卷一信仰的宣認-人/MAN

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第六節 人

355. 「天主照自己的肖象造了人,就是照天主的肖象造了人:造了男人和女人」(創 1:27)。人在受造界中,享有獨一無二的地位:(一)他是「按照天主的肖象」;(二)精神世界與物質世界在他本性上合而為一; (三)被造成「男和女」;(四)天主把人安置在祂的友誼中。

一、「按照天主的肖象」

356. 在一切有形的受造物中,唯獨人「能認識及愛慕自己的造物主」;人是「世上唯一的受造物,是天主為了人本身所要的」只有人奉召在知識和愛情上,分享天主的生命。人就是為這目的而受造,而且也是人有其尊嚴的基本理由。

聖女加大利納•西恩那,《對話集》:祢為了甚麼理由使人享有這麼大的尊嚴?肯定是那無窮的愛,祢因這愛注視了在祢內的受造物,並深深地愛上他。因為祢為了愛而創造了他,為了愛而使他存在、具有品嘗祢永福的能力。

357. 由於人按照天主的肖象而存在,每個人都有位格的尊嚴;他不只是一個物品,而是一個人。他能認識自己、擁有自己、自由地奉獻自己、並與其他的人溝通。他因恩寵而奉召與自己的造物主訂立盟約,向祂作出無人可替代的信仰和愛的回應。

358. 天主為人創造了一切,但人被造是為事奉和愛慕天主,把整個受造界奉獻給祂:
359.「事實上,只有在天主聖言降生成人的奧跡內,才能真正解釋人的奧跡」:

金口聖若望,《講創世紀的道理》:有甚麼東西在受造時得到如此優遇?只有人,因為人具有偉大而奇妙的活生生形態,在天主眼中比整個受造界更為貴重。 天空、大地、海洋及整個受造界都是為人而存在,而且天主對人的得救如此重視,甚至連自己的獨生子也不顧惜。因為天主從不間斷地提拔人到祂跟前,使他坐在自 己的右邊。

金言聖伯多祿,《講道集》:保祿宗徒告訴我們:有兩個人給了人類起源,就是亞當和基督……第一個亞當成了有生命的人,最後的亞當成了賦予生命的神。 第一個亞當為後者所造成,也從祂接受了靈魂而得以生活……第二個亞當在塑造第一個亞當時,在他身上刻了自己的肖象。祂擔當了第一個亞當的角色並接受他的名 字,以免失去祂按自己的肖象而創造的本意。有第一個亞當,有最後的亞當:第一個亞當有一個開始,最後的亞當卻沒有終結。因為這最後的亞當其實是第一個,因 為祂說:「就是我,只有我是元始和終結」。

360.由於人類同出一源,因而形成了一個整體,因為天主「由一個人造了全人類」(宗 17:26):

比約十二世,《至高司祭》通諭:我們所瞻仰的奇妙景象就是人類同出一源──天主……;大家都有同一的本性:由物質的肉身和精神的靈魂所組成;大家都 有同一的直接目標和在世的使命;同一的居所──大地,它的資源人人都能按自然的權利加以使用,以維持和發展自己的生活;同一的超性終向──天主,人人都要 歸向祂;同一個達到那終向的途徑;……大家都是基督以同一贖價贖回來的。

361.「人類的連帶責任與愛德的這條法律」,給我們保証所有的人,包括各式各樣的人、文化和民族,確實都是兄弟姊妹。

二、「靈魂和身體合而為一」

362. 人是按照天主肖象而受造的,是一個同時具有物質和精神的存有。聖經以一種象徵性的語言表達了這個事實:「天主用地上的灰土形成了人,在他鼻孔內吹了一口生氣,人就成了一個有靈的生物」(創 2:7)。所以整個的人成為天主愛的對象

363. 很多次,靈魂一詞在聖經裡是指人的生命,或指完整的人的位格。但也指人心內最隱密的、最有價值的和特別使他成為天主肖象的一切:「靈魂」是指人的精神本原

364. 人的身體分享「天主肖象」的尊嚴:它是人性的身體,正因為是一個屬神的靈魂使它活起來,而且是整個的人要在基督的身體內,成為聖神的宮殿。

人是由肉體、靈魂所組成的一個單位。以身體而論,人將物質世界各樣事物匯集於一身。於是,物質世界便藉人抵達其高峰,並藉人歌頌造物主。故此,人不應輕視其肉體生命,而應承認其肉體的美善而加以重視;因為肉體由天主所造,末日又將復活。

365. 靈魂和身體的結合是如此密切,以致該視靈魂為身體的「形」(forma);這表示基於靈魂,由物質組成的身體成為一個活生生的人的身體。在人身上,精神和物質並非兩個本性連接在一起,而是兩者結合而成獨一的本性。
滅,並會在末日復活時,重新與身體結合。

367. 有時人會把靈魂與神魂(spirit)加以區別,就如聖保祿這樣祝禱說:「將你們整個的神魂、靈魂和肉身,在我們的主來臨時,保持得無瑕可指」(得前 5:23)。教會教導我們,這樣的區別並不構成靈魂的二元性。 「神魂」是指當人被創造時,人已被賦予超性的終向,又指人的靈魂能被天主無條件地提昇到與祂共融的境界。

368.教會的靈修傳統也強調人心,即按聖經所指是「人的最深之處」,人就是在那深處決定是否接納天主。

三、「祂創造了男和女」

天主所願意的男女平等與差異

369. 男和女都是天主所造,也即是天主所愛的:就人性而論,兩者是完全平等的,但按其男女性別而論,則各有不同。 「成為男人」和「成為女人」乃天主所願意的美好事實:男人和女人都有不可剝奪的尊嚴,直接來自他們的造物主。男女都是「按照天主的肖象」所造,具有同等的 尊嚴。在他們「成為男人」和「成為女人」的事實上,反映出造物主的智慧和慈善。

