卷一信仰的宣認 - 基督的信徒 /CHRIST'S FAITHFUL

 


第四節 基督的信徒 ── 聖統制,平信徒,獻身生活

871. 「是那些藉洗禮加入基督奧體的人,他們組成天主的子民,因此他們各按自身的方式分享基督的司祭、先知和王者的職務,依各自身分奉召執行天主賦予教會在世界上要完成的使命」

872.「所有基督信徒,因為皆重生於基督,享有地位及行動的真正平等,基於此平等眾人各按其固有的身分及職務,共同建立基督的奧體」。

873. 主在其身體的肢體間所願意有的差別,本身是為了維持它的團結和執行它的使命。因為「教會內的職務雖有區別,使命卻是一致的。基督給了宗徒們及其繼位者,以祂的名義和祂的權力,訓誨、聖化和治理的職務。但是平信徒,由於分享了基督的司祭、先知和王者的職務,在全體天主子民的使命中,也對教會和世界執行他們特有的任務」。此外,從聖職人員和平信徒中,也「有一些基督信徒,因實行福音的勸諭……獻身於天主,並以他們特殊的方式從事教會救世的使命」。

一、教會的聖統結構

為何有教會職務
874.基督自己就是教會內職務的根源。祂建立了教會,並賦予她權力、使命、方針和目標:

主基督為了確保天主子民的牧養和成長的方法,祂在其教會內設立了各種職務,以謀求全體的利益。事實上,這些擁有神權的人員,是為他們的弟兄服務,好使所有屬於天主子民的人……都能獲得救恩。

875.「從未聽到祂,又怎能信祂呢?沒有宣講者,又怎能聽到呢?若沒有奉派遣,人又怎能去宣講呢?」(羅 10:14-15)。無論個人或團體,沒有人能向自己宣講福音。「信仰是出於報道」 (羅 10:17)。沒有人能給予自己宣講福音的諭令和使命。主的使者並不是因個人的權威、而是因基督的權威去講話和行動;他不是以團體成員的名義、而是因基督的名義向團體講話。沒有人能給予自己恩寵,這必須受他人贈予和賞賜。這就假定須有由基督授權和給予資格的恩寵分施者。主教和司鐸從祂那裡領受以基督元首身分 (in persona Christi Capitis)去行事的使命和能力(神權);執事從祂那裡領受服務天主子民的力量,在與主教及其司鐸的共融中,執行為禮儀、聖言和愛德的「服務」 (diaconia)工作。教會傳統稱這種職務為「聖事」;透過它,基督的使者們就能藉天主的恩賜,去實行和給予那他們自己所不能實行和給予的一切。教會的職務是透過專有的聖事而賦予的。
876. 服務的特色 與教會職務的聖事性質息息相關。聖職人員由於全面隸屬那賦予使命和權力的基督,故確實是「基督的僕役」就像基督為了我們而甘願取了「奴僕的形體」(斐 2:7)一般。因為聖職人員為之服務的聖言和恩寵,並不是他們自己的,而是基督的,是基督為了他人而託給他們的,他們將甘願成為眾人的僕役。

 

877. 同樣,集體的特色 (collegial character)也是教會職務的聖事性質所固有的。事實上,主耶穌一開始祂的傳教生活,就選定了十二人,「他們既是新以色列的種子,也是聖統制的起源」他們一起被選,也一起被派遣,他們兄弟般的團結,將為一切基督信徒作出兄弟般共融的服務;它有如聖三共融的一種反映和見証 。為此,每個主教都在主教團的範圍內執行職務,與羅馬的主教──聖伯多祿的繼位者和主教團的首領共融。司鐸們則在主教的領導下,在教區的司鐸團內執行他們的職務。

878. 最後,個人的特色也是教會職務聖事性質所固有的。基督的僕役們在共融中行動,正因為他們也常以個人的方式去行動。每人都是個別地被召喚:「你來跟隨我」(若 21:22),為能在共同的使命中,成為個別的見証,向那賦予使命者負起個人的責任,「以祂的名義」、為一些人服務:「我因父……之名給你付洗」;「我因父……之名赦免你的罪」。

879.因此在教會內,聖事性的職務是一項以基督名義去執行的團隊的服務,同時也是個人的服務。此事既可從主教團跟其元首 ──聖伯多祿繼位者之間的聯繫上証實,也可從以下兩件事的關連中証實:主教對自己地方教會的牧民職責,及整個世界主教團對普世教會的共同關懷。

世界主教團及其元首教宗

880. 基督選立了十二人,「組成了一個團體或一個固定的集團,從他們中選了伯多祿作為他們的首領」。「由於主的規定,就如聖伯多祿和其他宗徒們組成了一個宗徒團;同樣,繼承伯多祿的羅馬教宗和繼承宗徒們的主教們,彼此間也形成一個整體」

881. 主只選了西滿,賜名為伯多祿(磐石),主使伯多祿成為祂教會的磐石。祂把教會的鑰匙交給了伯多祿,使他成為整個羊群的牧人。「然而,賜予伯多祿的束縛與釋放的這項職務,無疑地也賜給了那與其首領相連結的宗徒團」。伯多祿及其他宗徒的這個牧民職務,構成了教會的基礎,將由主教們在教宗的首席權下延續下去。

882. 教宗──羅馬主教和聖伯多祿的繼位者,「是主教們和信友群眾的一個永久而可見的統一中心和基礎」。「事實上,羅馬教宗,以基督代表及整個教會司牧的職務名義,對教會有完全的、最高的、普遍的權力,能時常自由地使用」。

883. 「世界主教團若不以羅馬教宗為其首領……便毫無權力」這樣,主教團「對整個教會也擁有最高和完全的權力,但這項權力除非獲得羅馬教宗的同意,便不能執行」。

884.「世界主教團在大公會議時,以隆重的方式行使它對普世教會的權力」。「除非被伯多祿的繼承者批准、或至少接納,大公會議便不能召開」。
885.「世界主教團由於由許多人組合而成,表示出天主子民的多樣性和普遍性;由於是聚集在唯一的元首下,表達了基督羊群的一體性」。

