stains, self-love, that destroy or wound the earthly community.636 The beatific vision, in which God opens himself in an inexhaustible way to the elect, will be the ever-flowing well-spring of happiness, peace, and mutual communion.

1046 For the cosmos, Revelation affirms the profound common destiny of the material world and man:

For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God . . . in hope because the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay.... We know that the whole creation has been groaning in travail together until now; and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.637

1047 The visible universe, then, is itself destined to be transformed, "so that the world itself, restored to its original state, facing no further obstacles, should be at the service of the just," sharing their glorification in the risen Jesus Christ.638

1048 "We know neither the moment of the consummation of the earth and of man, nor the way in which the universe will be transformed. the form of this world, distorted by sin, is passing away, and we are taught that God is preparing a new dwelling and a new earth in which righteousness dwells, in which happiness will fill and surpass all the desires of peace arising in the hearts of men."639

1049 "Far from diminishing our concern to develop this earth, the expectancy of a new earth should spur us on, for it is here that the body of a new human family grows, foreshadowing in some way the age which is to come. That is why, although we must be careful to distinguish earthly progress clearly from the increase of the kingdom of Christ, such progress is of vital concern to the kingdom of God, insofar as it can contribute to the better ordering of human society."640

1050 "When we have spread on earth the fruits of our nature and our enterprise . . . according to the command of the Lord and in his Spirit, we will find them once again, cleansed this time from the stain of sin, illuminated and transfigured, when Christ presents to his Father an eternal and universal kingdom."641 God will then be "all in all" in eternal life:642

True and subsistent life consists in this: the Father, through the Son and in the Holy Spirit, pouring out his heavenly gifts on all things without exception. Thanks to his mercy, we too, men that we are, have received the inalienable promise of eternal life.643

IN BRIEF

1051 Every man receives his eternal recompense in his immortal soul from the moment of his death in a particular judgment by Christ, the judge of the living and the dead.

1052 "We believe that the souls of all who die in Christ's grace . . . are the People of God beyond death. On the day of resurrection, death will be definitively conquered, when these souls will be reunited with their bodies" (Paul VI, CPG # 28).

1053 "We believe that the multitude of those gathered around Jesus and Mary in Paradise forms the Church of heaven, where in eternal blessedness they see God as he is and where they are also, to various degrees, associated with the holy angels in the divine governance exercised by Christ in glory, by interceding for us and helping our weakness by their fraternal concern" (Paul VI, CPG # 29).

1054 Those who die in God's grace and friendship imperfectly purified, although they are assured of their eternal salvation, undergo a purification after death, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of God.

1055 By virtue of the "communion of saints," the Church commends the dead to God's mercy and offers her prayers, especially the holy sacrifice of the Eucharist, on their behalf.

1056 Following the example of Christ, the Church warns the faithful of the "sad and lamentable reality of eternal death" (GCD 69), also called "hell."

1057 Hell's principal punishment consists of eternal separation from God in whom alone man can have the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs.

1058 The Church prays that no one should be lost: "Lord, let me never be parted from you." If it is true that no one can save himself, it is also true that God "desires all men to be saved" ( 1 Tim 2:4), and that for him "all things are possible" ( Mt 19:26).

1059 "The holy Roman Church firmly believes and confesses that on the Day of Judgment all men will appear in their own bodies before Christ's tribunal to render an account of their own deeds" (Council of Lyons II [1274]: DS 859; cf. DS 1549).

1060 At the end of time, the Kingdom of God will come in its fullness. Then the just will reign with Christ for ever, glorified in body and soul, and the material universe itself will be transformed. God will then be "all in all" ( 1 Cor 15:28), in eternal life.

"Amen"

1061 The Creed, like the last book of the Bible,644 ends with the Hebrew word amen. This word frequently concludes prayers in the New Testament. the Church likewise ends her prayers with "Amen."

1062 In Hebrew, amen comes from the same root as the word "believe." This root expresses solidity, trustworthiness, faithfulness. and so we can understand why "Amen" may express both God's faithfulness towards us and our trust in him.

1063 In the book of the prophet Isaiah, we find the expression "God of truth" (literally "God of the Amen"), that is, the God who is faithful to his promises: "He who blesses himself in the land shall bless himself by the God of truth [amen]."645 Our Lord often used the word "Amen," sometimes repeated,646 to emphasize the trustworthiness of his teaching, his authority founded on God's truth.

1064 Thus the Creed's final "Amen" repeats and confirms its first words: "I believe." To believe is to say "Amen" to God's words, promises and commandments; to entrust oneself completely to him who is the "Amen" of infinite love and perfect faithfulness. the Christian's everyday life will then be the "Amen" to the "I believe" of our baptismal profession of faith:

May your Creed be for you as a mirror. Look at yourself in it, to see if you believe everything you say you believe. and rejoice in your faith each day.647

1065 Jesus Christ himself is the "Amen."648 He is the definitive "Amen" of the Father's love for us. He takes up and completes our "Amen" to the Father: "For all the promises of God find their Yes in him. That is why we utter the Amen through him, to the glory of God":649

Through him, with him, in him,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit,

all glory and honor is yours,

almighty Father,

God, for ever and ever.

AMEN.

 

文件動作