370. 天主絕非按人的肖象而存在,祂既非男人亦非女人。天主是純神,因此在祂內並無性別。然而男和女的「美善」多少反映出天主無限的美善:例如母親、父親及夫君的美善。

「相互依存相互依存」」────「「兩者結合為一兩者結合為一」

371. 天主創造男和女在一起,願意他們相互依存。天主聖言透過聖經的不同章節使我們明白這點。「人單獨不好,我要 給他造個與他相稱的助手」(創 2:18)。沒有任何動物能成為人「心心相印」的助手。天主取用人的肋骨「塑造」了女人,並帶她到男人面前,激發男人的驚嘆之聲,使他不禁發出愛慕和共融 的呼喊:「這才真是我的親骨肉」(創 2:23)。男人發現女人是另一個「我」,具有同樣的人性。

372. 男人和女人是為了「相互依存」而受造的,但並非指天主造了他們「一半」和「不完整的」。天主造了他們是為使人們彼此共融,各人都能成為另一個的「助手」, 因為就位格而言兩者是平等的(我的親骨肉……),就男女性別而言則是互補的。在婚姻中,天主把他們二人結合,「成為一體」(創 2:24),好能傳宗接代:「你們要生育繁殖,充滿大地」(創 1:28)。男女作為夫妻和父母,將人的生命傳遞給子女,以獨一無二的方式協助了造物主的造化工程。
「愛護一切所有」時 (智 11:24),男女奉召去參與天主對其他受造物的眷顧。因此他們對天主所託付的世界,有其責任。

四、樂園中的人

374. 第一個人不但造得好,而且與創造者處於友誼中,與自己和其他受造物也和諧相處,此種友誼及和諧只有那在基督內新造化的光榮才能超越。

375. 教會按新約和聖傳的指示,在正式解釋聖經語言的象徵意義時,教導我們原祖亞當厄娃原是被安置在一個「原始聖德和義德」的狀態下。原始聖德的恩寵就是「分享天主的生命」。

376. 人生的一切幅度原先都被這恩寵的光輝所強化。那時只要人留在天主的親密友誼內,就不必死亡,也不必受苦。人的內部和諧、男女間的和諧、第一對夫婦與整個受造界的和諧,構成所謂「原始義德」的情況。

377. 天主從起初就使人作世界的「主人」,首先使人在其自身作主,自律自重。人就其整個的存有而言原是完整有序的,因為不受三重的貪慾支配,這貪慾使人受制於感官的快樂、財物的貪婪,並使人自恃而反抗理性的命令。

378. 人與天主親切交往的標記, 在於天主把人安置在樂園中生活,「叫他耕種,看守樂園」(創 2:15):工作並非痛苦,而是男女跟天主合作,使有形的受造界達致完美。

379.因著我們原祖的罪,天主在其計劃中為人所預定的原始義德的和諧,便完全失去了。
撮要
380.「聖父……祢按照祢的肖象造生了人類,使人管理世界,統御萬物,事奉祢、唯一的造物主」。
381.人被預定,要按降生成人的天主聖子的肖象 ──「那不可見的天主的肖象」(哥 1:15)──再造,好使基督在眾多兄弟姊妹中作長子。
382.人是「由靈魂和身體所組成的一個整體」。信德道理確認:作為精神的及不死不滅的靈魂,乃直接由天主所造。
383.「天主造的人不是孤單的,祂自起初便造了『男人和女人』(創 1:27),他們的結合便成為人與人共同生活的雛形」。
384.啟示告訴我們男人和女人在犯罪前原有聖德和義德:從他們與天主的友誼中,湧流著他們在樂園生活的幸福。



 

Paragraph 6. MAN

355 "God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him, male and female he created them."218 Man occupies a unique place in creation: (I) he is "in the image of God"; (II) in his own nature he unites the spiritual and material worlds; (III) he is created "male and female"; (IV) God established him in his friendship.

I. "IN THE IMAGE OF GOD"

356 of all visible creatures only man is "able to know and love his creator".219 He is "the only creature on earth that God has willed for its own sake",220 and he alone is called to share, by knowledge and love, in God's own life. It was for this end that he was created, and this is the fundamental reason for his dignity:
What made you establish man in so great a dignity? Certainly the incalculable love by which you have looked on your creature in yourself! You are taken with love for her; for by love indeed you created her, by love you have given her a being capable of tasting your eternal Good.221

357 Being in the image of God the human individual possesses the dignity of a person, who is not just something, but someone. He is capable of self-knowledge, of self-possession and of freely giving himself and entering into communion with other persons. and he is called by grace to a covenant with his Creator, to offer him a response of faith and love that no other creature can give in his stead.

358 God created everything for man,222 but man in turn was created to serve and love God and to offer all creation back to him:
What is it that is about to be created, that enjoys such honour? It is man that great and wonderful living creature, more precious in the eyes of God than all other creatures! For him the heavens and the earth, the sea and all the rest of creation exist. God attached so much importance to his salvation that he did not spare his own Son for the sake of man. Nor does he ever cease to work, trying every possible means, until he has raised man up to himself and made him sit at his right hand.223

359 "In reality it is only in the mystery of the Word made flesh that the mystery of man truly becomes clear."224

St. Paul tells us that the human race takes its origin from two men: Adam and Christ. . . the first man, Adam, he says, became a living soul, the last Adam a life-giving spirit. the first Adam was made by the last Adam, from whom he also received his soul, to give him life... the second Adam stamped his image on the first Adam when he created him. That is why he took on himself the role and the name of the first Adam, in order that he might not lose what he had made in his own image. the first Adam, the last Adam: the first had a beginning, the last knows no end. the last Adam is indeed the first; as he himself says: "I am the first and the last."225

360 Because of its common origin the human race forms a unity, for "from one ancestor (God) made all nations to inhabit the whole earth":226

O wondrous vision, which makes us contemplate the human race in the unity of its origin in God. . . in the unity of its nature, composed equally in all men of a material body and a spiritual soul; in the unity of its immediate end and its mission in the world; in the unity of its dwelling, the earth, whose benefits all men, by right of nature, may use to sustain and develop life; in the unity of its supernatural end: God himself, to whom all ought to tend; in the unity of the means for attaining this end;. . . in the unity of the redemption wrought by Christ for all.227

361 "This law of human solidarity and charity",228 without excluding the rich variety of persons, cultures and peoples, assures us that all men are truly brethren.