886. 「主教們個別地來說……每位都是其個別教會可見的統一中心和基礎」。這樣,他們在司鐸和執事的協助下,「只對那些託其管理的部分天主子民,行使其司牧權」。可是,由於作為世界主教團的成員,每位主教都應對所有教會表示關懷,首先是「妥善管理他們自己的教會,如同是普世教會的一部分」,從而促進「整個奧體、也就是各教會總體的利益」。這種關懷尤應包括窮人、因信仰而受迫害者,以及往世界各地去工作的傳教士。

887. 彼此接近而又屬同一文化的個別教會,可形成教省或更廣大的集合體,即宗主教區或地區。這集合體的主教們,可以在主教會議或教省會議聚會。「同樣,今天各地的主教團能以許多有效的方式作出貢獻,使團隊的精神得以具體地實現」。

訓導的職務

888. 主教們和他們的合作者司鐸們,按照主的命令,「具有首要的職責,即向萬民宣講天主的福音」。他們是「信仰的先驅,給基督帶來新的門徒」,是宗徒信仰的「真確的導師,擁有基督的權威」。

889. 為使教會由宗徒們所傳授的信仰保持純真,身為真理的基督,願意教會分享祂的不能舛錯性。天主子民「透過信仰的超性意識」,在教會活的訓導的指引下,「毫無失誤地依附信仰」。

890. 訓導的使命,是與天主在基督內和其子民所訂之盟約的特性息息相關的;它該防範各種錯誤和缺失,保証他們可以無誤地宣認真正信仰的客觀可能性。因此訓導當局的牧民任務在於留心看管,務使天主的子民能生活在使人自由的真理內。為完成此項任務,在有關信仰和道德的事上,基督賦予牧者們不能舛錯的神恩。使用這種神恩能有多種方式。

891. 「幾時世界主教團的首領、羅馬教宗,以全體信徒最高牧者和導師的身分,在信仰上堅定其弟兄們,以決定性的行動,宣布一項有關信仰或道德的教義,便以自己職位的名義,享有這種不能錯誤的神恩……幾時世界主教團與伯多祿的繼承人共同執行這種最高的訓導權」,尤其在召開大公會議時,「那許給教會的不能錯誤的神恩,也留在他們中」。當教會透過她的最高訓導當局,宣布一些「為天主所啟示的當信之道」或基督的教訓時,信徒們便該「以信德的服從去贊同這些論斷」。這種不能錯誤之神恩涵蓋了天主啟示的整個寶庫。

892. 教宗和主教在執行普通訓導權中提出一種訓導,引人在信仰及道德上對啟示有更好的了解,這時即使沒有作出不能錯的論斷,也沒有以「決定性的口氣」表達意見,天主仍然扶掖與伯多祿繼承人共同施教的宗徒們的繼承者,更以一種特殊的方式扶掖羅馬的主教、整個教會的牧者。信友們對這種普通的訓導該「以宗教敬重的心情去依從」,這一依從雖然有別於信德的服從,但確是後者的延伸。

聖化的職務

893. 主教負有「最高司祭職的恩寵分施者」的責任,尤其是在他自己奉獻或藉他的助手、司鐸們所奉獻的感恩祭中。因為感恩祭是個別教會的生活中心。主教和司鐸們以他們的祈禱和工作、以宣道和聖事的職務去聖化教會,也用他們的榜樣去聖化,「不是做託你們照管者的主宰,而是做群羊的模範」 (伯前 5:3),好能「與託給他們照顧的羊群,一起進入永生」。

管理的職務

894. 「主教以善言、鼓勵、榜樣,而且也用權力和神權,以基督代表的資格管權力,縱使它的執行最終是由教會的最高當局所規定」。但主教們不應被視為教宗的代表,教宗對全教會的正常和直接權力並不取消主教們的權力,反倒予以鞏固和維護。主教的權力應在教宗的領導下,與整個教會在共融中執行。

896. 基督善牧將是主教牧民職務的模範和「典型」。主教深知自己的軟弱,「能同情無知和錯誤的人,他不會拒絕聆聽那些隸屬於他的人,他照顧他們真如自己的子女……信徒們要順從主教,就像教會順從耶穌基督、耶穌基督順從天父一樣」:

聖依納爵•安提約基,《致斯納米人書》:你們眾人要追隨主教,如同耶穌基督追隨天父,追隨長老們如同追隨宗徒們一樣;至於執事們,要尊重他們如同尊重天主的法律。沒有主教,任何人都不要進行一些有關教會的事。


Paragraph 4. CHRIST'S FAITHFUL - HIERARCHY, LAITY, CONSECRATED LIFE

871 "The Christian faithful are those who, inasmuch as they have been incorporated in Christ through Baptism, have been constituted as the people of God; for this reason, since they have become sharers in Christ's priestly, prophetic, and royal office in their own manner, they are called to exercise the mission which God has entrusted to the Church to fulfill in the world, in accord with the condition proper to each one."385

872 "In virtue of their rebirth in Christ there exists among all the Christian faithful a true equality with regard to dignity and the activity whereby all cooperate in the building up of the Body of Christ in accord with each one's own condition and function."386

873 The very differences which the Lord has willed to put between the members of his body serve its unity and mission. For "in the Church there is diversity of ministry but unity of mission. To the apostles and their successors Christ has entrusted the office of teaching, sanctifying and governing in his name and by his power. But the laity are made to share in the priestly, prophetical, and kingly office of Christ; they have therefore, in the Church and in the world, their own assignment in the mission of the whole People of God."387 Finally, "from both groups [hierarchy and laity] there exist Christian faithful who are consecrated to God in their own special manner and serve the salvific mission of the Church through the profession of the evangelical counsels."388

I. THE HIERARCHICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE CHURCH

Why the ecclesial ministry?