II. "BODY AND SOUL BUT TRULY ONE"

362 The human person, created in the image of God, is a being at once corporeal and spiritual. the biblical account expresses this reality in symbolic language when it affirms that "then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being."229 Man, whole and entire, is therefore willed by God.

363 In Sacred Scripture the term "soul" often refers to human life or the entire human person.230 But "soul" also refers to the innermost aspect of man, that which is of greatest value in him,231 that by which he is most especially in God's image: "soul" signifies the spiritual principle in man.

364 The human body shares in the dignity of "the image of God": it is a human body precisely because it is animated by a spiritual soul, and it is the whole human person that is intended to become, in the body of Christ, a temple of the Spirit:232

Man, though made of body and soul, is a unity. Through his very bodily condition he sums up in himself the elements of the material world. Through him they are thus brought to their highest perfection and can raise their voice in praise freely given to the Creator. For this reason man may not despise his bodily life. Rather he is obliged to regard his body as good and to hold it in honour since God has created it and will raise it up on the last day 233

365 The unity of soul and body is so profound that one has to consider the soul to be the "form" of the body:234 i.e., it is because of its spiritual soul that the body made of matter becomes a living, human body; spirit and matter, in man, are not two natures united, but rather their union forms a single nature.

366 The Church teaches that every spiritual soul is created immediately by God - it is not "produced" by the parents - and also that it is immortal: it does not perish when it separates from the body at death, and it will be reunited with the body at the final Resurrection.235

367 Sometimes the soul is distinguished from the spirit: St. Paul for instance prays that God may sanctify his people "wholly", with "spirit and soul and body" kept sound and blameless at the Lord's coming.236 The Church teaches that this distinction does not introduce a duality into the soul.237 "Spirit" signifies that from creation man is ordered to a supernatural end and that his soul can gratuitously be raised beyond all it deserves to communion with God.238

368 The spiritual tradition of the Church also emphasizes the heart, in the biblical sense of the depths of one's being, where the person decides for or against God.239

III. "MALE AND FEMALE HE CREATED THEM"

Equality and difference willed by God

369 Man and woman have been created, which is to say, willed by God: on the one hand, in perfect equality as human persons; on the other, in their respective beings as man and woman. "Being man" or "being woman" is a reality which is good and willed by God: man and woman possess an inalienable dignity which comes to them immediately from God their Creator.240 Man and woman are both with one and the same dignity "in the image of God". In their "being-man" and "being-woman", they reflect the Creator's wisdom and goodness.

370 In no way is God in man's image. He is neither man nor woman. God is pure spirit in which there is no place for the difference between the sexes. But the respective "perfections" of man and woman reflect something of the infinite perfection of God: those of a mother and those of a father and husband.241

"Each for the other" - "A unity in two"

371 God created man and woman together and willed each for the other. the Word of God gives us to understand this through various features of the sacred text. "It is not good that the man should be alone. I will make him a helper fit for him."242 None of the animals can be man's partner.243 The woman God "fashions" from the man's rib and brings to him elicits on the man's part a cry of wonder, an exclamation of love and communion: "This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh."244 Man discovers woman as another "I", sharing the same humanity.

372 Man and woman were made "for each other" - not that God left them half-made and incomplete: he created them to be a communion of persons, in which each can be "helpmate" to the other, for they are equal as persons ("bone of my bones. . .") and complementary as masculine and feminine. In marriage God unites them in such a way that, by forming "one flesh",245 they can transmit human life: "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth."246 By transmitting human life to their descendants, man and woman as spouses and parents co-operate in a unique way in the Creator's work.247

373 In God's plan man and woman have the vocation of "subduing" the earth248 as stewards of God. This sovereignty is not to be an arbitrary and destructive domination. God calls man and woman, made in the image of the Creator "who loves everything that exists",249 to share in his providence toward other creatures; hence their responsibility for the world God has entrusted to them.

IV. MAN IN PARADISE

374 The first man was not only created good, but was also established in friendship with his Creator and in harmony with himself and with the creation around him, in a state that would be surpassed only by the glory of the new creation in Christ.

375 The Church, interpreting the symbolism of biblical language in an authentic way, in the light of the New Testament and Tradition, teaches that our first parents, Adam and Eve, were constituted in an original "state of holiness and justice".250 This grace of original holiness was "to share in. . .divine life".251

376 By the radiance of this grace all dimensions of man's life were confirmed. As long as he remained in the divine intimacy, man would not have to suffer or die.252 The inner harmony of the human person, the harmony between man and woman,253 and finally the harmony between the first couple and all creation, comprised the state called "original justice".

377 The "mastery" over the world that God offered man from the beginning was realized above all within man himself: mastery of self. the first man was unimpaired and ordered in his whole being because he was free from the triple concupiscence254 that subjugates him to the pleasures of the senses, covetousness for earthly goods, and self-assertion, contrary to the dictates of reason.

378 The sign of man's familiarity with God is that God places him in the garden.255 There he lives "to till it and keep it". Work is not yet a burden,256 but rather the collaboration of man and woman with God in perfecting the visible creation.

379 This entire harmony of original justice, foreseen for man in God's plan, will be lost by the sin of our first parents.

IN BRIEF

380 "Father,. . . you formed man in your own likeness and set him over the whole world to serve you, his creator, and to rule over all creatures" (Roman Missal, EP IV, 118).

381 Man is predestined to reproduce the image of God's Son made man, the "image of the invisible God" ( Col 1:15), so that Christ shall be the first-born of a multitude of brothers and sisters (cf Eph 1:3-6; Rom 8:29).

382 "Man, though made of body and soul, is a unity" (GS 14 # 1). the doctrine of the faith affirms that the spiritual and immortal soul is created immediately by God.

383 "God did not create man a solitary being. From the beginning, "male and female he created them" ( Gen 1:27). This partnership of man and woman constitutes the first form of communion between persons" (GS 12 # 4).

384 Revelation makes known to us the state of original holiness and justice of man and woman before sin: from their friendship with God flowed the happiness of their existence in paradise.


第七節 墮落

385. 天主無限慈善,祂的一切工程都美好,可是沒有人能倖免痛苦,不能倖免自然的災害── 這些看來是繫於受造物本身的局限,尤其不能倖免倫理惡的問題。究竟惡是從哪裡來的呢?聖奧思定說:「我自問究竟惡從何而來,我卻不知如何回答」,他那辛苦 的探討只有在皈依生活的天主後,才找到了出路。因為「罪惡的奧跡」(得後 2:7)只有在「虔敬奧跡」(弟前 3:16)的光照下才能彰顯。天主的聖愛在基督身上啟示出來,一面顯示罪惡的廣泛,一面也顯示了恩寵的盈溢。因此,我們應該面對惡的來源的問題,方法是以 信德的眼目,注視那唯一使邪惡敗退的征服者。

一、「那裡罪惡越多,,恩寵也越豐富恩寵也越豐富」

罪惡的事實

386. 罪惡存在於人類的歷史中:任何人企圖忽視或以其他名稱表達這晦暗的事實,都徒勞無功。嘗試了解甚麼是罪惡,首先必須承認人與天主的深切關係,只有在此關係中,罪惡才露出它拒絕與反抗天主的真相,這一直是人的生命和歷史的重負。

387. 罪惡的事實,尤其是原罪的事實,只有在天主啟示的光照下才能明瞭。若無啟示給予有關天主的知識,將不能清楚地認出罪惡,而只能設法把它只解作成長的缺陷、 心理的弱點、錯誤或社會組織不足的必然後果等。只有認識了天主對人的計劃,才能明白罪惡是妄用自由,天主賜給受造的人自由,是要人用來愛祂和彼此相愛的。

原罪 ──── 信仰的一項主要真理

388. 隨著啟示的進展,罪惡的事實也得以明朗。雖然舊約的天主子民通過創世紀所敘述的墮落史,已多少認識人類的處境的痛苦,但未能了解這種歷史的終極意義。唯有 在耶穌基督的死亡和復活的光照下,它的意義才完全顯示出來。為能認識亞當是罪惡的禍根,必須認識基督是恩寵的泉源。是復活的基督所派遣的護慰者聖神,前來 審判世界的罪並啟示那位贖罪者。
清楚地知道,破壞原罪的啟示,必損害基督的奧跡。

如何解讀墮落的敘述

390. 墮落的敘述(創 3)採用了象徵的語言,但肯定是一宗原創性的事件,發生在人類歷史的肇始。啟示使我們確信,整個人類歷史都刻著我們原祖自由所犯的原始錯誤

二、天使的墮落

391. 在我們原祖抗命性抉擇的背後,有一個誘惑者的聲音反抗天主,他為了嫉妒而使原祖陷入死亡。聖經和教會聖傳視之為一個墮落的天使,號稱撒殫或魔鬼。教會教導 我們,他起初是好天使,由天主所造。「事實上魔鬼和其他邪魔,確實是天主所造,原本是好的,但他們自己後來成了邪惡的」。

392. 聖經曾談及這些天使的罪惡。這種「墮落」在於這些受造的精神體,以自由的抉擇,徹底而無可挽回地拒絕天主及祂的神國。我們可從誘惑者對我們原祖所說的話,找到這種背叛的反映:「你們將如同天主一樣」(創 3:5)。「魔鬼從起初就犯罪」(若一 3:8),「又是撒謊者的父親」(若 8:44)。

393. 天使的罪之所以不能獲得寬恕,是由於他們在抉擇上具有無可挽回的特性,而並非天主無限仁慈的一項缺陷。「正如人死後不能再悔改,天使們在墮落後也不可能悔改」。

394. 那被耶穌稱為「從起初殺人的兇手」(若 8:44),聖經証實了其不良影響,他竟企圖阻止耶穌執行天父委託給祂的使命。「天主子所以顯現出來,是為消滅魔鬼的作為」(若一 3:8)。在這些作為中,後果最嚴重的,就是以謊言誘騙了人類違抗天主的命令。

395. 可是撒殫的能力並非無限的,他只不過是受造物而已,他有大能是由於是單純的精神體,但始終是受造物,絕不能阻止天國的建立。撒殫由於憎恨天主及祂在耶穌基 督內的國度而在世上活動,同時其活動給每人和社會帶來嚴重的禍患──精神性的及間接地也包括物質性的,雖然如此,這活動卻是天主在其眷顧下所允許的,並會 剛柔並重地引導人類和世界的歷史。天主允許魔鬼活動乃是重大的奧秘,但是「我們知道,天主使一切協助那些愛祂的人獲得益處」(羅 8:28)。

三、原罪

自由的考驗

樹果子的意義,「因為那一天你吃了,必定要死」(創 2:17)。「知善惡樹」(創 2:17)象徵性地指出不可跨越的界限,作為受造物的人必須甘願服膺,並懷著信心予以尊重。人隸屬於造物主,應服從創造的規律和倫理法則,因為這些規律和法則引導人使用自由。