874 Christ is himself the source of ministry in the Church. He instituted the Church. He gave her authority and mission, orientation and goal:

In order to shepherd the People of God and to increase its numbers without cease, Christ the Lord set up in his Church a variety of offices which aim at the good of the whole body. the holders of office, who are invested with a sacred power, are, in fact, dedicated to promoting the interests of their brethren, so that all who belong to the People of God . . . may attain to salvation.389

875 "How are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? and how are they to hear without a preacher? and how can men preach unless they are sent?"390 No one - no individual and no community - can proclaim the Gospel to himself: "Faith comes from what is heard."391 No one can give himself the mandate and the mission to proclaim the Gospel. the one sent by the Lord does not speak and act on his own authority, but by virtue of Christ's authority; not as a member of the community, but speaking to it in the name of Christ. No one can bestow grace on himself; it must be given and offered. This fact presupposes ministers of grace, authorized and empowered by Christ. From him, they receive the mission and faculty ("the sacred power") to act in persona Christi Capitis. the ministry in which Christ's emissaries do and give by God's grace what they cannot do and give by their own powers, is called a "sacrament" by the Church's tradition. Indeed, the ministry of the Church is conferred by a special sacrament.

876 Intrinsically linked to the sacramental nature of ecclesial ministry is its character as service. Entirely dependent on Christ who gives mission and authority, ministers are truly "slaves of Christ,"392 in the image of him who freely took "the form of a slave" for us.393 Because the word and grace of which they are ministers are not their own, but are given to them by Christ for the sake of others, they must freely become the slaves of all.394

877 Likewise, it belongs to the sacramental nature of ecclesial ministry that it have a collegial character. In fact, from the beginning of his ministry, the Lord Jesus instituted the Twelve as "the seeds of the new Israel and the beginning of the sacred hierarchy."395 Chosen together, they were also sent out together, and their fraternal unity would be at the service of the fraternal communion of all the faithful: they would reflect and witness to the communion of the divine persons.396 For this reason every bishop exercises his ministry from within the episcopal college, in communion with the bishop of Rome, the successor of St. Peter and head of the college. So also priests exercise their ministry from within the presbyterium of the diocese, under the direction of their bishop.

878 Finally, it belongs to the sacramental nature of ecclesial ministry that it have a personal character. Although Chnst's ministers act in communion with one another, they also always act in a personal way. Each one is called personally: "You, follow me"397 in order to be a personal witness within the common mission, to bear personal responsibility before him who gives the mission, acting "in his person" and for other persons: "I baptize you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit ..."; "I absolve you...."

879 Sacramental ministry in the Church, then, is at once a collegial and a personal service, exercised in the name of Christ. This is evidenced by the bonds between the episcopal college and its head, the successor of St. Peter, and in the relationship between the bishop's pastoral responsibility for his particular church and the common solicitude of the episcopal college for the universal Church.

The episcopal college and its head, the Pope

880 When Christ instituted the Twelve, "he constituted [them] in the form of a college or permanent assembly, at the head of which he placed Peter, chosen from among them."398 Just as "by the Lord's institution, St. Peter and the rest of the apostles constitute a single apostolic college, so in like fashion the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are related with and united to one another."399

881 The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the "rock" of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock.400 "The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of apostles united to its head."401 This pastoral office of Peter and the other apostles belongs to the Church's very foundation and is continued by the bishops under the primacy of the Pope.

882 The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter's successor, "is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful."402 "For the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered."403

883 "The college or body of bishops has no authority unless united with the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, as its head." As such, this college has "supreme and full authority over the universal Church; but this power cannot be exercised without the agreement of the Roman Pontiff."404

884 "The college of bishops exercises power over the universal Church in a solemn manner in an ecumenical council."405 But "there never is an ecumenical council which is not confirmed or at least recognized as such by Peter's successor."406

885 "This college, in so far as it is composed of many members, is the expression of the variety and universality of the People of God; and of the unity of the flock of Christ, in so far as it is assembled under one head."407

886 "The individual bishops are the visible source and foundation of unity in their own particular Churches."408 As such, they "exercise their pastoral office over the portion of the People of God assigned to them,"409 assisted by priests and deacons. But, as a member of the episcopal college, each bishop shares in the concern for all the Churches.410 The bishops exercise this care first "by ruling well their own Churches as portions of the universal Church," and so contributing "to the welfare of the whole Mystical Body, which, from another point of view, is a corporate body of Churches."411 They extend it especially to the poor,412 to those persecuted for the faith, as well as to missionaries who are working throughout the world.

887 Neighboring particular Churches who share the same culture form ecclesiastical provinces or larger groupings called patriarchates or regions.413 The bishops of these groupings can meet in synods or provincial councils. "In a like fashion, the episcopal conferences at the present time are in a position to contribute in many and fruitful ways to the concrete realization of the collegiate spirit."414

The teaching office

888 Bishops, with priests as co-workers, have as their first task "to preach the Gospel of God to all men," in keeping with the Lord's command.415 They are "heralds of faith, who draw new disciples to Christ; they are authentic teachers" of the apostolic faith "endowed with the authority of Christ."416

889 In order to preserve the Church in the purity of the faith handed on by the apostles, Christ who is the Truth willed to confer on her a share in his own infallibility. By a "supernatural sense of faith" the People of God, under the guidance of the Church's living Magisterium, "unfailingly adheres to this faith."417

890 The mission of the Magisterium is linked to the definitive nature of the covenant established by God with his people in Christ. It is this Magisterium's task to preserve God's people from deviations and defections and to guarantee them the objective possibility of professing the true faith without error. Thus, the pastoral duty of the Magisterium is aimed at seeing to it that the People of God abides in the truth that liberates. To fulfill this service, Christ endowed the Church's shepherds with the charism of infallibility in matters of faith and morals. the exercise of this charism takes several forms:

891 "The Roman Pontiff, head of the college of bishops, enjoys this infallibility in virtue of his office, when, as supreme pastor and teacher of all the faithful - who confirms his brethren in the faith he proclaims by a definitive act a doctrine pertaining to faith or morals.... the infallibility promised to the Church is also present in the body of bishops when, together with Peter's successor, they exercise the supreme Magisterium," above all in an Ecumenical Council.418 When the Church through its supreme Magisterium proposes a doctrine "for belief as being divinely revealed,"419 and as the teaching of Christ, the definitions "must be adhered to with the obedience of faith."420 This infallibility extends as far as the deposit of divine Revelation itself.421

892 Divine assistance is also given to the successors of the apostles, teaching in communion with the successor of Peter, and, in a particular way, to the bishop of Rome, pastor of the whole Church, when, without arriving at an infallible definition and without pronouncing in a "definitive manner," they propose in the exercise of the ordinary Magisterium a teaching that leads to better understanding of Revelation in matters of faith and morals. To this ordinary teaching the faithful "are to adhere to it with religious assent"422 which, though distinct from the assent of faith, is nonetheless an extension of it.

The sanctifying office

893 The bishop is "the steward of the grace of the supreme priesthood,"423 especially in the Eucharist which he offers personally or whose offering he assures through the priests, his co-workers. the Eucharist is the center of the life of the particular Church. the bishop and priests sanctify the Church by their prayer and work, by their ministry of the word and of the sacraments. They sanctify her by their example, "not as domineering over those in your charge but being examples to the flock."424 Thus, "together with the flock entrusted to them, they may attain to eternal life."425

The governing office

894 "The bishops, as vicars and legates of Christ, govern the particular Churches assigned to them by their counsels, exhortations, and example, but over and above that also by the authority and sacred power" which indeed they ought to exercise so as to edify, in the spirit of service which is that of their Master.426

895 "The power which they exercise personally in the name of Christ, is proper, ordinary, and immediate, although its exercise is ultimately controlled by the supreme authority of the Church."427 But the bishops should not be thought of as vicars of the Pope. His ordinary and immediate authority over the whole Church does not annul, but on the contrary confirms and defends that of the bishops. Their authority must be exercised in communion with the whole Church under the guidance of the Pope.

896 The Good Shepherd ought to be the model and "form" of the bishop's pastoral office. Conscious of his own weaknesses, "the bishop . . . can have compassion for those who are ignorant and erring. He should not refuse to listen to his subjects whose welfare he promotes as of his very own children.... the faithful ... should be closely attached to the bishop as the Church is to Jesus Christ, and as Jesus Christ is to the Father":428

Let all follow the bishop, as Jesus Christ follows his Father, and the college of presbyters as the apostles; respect the deacons as you do God's law. Let no one do anything concerning the Church in separation from the bishop.429

 

 
 

二、平信徒

897. 「所謂平信徒,是指除了聖職人員及教會所認可的修會人員之外的所有基督信徒;他們藉洗禮與基督合成一體,成了天主的子民,以其自己的方式,分享基督的司祭、先知和王者的職務,在他們的職分內,履行整個基督子民在教會和世界上的使命」

平信徒的召叫

898. 「平信徒的固有召叫在尋求天國,他們在暫世性的事務上,依照天主的計劃加以處理……。所以,特別要靠平信徒去光照和處理那些與他們息息相關的暫世性事務,務使這些世事都能按照基督的旨意去完成和發展,並能讚頌造物主和救世主」。

899. 當需要尋找和發明一些途徑,把基督的的教義和基督徒生活的要求滲入社會、政治和經濟領域時,基督平信徒的創意就變得格外需要。這創意是教會生活的一項正常因素:

比約十二世,1946年 2月 20日講詞:平信徒是站在教會生活的最前線;藉著他們,教會是社會的生命力。為這緣故,他們特別該有一個日益清晰的意識:自己不但屬於教會,而且還是教會,即是一個在唯一首領、教宗,及與他共融之主教們領導下的在世的信友團體。他們就是教會。

900. 平信徒,一如所有的信徒,因著聖洗和堅振,從天主那裡領受了傳教工作的任務;因此平信徒,無論是個人或社團,都有責任和權利去從事此項工作,使救恩的屬神訊息,能在全世界被眾人認識和接納。在一些只有透過他們,才能使人聽到福音和認識基督的情況下,這項任務便變得更

平信徒參與基督的司祭職

901. 「平信徒由於獻身於基督及被聖神所傅油,接受奇妙的召叫配以適當方法,讓聖神在他們身上產生日益豐碩的成果。因為他們的一切活動、祈禱、宗徒事業、夫婦和家庭生活、日常操作、身心的休閒──只要在聖神內活出來,甚至生活的種種考驗,若能耐心地忍受,也能變成『因耶穌基督而中悅天主的屬神祭品』(伯前 2:5);這一切在舉行感恩祭時,與主的聖體一起虔敬地獻於父。這樣,當平信徒到處以聖善的生活朝拜天主時,就把世界奉獻給天主」。

902.「當父母以基督徒的精神度婚姻生活,並對他們的子女施行基督化的教育時」,就是以特殊的方式參與聖化的任務。

903. 平信徒若有所需的資格,可永久地接受讀經職和輔祭職。「倘若教會有此需要,在缺乏聖職人員時,即使不是讀經員或輔祭員的平信徒,也能擔任他們的職務,就是執行宣道工作、主持禮儀祈禱、並按法典規定,施行聖洗和分送聖體」。

平信徒參與基督的先知職
904.「基督執行祂先知的任務,不但藉聖統……而且也藉平信徒,使他們成為自己的見証,賦予他們信德的意識和宣道的恩寵」。
教導一些人接受信仰,是每個講道者、也是每個信徒的責任。

905. 平信徒也透過福傳工作去執行他們先知的使命,就是以「言語和生活的見証」去宣講基督。這種藉平信徒而進行的福傳工作,「具有一種特殊的風格和非常的效力,因為它是在世俗的普通環境中完成的」。

這種宗徒工作不祇在於生活的見証;真正的宗徒必尋求機會以言語去宣講基督,無論是向信徒……或向不信的人。
906. 在平信徒中,那些有能力和受過適當訓練的,也可在教理講授的培育、聖學的教導,和在社會傳播方面,提供他們的協助。

907. 「信徒根據自己的學識、能力及聲望,有權利甚至有時也有義務將其有關教會利益的見解表達給教會的牧人,並告知其他信徒,但須顧全信仰和善良風俗的完整、對牧人的尊敬、公益和個人的尊嚴」。