人的第一個罪

397. 人受了魔鬼的誘惑後,喪失了心中對造物主的信賴,並妄用本身的自由,違背了天主的命令。人的第一個罪就在於此。因此,每個罪都是一種違抗天主命令的行為,及對祂的仁愛缺乏信賴。

398.因這罪,人愛自己勝於天主,從而輕視了天主:他選擇了自己,而反對天主,不顧自身受造物的身分,因此罔顧了自己的利益。最初在一種聖德狀態下受造的人,原來由天主預定在榮耀中圓滿地「分享神的生命」。但因了魔鬼的誘惑,他要「如同天主」,但卻「不要天主,超越天主,不從天主」。

399. 聖經描繪了這第一次背命的悲慘後果。亞當和厄娃立即失落了原始聖德的恩寵。他們害怕天主,對祂有一種錯誤的形象,誤以為祂是唯恐失去自己特權的天主。

400. 他們因原始義德所享有的和諧已遭破壞;靈魂上的精神官能對身體的控制也被摧毀;男人與女人的結合處於緊張狀態;他們的關係將帶有私慾和奴役對方的傾向。與 受造物的和諧也告決裂:有形的受造物開始與人疏遠和敵視。為了人的緣故,「受造之物被屈服在敗壞的狀態之下」(羅 8:20)。最後,那預先明確地警告的抗命後果將必實現:人要歸於土,即那用來塑造人的土。死亡從此進入了人類的歷史人類的歷史

401. 自從這第一個罪以後,世界便真的被罪惡的「入侵」所沖擊:加音殺死自己的弟弟亞伯爾;世界的普遍敗壞無不是罪惡的後果。在以色列的歷史中,罪惡經常顯示出 來,尤其是對盟約的天主不忠,和觸犯梅瑟法律。即使在基督救贖後,罪惡在基督徒中也從多方面顯露出來。聖經和教會的聖傳,不斷地提及罪惡在人類歷史中的臨在和普遍性:

天主啟示所告知我們的,與我們的經驗正好吻合。的確,人若觀察自己的內心,就會發現自己傾向於惡,沉淪於眾多淒慘境況中;而這些境況決不可能來自美 善的造物主。很多次,人因不肯承認天主為其根源,便破壞了那個使他走向自己最後目標的應有秩序,同時也破壞了一切的和諧,不論是人本身的、人與人之間的或 人與整個受造界之間的。

亞當的罪對全人類產生的後果

402. 所有的人都被牽連在亞當的罪惡裡。聖保祿確認此事說:「因一個人的悖逆,大眾都成了罪人」(羅 5:19);「就如罪惡藉著一人進入了世都犯了罪……」(羅 5:12)。但保祿宗徒把罪惡與死亡的普遍性和在基督內得救的普遍性對比:「就如因一人的過犯,眾人都被定了罪;同樣,也因一人的正義行為,眾人也都獲得 了正義和生命」(羅 5:18)。

403. 教會步武聖保祿的後塵,時常教導我們,那壓迫著人類的重重苦難,以及他們那種向惡和向死的傾向,除非與亞當的罪拉上關係,是不能理解的;這一切也與這個事 實有關,就是亞當傳給我們生下來就帶有的罪,這罪就是「靈魂的死亡」。基於這項確實的信仰,教會也給未犯過本罪的嬰兒付洗,以赦免罪過。

404. 亞當的罪如何成為他所有後裔的罪呢?整個人類在亞當內「有如一個人的一個身體」。由於這「人類的一體性」,眾人都被牽連在亞當的罪內,正如眾人都被牽引進 入基督的義德內一般。無論如何,原罪的傳遞是一個我們不能完全了解的奧秘。可是我們從啟示知道,亞當不但為自己,也為整個的人性接受了原始的聖德和義德。 由於亞當和厄娃降服於誘惑者,犯了個人的罪,但這罪損害了人性,他們則在墮落的情況下把受損的人性傳衍下來。這罪將藉傳宗接代而遺留給整個人類,就是傳遞一個缺乏原始聖德和義德的人性。因此,原罪是以類比的方式被稱為「罪」:它是「感染」而非「觸犯」的罪,是情況而非行動。

405. 原罪雖是人人所固有的,但在亞當的任何子孫身上,原罪都沒有本罪的特性。它在於缺乏原始的聖德和義德,然而人的本性並未完全敗壞:它只是在自己本性的力量 上受到損害,要受無知、痛苦和死亡權力的困擾,而且傾向於罪惡(這種對邪惡的傾向稱為「私慾偏情」)。聖洗在給予基督恩寵的生命時,把原罪滌除,使人重新 歸向天主。但原罪的後果,即墮落而傾向於惡的人性,仍留在人身上,並促使他展開屬靈的戰鬥。

406. 教會有關原罪傳衍的教義,主要在第五世紀,尤其在聖奧思定駁斥白拉奇主義的催促下,及在第十六世紀,為了對抗新教徒的改革而予以確定。白拉奇認為人無需天 主恩寵的助佑,靠他自由意志的本性力量,就能在道德上度一個善良生活;如此他把亞當罪惡的影響縮減為一個壞榜樣。反之,初期的新教改革者宣稱,人已徹底敗 壞,他的自由已被原罪所毀滅;他們認為每人所承受的罪和傾向於惡相同,是不能克服的私慾偏情。教會在 529年的奧倫治第二屆會議及 1546年的特倫多大公會議中,特別清楚地宣布了聖經啟示的有關原罪的意義。