平信徒參與基督的君王職
908. 基督藉著服從至死,給了門徒們王者的自由,「為使他們以克己和聖德的生活,在自己身上戰勝罪惡的王國」。
聖安博,《聖詠第一百一十八篇闡釋》:凡能克制自己肉體、統馭自己靈魂,不讓自己沉溺於私慾偏情的,就是自己的主人,他可被稱為王,因為他能自律。他是自由及獨立
的,不讓自己被有罪的奴役束縛。
活環境,使它們都能符合正義原則,不但不妨礙、而且有助於修德行善。這樣一來,就能把道德的價值灌注在人類的文化和活動中」。

910. 「平信徒也能感到被召或真實被召去與他們的牧者合作,為服務教會的團體,促進它的成長和活力,按照上主要施予他們的恩寵和神恩,而執行各項不同的職務」。

911. 在教會內,「信徒能按法典規定,協助行使管治的權力」,如出席特殊會議、教區會議、牧民委員會,執行堂區的牧民工作,協助經濟委員會,以及參與教會的法庭工作。

912. 信友們必須「仔細分辨,何者是教會成員所應有的權利和義務,何者是社會公民所應有的權利和義務。要設法把兩者加以協調,切記在任何暫世性的事務上,都要受基督徒的意識所引導,因為人類的所有活動,包括暫世性的在內,都不能脫離天主的宰制」。

913.「這樣,每個平信徒,由於所領受的恩寵,『按照基督賜恩的尺度』(弗 4:7),成了教會使命的見証和活的工具」。

 II. THE LAY FAITHFUL

897 "The term 'laity' is here understood to mean all the faithful except those in Holy Orders and those who belong to a religious state approved by the Church. That is, the faithful, who by Baptism are incorporated into Christ and integrated into the People of God, are made sharers in their particular way in the priestly, prophetic, and kingly office of Christ, and have their own part to play in the mission of the whole Christian people in the Church and in the World."430

The vocation of lay people

898 "By reason of their special vocation it belongs to the laity to seek the kingdom of God by engaging in temporal affairs and directing them according to God's will.... It pertains to them in a special way so to illuminate and order all temporal things with which they are closely associated that these may always be effected and grow according to Christ and maybe to the glory of the Creator and Redeemer."431

899 The initiative of lay Christians is necessary especially when the matter involves discovering or inventing the means for permeating social, political, and economic realities with the demands of Christian doctrine and life. This initiative is a normal element of the life of the Church:

Lay believers are in the front line of Church life; for them the Church is the animating principle of human society. Therefore, they in particular ought to have an ever-clearer consciousness not only of belonging to the Church, but of being the Church, that is to say, the community of the faithful on earth under the leadership of the Pope, the common Head, and of the bishops in communion with him. They are the Church.432

900 Since, like all the faithful, lay Christians are entrusted by God with the apostolate by virtue of their Baptism and Confirmation, they have the right and duty, individually or grouped in associations, to work so that the divine message of salvation may be known and accepted by all men throughout the earth. This duty is the more pressing when it is only through them that men can hear the Gospel and know Christ. Their activity in ecclesial communities is so necessary that, for the most part, the apostolate of the pastors cannot be fully effective without it.433 
The participation of lay people in Christ's priestly office

901 "Hence the laity, dedicated as they are to Christ and anointed by the Holy Spirit, are marvellously called and prepared so that even richer fruits of the Spirit maybe produced in them. For all their works, prayers, and apostolic undertakings, family and married life, daily work, relaxation of mind and body, if they are accomplished in the Spirit - indeed even the hardships of life if patiently born - all these become spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. In the celebration of the Eucharist these may most fittingly be offered to the Father along with the body of the Lord. and so, worshipping everywhere by their holy actions, the laity consecrate the world itself to God, everywhere offering worship by the holiness of their lives."434

902 In a very special way, parents share in the office of sanctifying "by leading a conjugal life in the Christian spirit and by seeing to the Christian education of their children."435

903 Lay people who possess the required qualities can be admitted permanently to the ministries of lector and acolyte.436 When the necessity of the Church warrants it and when ministers are lacking, lay persons, even if they are not lectors or acolytes, can also supply for certain of their offices, namely, to exercise the ministry of the word, to preside over liturgical prayers, to confer Baptism, and to distribute Holy Communion in accord with the prescriptions of law."437

Participation in Christ's prophetic office

904 "Christ . . . fulfills this prophetic office, not only by the hierarchy . . . but also by the laity. He accordingly both establishes them as witnesses and provides them with the sense of the faith [sensus fidei] and the grace of the word"438

To teach in order to lead others to faith is the task of every preacher and of each believer.439

905 Lay people also fulfill their prophetic mission by evangelization, "that is, the proclamation of Christ by word and the testimony of life." For lay people, "this evangelization . . . acquires a specific property and peculiar efficacy because it is accomplished in the ordinary circumstances of the world."440

This witness of life, however, is not the sole element in the apostolate; the true apostle is on the lookout for occasions of announcing Christ by word, either to unbelievers . . . or to the faithful.441

906 Lay people who are capable and trained may also collaborate in catechetical formation, in teaching the sacred sciences, and in use of the communications media.442

907 "In accord with the knowledge, competence, and preeminence which they possess, [lay people] have the right and even at times a duty to manifest to the sacred pastors their opinion on matters which pertain to the good of the Church, and they have a right to make their opinion known to the other Christian faithful, with due regard to the integrity of faith and morals and reverence toward their pastors, and with consideration for the common good and the dignity of persons."443

Participation in Christ's kingly office

908 By his obedience unto death,444 Christ communicated to his disciples the gift of royal freedom, so that they might "by the self-abnegation of a holy life, overcome the reign of sin in themselves":445

That man is rightly called a king who makes his own body an obedient subject and, by governing himself with suitable rigor, refuses to let his passions breed rebellion in his soul, for he exercises a kind of royal power over himself. and because he knows how to rule his own person as king, so too does he sit as its judge. He will not let himself be imprisoned by sin, or thrown headlong into wickedness.446

909 "Moreover, by uniting their forces let the laity so remedy the institutions and conditions of the world when the latter are an inducement to sin, that these may be conformed to the norms of justice, favoring rather than hindering the practice of virtue. By so doing they will impregnate culture and human works with a moral value."447