一場硬仗

407. 與基督救贖息息相關的原罪教義提供了一個角度,讓人可清晰地辨別人的處境及他在世上的行動。因著原祖犯罪的後果,魔鬼對人奪取了某種主權,雖然人仍能保持自由。原罪驅使人「成為那握有死亡權勢者育、政治、社會行動及習俗等方面,造成嚴重錯誤的原因。

408. 原罪及人類所有本罪的後果,使世界在整體上陷於一種為罪所奴役的局面,這可用聖若望的措辭界定為:「世界的罪惡」(若 1:29)。這措辭也可用來表達團體環境和社會結構對個人所造成的負面影響,因它們都是人類罪惡的結果。

409.世界完全「屈服於惡者權下」(若一 5:19)的悲慘情況,使人生成為一場戰爭:

整個人類歷史都充滿著反抗黑暗勢力的一場硬仗。如上主所說的,這個戰爭由世界創始起,將延續至末日。人既生活在這戰場上,必須不斷作戰,始能堅定於善。同時,人除非仰賴天主的恩寵,努力奮鬥,不能達到其內在的和諧。

四、「祢沒有將他棄置於死亡的權下」

410. 人在墮落後,並沒有被天主拋棄。反之,天主還召喚他,向他奇妙地預告邪惡將被制伏,而人也要由墮落中被救起。這一段在創世紀中的記載曾被稱為「原始福音」,因為在那裡首次宣布了救主默西亞,宣布了蛇與女人之間的搏鬥,以及她的一位後裔的最後勝利。

411. 基督徒聖傳在這段聖經上,看到一種「新亞當」的宣示,祂藉著「死在十字架上」的聽命(斐 2:8),綽綽有餘地補償了亞當的抗命。此外,教會的許多教父和聖師,在「原始福音」所宣告的女人身上,看到了基督的母親瑪利亞、「新的厄娃」。她以獨一 無二的方式,從基督戰勝罪惡的成果中,成為第一個受惠者:使她預先被保護不受原罪的任何玷污,並在她整個塵世的生命中,藉著天主的特別恩寵,也未犯任何罪 過。

412 .但為何天主不阻止第一個人犯罪呢?聖大良一世回答說:「基督無可言喻的恩寵給了我們的利益,大於魔鬼因妒忌向我們所奪取的」。聖多瑪斯‧亞奎納也說: 「在犯罪後沒有甚麼可阻止人性被召向一個更高的目標。因為天主允許惡,為能從中取得更大的善。為此聖保祿說:『罪惡在那裡越多,恩寵在那裡也格外豐富』 (羅 5:20)。聖週的「逾越頌」唱道:『幸運的罪過啊,你竟然為世人賺得了如此偉大的救主!』」。

撮要
413.「天主並未造死亡,也不樂意生靈滅亡……但因魔鬼的嫉妒,死亡才進入了世界」(智 1:13; 2:24)。

414. 撒殫或魔鬼及其他邪魔,乃是故意拒絕事奉天主及其計劃的墮落天
415.「天主造了人於義德的狀態下,但因惡魔的誘惑,人在有史之初,便濫用自由反抗天主,並企圖在天主以外達到自己的終向」。

416.亞當作為第一個人,因著他的罪過,失去了原始聖德和義德,這聖德和正義是他原來非但為他自己,也是為全人類而接受的。
417.亞當和厄娃因著他們第一個罪,損害了人性,並傳給他們的後代,因此後代也缺乏原始的聖德和義德。這種缺乏就稱為「原罪」。
418.原罪的後果,就是使人性的力量變得脆弱,又要受無知、痛苦及死亡之困擾,而且傾向於罪惡(這種傾向稱為「私慾偏情」)。
419.「我們根據特倫多大公會議,認為原罪是與人性一起傳下來的,『不是藉效尤,而是藉生育』,因此是『人人所固有的』」 。
420.基督從罪惡所取得的勝利,賞給我們的利益比罪惡所奪去的更大:「罪惡在那裡越多,恩寵在那裡也格外豐富」(羅 5:20)。

421. 依照基督徒的信仰,「世界乃由造物主的愛所創造和保存;人雖不幸陷於罪惡的奴役,卻為戰勝惡魔的基督,以其十字架及復活所釋放……」。

Paragraph 7. THE FALL

385 God is infinitely good and all his works are good. Yet no one can escape the experience of suffering or the evils in nature which seem to be linked to the limitations proper to creatures: and above all to the question of moral evil. Where does evil come from? "I sought whence evil comes and there was no solution", said St. Augustine,257 and his own painful quest would only be resolved by his conversion to the living God. For "the mystery of lawlessness" is clarified only in the light of the "mystery of our religion".258 The revelation of divine love in Christ manifested at the same time the extent of evil and the superabundance of grace.259 We must therefore approach the question of the origin of evil by fixing the eyes of our faith on him who alone is its conqueror.260

I. WHERE SIN ABOUNDED, GRACE ABOUNDED ALL THE MORE

The reality of sin

386 Sin is present in human history; any attempt to ignore it or to give this dark reality other names would be futile. To try to understand what sin is, one must first recognize the profound relation of man to God, for only in this relationship is the evil of sin unmasked in its true identity as humanity's rejection of God and opposition to him, even as it continues to weigh heavy on human life and history.

387 Only the light of divine Revelation clarifies the reality of sin and particularly of the sin committed at mankind's origins. Without the knowledge Revelation gives of God we cannot recognize sin clearly and are tempted to explain it as merely a developmental flaw, a psychological weakness, a mistake, or the necessary consequence of an inadequate social structure, etc. Only in the knowledge of God's plan for man can we grasp that sin is an abuse of the freedom that God gives to created persons so that they are capable of loving him and loving one another.