910 "The laity can also feel called, or be in fact called, to cooperate with their pastors in the service of the ecclesial community, for the sake of its growth and life. This can be done through the exercise of different kinds of ministries according to the grace and charisms which the Lord has been pleased to bestow on them."448

911 In the Church, "lay members of the Christian faithful can cooperate in the exercise of this power [of governance] in accord with the norm of law."449 and so the Church provides for their presence at particular councils, diocesan synods, pastoral councils; the exercise in solidum of the pastoral care of a parish, collaboration in finance committees, and participation in ecclesiastical tribunals, etc.450

912 The faithful should "distinguish carefully between the rights and the duties which they have as belonging to the Church and those which fall to them as members of the human society. They will strive to unite the two harmoniously, remembering that in every temporal affair they are to be guided by a Christian conscience, since no human activity, even of the temporal order, can be withdrawn from God's dominion."451

913 "Thus, every person, through these gifts given to him, is at once the witness and the living instrument of the mission of the Church itself 'according to the measure of Christ's bestowal."'452

 

 三、獻身生活

914.「因福音勸諭的誓願而形成的生活地位,雖不屬於教會的聖統組織,卻無可置疑地是教會生活和聖德的一部分」。
福音勸諭、、獻身生活

 

915. 福音勸諭以多種方式向每個基督的門徒提出。所有信徒奉召所修的圓滿愛德,要求那些自由地接受獻身生活聖召的人,要為天國而度獨身的貞潔、神貧和服從的生活。「獻身事主生活」的特徵,就是在一個被教會認可的恆常的生活方式上,發願遵守這些勸諭。

916.因此,修會是一種體驗「更親密」獻身的方式,它植根於聖洗,並完全奉獻於天主。在獻身生活中,基督的信徒們在聖神的推動下,立志更親近地跟隨基督,把自己奉獻於至愛的天主,為服務天國而追求圓滿的愛德,並在教會內預示及宣布未來世界的光榮。

一棵枝條繁茂的大樹

917. 「就像一棵由天主種植的樹,在主的園地裡奇妙地生出很多枝條,同樣,在教會內也發展了各種獨居和團體生活方式的不同的修會家庭,其精神財富有益於其成員,並造福整個的基督身體」。

918. 「早自教會初期,已有男女信徒實踐福音勸諭,為能更自由地追隨基督,更忠誠地效法祂,各人以自己的方式,過著獻身事主的生活。其中有許多人,在聖神的感召下,或度獨居的生活,或創立了修會。教會就以自己的權力,欣然予以接受和批准」。

919.主教們常要留心分辨聖神託給教會有關獻身生活的新恩寵;只有宗座有權核准新形式的獻身生活。
獨修生活

920. 獨修者雖非時常公開地發願遵守三個福音勸諭,但「嚴格的從世界隱退,以慎獨的緘默,勤行祈禱與補贖,奉獻自己的生命,以光榮天主及拯救世界。」。

921. 獨修者向所有人指出教會奧跡這一內在層面,就是與基督有個人的親密來往。獨修者的生活雖隱於世人眼前,卻是對他為之獻身的那一位所作無聲的宣講,因為基督是他的一切,這是一項特殊的召叫:在曠野裡藉著精神戰鬥本身,找到被釘十字架者的光榮。

獻身的貞女與寡婦

922. 從宗徒時代開始,就有基督徒的貞女和寡婦,受了主的召喚,以身心的更大自由,把自己完全奉獻給祂,她們決定「為了天國」(瑪 19:12),在教會的批准下,各自以童身或終生守貞的方式來生活。

923. 「貞女們立定緊隨基督的善志,依照教區主教批准的禮儀慶典,奉獻於天主,奧秘地許配於天主子基督,並委身為教會服務」。透過這隆重的禮儀(貞女的奉獻禮),「貞女便成為受祝聖的人」,有如「教會愛基督的超越標記,這天上新娘的和未來生活的末世形象」。

924. 「與其他獻身生活的方式相似」,貞女會規定在世俗中生活的女性(或修女),要按照各人地位和賜予她們的不同神恩,從事祈禱、補贖、服務兄弟姊妹及宗徒工作。為忠實地遵守自己的善志,貞女們可以互相聯合而成為團體。

修會生活

925. 修會生活在基督教會的最初幾個世紀中發源於東方,並在教會依法成立的修會中實現出來。修會生活異於其他獻身生活方式,其不同點是:敬禮的特質、誓守福音勸諭的公開承諾、團體的友愛生活以及為基督與教會之結合所作的見証。

926. 修會生活源於教會的奧跡。這是教會從主那裡所領受的恩惠。教會把這恩惠作為一種固定的生活方式,給予那些被天主召叫、誓守福音勸諭的信友們。這樣,教會就能彰顯基督並承認自己是救主的淨配。修會生活應邀以不同的形式,透過現代的語言,表達天主慈愛本身。

927. 所有的修會會士,無論「豁免」與否,都在其牧民的職務上,投身於教區主教的合作者之列。從福傳之始,教會在傳教上的建樹和擴展,需要各種形式的修會生活。「歷史証明了修會各支派,由古老的隱修會、中世紀的修會以至現代的修會,在傳播信仰和建立各地的新教會方面,功績彪炳」。

在俗獻身團體
928.「在俗獻身團體是一個獻身生活的團體。在此種團體內,基督徒生活在俗世中,追求完備的愛德,特別從內部努力使世界聖化」。

929. 透過一種「完善和全面獻身於此種聖化工作的生活」,這類團體的成員,「在俗世及從俗世中」參與教會的福傳工作,在俗世中他們的臨在就「像酵母般」發生作用。他們「基督徒生活的見証」,在於「照天主旨意去處理暫世性的事務,並以福音的力量去滲透世界。」他們以神聖的承諾接受福音勸諭,並在他們中保持俗世生活方式本有的共融和友愛。

使徒生活團

930. 除了各種形式的獻身生活外,「尚有使徒生活團,這些團的成員不發修會聖願,而追求團體本身使徒目的,共同度手足生活;並依照本有的生活方式,藉遵守團規而追求完備的愛德。在這些團體中,某些團體的成員〔依其團憲規定〕遵行福音勸諭」。

獻身與使命::宣告那要來的君王

931. 藉洗禮而奉獻於主的人,把自己交給至愛的天主後,就使自己更親密地獻身事主及造福教會。藉著獻身事主的地位,教會把基督顯揚出來,並顯示聖神如何奇妙地在她內工作。因此,那些誓守福音勸諭的人,首要的使命是善度他們的奉獻生活。但「他們因獻身為教會服務,故有責任依照其本會固有的方式,以特別形式從事傳教事業」。

932. 教會是聖事,就是天主生命的標記和工具,在她內獻身生活顯示出是救贖奧跡的特別標記。「更親密地」跟隨和效法基督、「更清晰地」顯示祂的謙虛,就是要「更深入地」,在基督的心內,親近自己同時代的人。因為,那些在這「更狹窄」的道路上行走的人,以他們的榜樣鼓勵自己的弟兄,使這見証光耀奪目,「若無真福的精神,便不能改造世界,並把它獻給天主」。

933. 無論這種見証是公開的,有如修會生活那樣,或是半公開的,甚至隱藏的,對所有的獻身者來說,基督的來臨常是他們生活的根源和旭日:
因為天主的子民在此世並無永存的國度……修會生活向所有信徒昭示,天上的福樂在此世已出現,為基督救贖所獲得的永恆的新生命作証,預告將來的復活及天國的光榮。

撮要

934. 「依天主建立的制度,基督信徒中有些人在教會盡聖職,依法典稱之為聖職人員,而其他人則稱為平信徒。」從這兩種人當中,有些基督信徒誓守福音的勸諭,獻身予天主,以此方式實踐教會的使命。

935. 基督為了宣示信仰及建立祂的國度,派遣祂的宗徒和他們的繼承人。基督讓他們分擔祂的使命,他們則從祂那裡獲得權力,以祂的身分行事。

936. 主使聖伯多祿成為祂教會的有形基石,祂把教會的鑰匙交託給他。羅馬教會的主教,聖伯多祿的繼承者,是「世界主教團的首領、基督的代表、普世教會現世的牧人」。

937. 教宗「由於天主的制定,享有最高、完全、直接與普遍的權力,以照顧人靈」。
938. 主教是聖神所立的宗徒的繼承者,「每位主教是其個別教會可見的統一中心和基礎」。

939. 主教在其合作者司鐸和執事的協助下,專責對信仰作權威的訓導,舉行敬天之禮、尤其是感恩祭,並以真正牧者的身分領導他們的教會。同教宗一起、在他的領導下關心所有的教會,也是他們分內的事。

940. 平信徒由於他們「生活於塵世,從事俗世的事務。天主召叫他們,是要他們充滿基督的精神,以酵母的方式、在世上從事宗徒工作」。

941. 平信徒分享基督的司祭職:他們日益與祂結合,把聖洗和堅振的恩寵拓展至個人、家庭、社會及教會生活的各層面,並實現天主向所有受過洗的人所作的成聖召叫。

942. 平信徒因他們的先知使命,「也蒙召在一切事上和在人類社會中,成為基督的見証」。
943.平信徒因他們的王道使命,有權力,要以克己和聖德的生活,在世俗和自己身上戰勝罪惡的勢力。
944.獻身事主的生活,其特徵是在教會所認可的固定生活方式內,公開宣認遵守神貧、貞潔、服從的福音勸諭。
945. 那些曾經因聖洗而歸於天主,並將自己交付給至愛天主的人,在奉獻生活中,更親密地投身於天主的事業,並致力造福整個教會。


III. THE CONSECRATED LIFE

914 "The state of life which is constituted by the profession of the evangelical counsels, while not entering into the hierarchical structure of the Church, belongs undeniably to her life and holiness."453

Evangelical counsels, consecrated life

915 Christ proposes the evangelical counsels, in their great variety, to every disciple. the perfection of charity, to which all the faithful are called, entails for those who freely follow the call to consecrated life the obligation of practicing chastity in celibacy for the sake of the Kingdom, poverty and obedience. It is the profession of these counsels, within a permanent state of life recognized by the Church, that characterizes the life consecrated to God.454

916 The religious state is thus one way of experiencing a "more intimate" consecration, rooted in Baptism and dedicated totally to God.455 In the consecrated life, Christ's faithful, moved by the Holy Spirit, propose to follow Christ more nearly, to give themselves to God who is loved above all and, pursuing the perfection of charity in the service of the Kingdom, to signify and proclaim in the Church the glory of the world to come.456

One great tree, with many branches

917 "From the God-given seed of the counsels a wonderful and wide-spreading tree has grown up in the field of the Lord, branching out into various forms of the religious life lived in solitude or in community. Different religious families have come into existence in which spiritual resources are multiplied for the progress in holiness of their members and for the good of the entire Body of Christ."457

918 From the very beginning of the Church there were men and women who set out to follow Christ with greater liberty, and to imitate him more closely, by practicing the evangelical counsels. They led lives dedicated to God, each in his own way. Many of them, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, became hermits or founded religious families. These the Church, by virtue of her authority, gladly accepted and approved.458

919 Bishops will always strive to discern new gifts of consecrated life granted to the Church by the Holy Spirit; the approval of new forms of consecrated life is reserved to the Apostolic See.459

The eremitic life

920 Without always professing the three evangelical counsels publicly, hermits "devote their life to the praise of God and salvation of the world through a stricter separation from the world, the silence of solitude and assiduous prayer and penance."460

921 They manifest to everyone the interior aspect of the mystery of the Church, that is, personal intimacy with Christ. Hidden from the eyes of men, the life of the hermit is a silent preaching of the Lord, to whom he has surrendered his life simply because he is everything to him. Here is a particular call to find in the desert, in the thick of spiritual battle, the glory of the Crucified One.