Original sin - an essential truth of the faith

388 With the progress of Revelation, the reality of sin is also illuminated. Although to some extent the People of God in the Old Testament had tried to understand the pathos of the human condition in the light of the history of the fall narrated in Genesis, they could not grasp this story's ultimate meaning, which is revealed only in the light of the death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ.261 We must know Christ as the source of grace in order to know Adam as the source of sin. the Spirit-Paraclete, sent by the risen Christ, came to "convict the world concerning sin",262 by revealing him who is its Redeemer.

389 The doctrine of original sin is, so to speak, the "reverse side" of the Good News that Jesus is the Saviour of all men, that all need salvation and that salvation is offered to all through Christ. the Church, which has the mind of Christ,263 knows very well that we cannot tamper with the revelation of original sin without undermining the mystery of Christ.

How to read the account of the fall

390 The account of the fall in Genesis 3 uses figurative language, but affirms a primeval event, a deed that took place at the beginning of the history of man.264 Revelation gives us the certainty of faith that the whole of human history is marked by the original fault freely committed by our first parents.265

II. THE FALL OF THE ANGELS

391 Behind the disobedient choice of our first parents lurks a seductive voice, opposed to God, which makes them fall into death out of envy.266 Scripture and the Church's Tradition see in this being a fallen angel, called "Satan" or the "devil".267 The Church teaches that Satan was at first a good angel, made by God: "The devil and the other demons were indeed created naturally good by God, but they became evil by their own doing."268

392 Scripture speaks of a sin of these angels.269 This "fall" consists in the free choice of these created spirits, who radically and irrevocably rejected God and his reign. We find a reflection of that rebellion in the tempter's words to our first parents: "You will be like God."270 The devil "has sinned from the beginning"; he is "a liar and the father of lies".271

393 It is the irrevocable character of their choice, and not a defect in the infinite divine mercy, that makes the angels' sin unforgivable. "There is no repentance for the angels after their fall, just as there is no repentance for men after death."272

394 Scripture witnesses to the disastrous influence of the one Jesus calls "a murderer from the beginning", who would even try to divert Jesus from the mission received from his Father.273 "The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the works of the devil."274 In its consequences the gravest of these works was the mendacious seduction that led man to disobey God.

395 The power of Satan is, nonetheless, not infinite. He is only a creature, powerful from the fact that he is pure spirit, but still a creature. He cannot prevent the building up of God's reign. Although Satan may act in the world out of hatred for God and his kingdom in Christ Jesus, and although his action may cause grave injuries - of a spiritual nature and, indirectly, even of a physical nature - to each man and to society, the action is permitted by divine providence which with strength and gentleness guides human and cosmic history. It is a great mystery that providence should permit diabolical activity, but "we know that in everything God works for good with those who love him."275

III. ORIGINAL SIN

Freedom put to the test

396 God created man in his image and established him in his friendship. A spiritual creature, man can live this friendship only in free submission to God. the prohibition against eating "of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" spells this out: "for in the day that you eat of it, you shall die."276 The "tree of the knowledge of good and evil"277 symbolically evokes the insurmountable limits that man, being a creature, must freely recognize and respect with trust. Man is dependent on his Creator, and subject to the laws of creation and to the moral norms that govern the use of freedom.

Man's first sin

397 Man, tempted by the devil, let his trust in his Creator die in his heart and, abusing his freedom, disobeyed God's command. This is what man's first sin consisted of.278 All subsequent sin would be disobedience toward God and lack of trust in his goodness.

398 In that sin man preferred himself to God and by that very act scorned him. He chose himself over and against God, against the requirements of his creaturely status and therefore against his own good. Created in a state of holiness, man was destined to be fully "divinized" by God in glory. Seduced by the devil, he wanted to "be like God", but "without God, before God, and not in accordance with God".279

399 Scripture portrays the tragic consequences of this first disobedience. Adam and Eve immediately lose the grace of original holiness.280 They become afraid of the God of whom they have conceived a distorted image - that of a God jealous of his prerogatives.281

400 The harmony in which they had found themselves, thanks to original justice, is now destroyed: the control of the soul's spiritual faculties over the body is shattered; the union of man and woman becomes subject to tensions, their relations henceforth marked by lust and domination.282 Harmony with creation is broken: visible creation has become alien and hostile to man.283 Because of man, creation is now subject "to its bondage to decay".284 Finally, the consequence explicitly foretold for this disobedience will come true: man will "return to the ground",285 for out of it he was taken. Death makes its entrance into human history.286

401 After that first sin, the world is virtually inundated by sin There is Cain's murder of his brother Abel and the universal corruption which follows in the wake of sin. Likewise, sin frequently manifests itself in the history of Israel, especially as infidelity to the God of the Covenant and as transgression of the Law of Moses. and even after Christ's atonement, sin raises its head in countless ways among Christians.287 Scripture and the Church's Tradition continually recall the presence and universality of sin in man's history:

What Revelation makes known to us is confirmed by our own experience. For when man looks into his own heart he finds that he is drawn towards what is wrong and sunk in many evils which cannot come from his good creator. Often refusing to acknowledge God as his source, man has also upset the relationship which should link him to his last end, and at the same time he has broken the right order that should reign within himself as well as between himself and other men and all creatures.288

The consequences of Adam's sin for humanity

402 All men are implicated in Adam's sin, as St. Paul affirms: "By one man's disobedience many (that is, all men) were made sinners": "sin came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all men sinned."289 The Apostle contrasts the universality of sin and death with the universality of salvation in Christ. "Then as one man's trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one man's act of righteousness leads to acquittal and life for all men."290

403 Following St. Paul, the Church has always taught that the overwhelming misery which oppresses men and their inclination towards evil and death cannot be understood apart from their connection with Adam's sin and the fact that he has transmitted to us a sin with which we are all born afflicted, a sin which is the "death of the soul".291 Because of this certainty of faith, the Church baptizes for the remission of sins even tiny infants who have not committed personal sin.292

404 How did the sin of Adam become the sin of all his descendants? the whole human race is in Adam "as one body of one man".293 By this "unity of the human race" all men are implicated in Adam's sin, as all are implicated in Christ's justice. Still, the transmission of original sin is a mystery that we cannot fully understand. But we do know by Revelation that Adam had received original holiness and justice not for himself alone, but for all human nature. By yielding to the tempter, Adam and Eve committed a personal sin, but this sin affected the human nature that they would then transmit in a fallen state.294 It is a sin which will be transmitted by propagation to all mankind, that is, by the transmission of a human nature deprived of original holiness and justice. and that is why original sin is called "sin" only in an analogical sense: it is a sin "contracted" and not "committed" - a state and not an act.