Consecrated virgins

922 From apostolic times Christian virgins, called by the Lord to cling only to him with greater freedom of heart, body, and spirit, have decided with the Church's approval to live in a state of virginity "for the sake of the Kingdom of heaven."461

923 "Virgins who, committed to the holy plan of following Christ more closely, are consecrated to God by the diocesan bishop according to the approved liturgical rite, are betrothed mystically to Christ, the Son of God, and are dedicated to the service of the Church."462 By this solemn rite (Consecratio virginum), the virgin is "constituted . . . a sacred person, a transcendent sign of the Church's love for Christ, and an eschatological image of this heavenly Bride of Christ and of the life to come."463

924 "As with other forms of consecrated life," the order of virgins establishes the woman living in the world (or the nun) in prayer, penance, service of her brethren, and apostolic activity, according to the state of life and spiritual gifts given to her.464 Consecrated virgins can form themselves into associations to observe their commitment more faithfully.465

Religious life

925 Religious life was born in the East during the first centuries of Christianity. Lived within institutes canonically erected by the Church, it is distinguished from other forms of consecrated life by its liturgical character, public profession of the evangelical counsels, fraternal life led in common, and witness given to the union of Christ with the Church.466

926 Religious life derives from the mystery of the Church. It is a gift she has received from her Lord, a gift she offers as a stable way of life to the faithful called by God to profess the counsels. Thus, the Church can both show forth Christ and acknowledge herself to be the Savior's bride. Religious life in its various forms is called to signify the very charity of God in the language of our time.

927 All religious, whether exempt or not, take their place among the collaborators of the diocesan bishop in his pastoral duty.467 From the outset of the work of evangelization, the missionary "planting" and expansion of the Church require the presence of the religious life in all its forms.468 "History witnesses to the outstanding service rendered by religious families in the propagation of the faith and in the formation of new Churches: from the ancient monastic institutions to the medieval orders, all the way to the more recent congregations."469

Secular institutes

928 "A secular institute is an institute of consecrated life in which the Christian faithful living in the world strive for the perfection of charity and work for the sanctification of the world especially from within."470

929 By a "life perfectly and entirely consecrated to [such] sanctification," the members of these institutes share in the Church's task of evangelization, "in the world and from within the world," where their presence acts as "leaven in the world."471 "Their witness of a Christian life" aims "to order temporal things according to God and inform the world with the power of the gospel." They commit themselves to the evangelical counsels by sacred bonds and observe among themselves the communion and fellowship appropriate to their "particular secular way of life."472

Societies of apostolic life

930 Alongside the different forms of consecrated life are "societies of apostolic life whose members without religious vows pursue the particular apostolic purpose of their society, and lead a life as brothers or sisters in common according to a particular manner of life, strive for the perfection of charity through the observance of the constitutions. Among these there are societies in which the members embrace the evangelical counsels" according to their constitutions.473

Consecration and mission: proclaiming the King who is corning

931 Already dedicated to him through Baptism, the person who surrenders himself to the God he loves above all else thereby consecrates himself more intimately to God's service and to the good of the Church. By this state of life consecrated to God, the Church manifests Christ and shows us how the Holy Spirit acts so wonderfully in her. and so the first mission of those who profess the evangelical counsels is to live out their consecration. Moreover, "since members of institutes of consecrated life dedicate themselves through their consecration to the service of the Church they are obliged in a special manner to engage in missionary work, in accord with the character of the institute."474

932 In the Church, which is like the sacrament - the sign and instrument - of God's own life, the consecrated life is seen as a special sign of the mystery of redemption. To follow and imitate Christ more nearly and to manifest more clearly his self-emptying is to be more deeply present to one's contemporaries, in the heart of Christ. For those who are on this "narrower" path encourage their brethren by their example, and bear striking witness "that the world cannot be transfigured and offered to God without the spirit of the beatitudes."475

933 Whether their witness is public, as in the religious state, or less public, or even secret, Christ's coming remains for all those consecrated both the origin and rising sun of their life:

For the People of God has here no lasting city, . . . [and this state] reveals more clearly to all believers the heavenly goods which are already present in this age, witnessing to the new and eternal life which we have acquired through the redemptive work of Christ and preluding our future resurrection and the glory of the heavenly kingdom.476

IN BRIEF

934 "Among the Christian faithful by divine institution there exist in the Church sacred ministers, who are also called clerics in law, and other Christian faithful who are also called laity." In both groups there are those Christian faithful who, professing the evangelical counsels, are consecrated to God and so serve the Church's saving mission (cf.  CIC, can. 207 # 1, 2).

935 To proclaim the faith and to plant his reign, Christ sends his apostles and their successors. He gives them a share in his own mission. From him they receive the power to act in his person.

936 The Lord made St. Peter the visible foundation of his Church. He entrusted the keys of the Church to him. the bishop of the Church of Rome, successor to St. Peter, is "head of the college of bishops, the Vicar of Christ and Pastor of the universal Church on earth" ( CIC, can. 331).

937 The Pope enjoys, by divine institution, "supreme, full, immediate, and universal power in the care of souls" (CD 2).

938 The Bishops, established by the Holy Spirit, succeed the apostles. They are "the visible source and foundation of unity in their own particular Churches" (LG 23).

939 Helped by the priests, their co-workers, and by the deacons, the bishops have the duty of authentically teaching the faith, celebrating divine worship, above all the Eucharist, and guiding their Churches as true pastors. Their responsibility also includes concern for all the Churches, with and under the Pope.

940 "The characteristic of the lay state being a life led in the midst of the world and of secular affairs, lay people are called by God to make of their apostolate, through the vigor of their Christian spirit, a leaven in the world" (AA 2 # 2).

941 Lay people share in Christ's priesthood: ever more united with him, they exhibit the grace of Baptism and Confirmation in all dimensions of their personal family, social and ecclesial lives, and so fulfill the call to holiness addressed to all the baptized.

942 By virtue of their prophetic mission, lay people "are called . . . to be witnesses to Christ in all circumstances and at the very heart of the community of mankind" (GS 43 # 4).

943 By virtue of their kingly mission, lay people have the power to uproot the rule of sin within themselves and in the world, by their self-denial and holiness of life (cf. LG 36).

944 The life consecrated to God is characterized by the public profession of the evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity, and obedience, in a stable state of life recognized by the Church.

945 Already destined for him through Baptism, the person who surrenders himself to the God he loves above all else thereby consecrates himself more intimately to God's service and to the good of the whole Church.

   
   
   
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