405 Although it is proper to each individual,295 original sin does not have the character of a personal fault in any of Adam's descendants. It is a deprivation of original holiness and justice, but human nature has not been totally corrupted: it is wounded in the natural powers proper to it, subject to ignorance, suffering and the dominion of death, and inclined to sin - an inclination to evil that is called concupiscence". Baptism, by imparting the life of Christ's grace, erases original sin and turns a man back towards God, but the consequences for nature, weakened and inclined to evil, persist in man and summon him to spiritual battle.

406 The Church's teaching on the transmission of original sin was articulated more precisely in the fifth century, especially under the impulse of St. Augustine's reflections against Pelagianism, and in the sixteenth century, in opposition to the Protestant Reformation. Pelagius held that man could, by the natural power of free will and without the necessary help of God's grace, lead a morally good life; he thus reduced the influence of Adam's fault to bad example. the first Protestant reformers, on the contrary, taught that original sin has radically perverted man and destroyed his freedom; they identified the sin inherited by each man with the tendency to evil (concupiscentia), which would be insurmountable. the Church pronounced on the meaning of the data of Revelation on original sin especially at the second Council of Orange (529)296 and at the Council of Trent (1546).297

A hard battle. . .

407 The doctrine of original sin, closely connected with that of redemption by Christ, provides lucid discernment of man's situation and activity in the world. By our first parents' sin, the devil has acquired a certain domination over man, even though man remains free. Original sin entails "captivity under the power of him who thenceforth had the power of death, that is, the devil".298 Ignorance of the fact that man has a wounded nature inclined to evil gives rise to serious errors in the areas of education, politics, social action299 and morals.

408 The consequences of original sin and of all men's personal sins put the world as a whole in the sinful condition aptly described in St. John's expression, "the sin of the world".300 This expression can also refer to the negative influence exerted on people by communal situations and social structures that are the fruit of men's sins.301

409 This dramatic situation of "the whole world [which] is in the power of the evil one"302 makes man's life a battle:

The whole of man's history has been the story of dour combat with the powers of evil, stretching, so our Lord tells us, from the very dawn of history until the last day. Finding himself in the midst of the battlefield man has to struggle to do what is right, and it is at great cost to himself, and aided by God's grace, that he succeeds in achieving his own inner integrity.303

IV. "YOU DID NOT ABANDON HIM TO THE POWER OF DEATH"

410 After his fall, man was not abandoned by God. On the contrary, God calls him and in a mysterious way heralds the coming victory over evil and his restoration from his fall.304 This passage in Genesis is called the Protoevangelium ("first gospel"): the first announcement of the Messiah and Redeemer, of a battle between the serpent and the Woman, and of the final victory of a descendant of hers.

411 The Christian tradition sees in this passage an announcement of the "New Adam" who, because he "became obedient unto death, even death on a cross", makes amends superabundantly for the disobedience, of Adam.305 Furthermore many Fathers and Doctors of the Church have seen the woman announced in the "Proto-evangelium" as Mary, the mother of Christ, the "new Eve". Mary benefited first of all and uniquely from Christ's victory over sin: she was preserved from all stain of original sin and by a special grace of God committed no sin of any kind during her whole earthly life.306

412 But why did God not prevent the first man from sinning? St. Leo the Great responds, "Christ's inexpressible grace gave us blessings better than those the demon's envy had taken away."307 and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote, "There is nothing to prevent human nature's being raised up to something greater, even after sin; God permits evil in order to draw forth some greater good. Thus St. Paul says, 'Where sin increased, grace abounded all the more'; and the Exsultet sings, 'O happy fault,. . . which gained for us so great a Redeemer!'"308

IN BRIEF

413 "God did not make death, and he does not delight in the death of the living. . . It was through the devil's envy that death entered the world" ( Wis 1:13; 2:24).

414 Satan or the devil and the other demons are fallen angels who have freely refused to serve God and his plan. Their choice against God is definitive. They try to associate man in their revolt against God.

415 "Although set by God in a state of rectitude man, enticed by the evil one, abused his freedom at the very start of history. He lifted himself up against God, and sought to attain his goal apart from him" (GS 13 # 1).

416 By his sin Adam, as the first man, lost the original holiness and justice he had received from God, not only for himself but for all human beings.

417 Adam and Eve transmitted to their descendants human nature wounded by their own first sin and hence deprived of original holiness and justice; this deprivation is called "original sin".

418 As a result of original sin, human nature is weakened in its powers, subject to ignorance, suffering and the domination of death, and inclined to sin (this inclination is called "concupiscence").

419 "We therefore hold, with the Council of Trent, that original sin is transmitted with human nature, "by propagation, not by imitation" and that it is. . . 'proper to each'" (Paul VI, CPG # 16).

420 The victory that Christ won over sin has given us greater blessings than those which sin had taken from us: "where sin increased, grace abounded all the more" ( Rom 5:20).

421 Christians believe that "the world has been established and kept in being by the Creator's love; has fallen into slavery to sin but has been set free by Christ, crucified and risen to break the power of the evil one. . ." (GS 2 # 2).

 

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