前言/PROLOGUE

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天主教教理
前言

「父啊!……永生就是:認識祢,唯一的真天主,和祢所派遣來的耶穌基督 」(若17:3)。「我們的救主天主,……願意所有的人都得救,並得以認識真理」(弟前 17:3)。「我們的救主天主,……願意所有的人都得救,並得以認識真理」(弟前 4)。除了耶穌的名字外,「在天下人間,沒有賜下別的名字,使我們賴以得救的」(宗4:12)。

一、人的生命:認識和愛慕天主

1. 天主本身是無限的美善和真福,按祂純粹慈愛的計劃,自由地創造了人,使人分享祂的真福。為這緣故,祂時時處處接近人。祂召喚及協助人去尋求祂、認識祂、並 全力地愛慕祂。祂召集所有因罪惡而分散的人,回到祂合一的家庭——教會裡去。為實行此事,時期一滿,天主就派遣聖子作為贖世和救世者。天主在祂內及藉著 祂,召喚眾人在聖神內成為祂的義子,從而成為祂真福的繼承者。

 

 



. The life of man - to know and love God

1 God, infinitely perfect and blessed in himself, in a plan of sheer goodness freely created man to make him share in his own blessed life. For this reason, at every time and in every place, God draws close to man. He calls man to seek him, to know him, to love him with all his strength. He calls together all men, scattered and divided by sin, into the unity of his family, the Church. To accomplish this, when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son as Redeemer and Saviour. In his Son and through him, he invites men to become, in the Holy Spirit, his adopted children and thus heirs of his blessed life.

2. 為使此項呼喚響徹整個大地,基督派遣了祂所選的宗徒,給予他們宣講福音的命令:「你們要去使萬民成為門徒,因父及子及聖神之名給他們授洗,教訓他們遵守我 所吩咐你們的一切。看!我同你們天天在一起,直到今世的終結」(瑪 28:19-20)。宗徒們領受了此項使命,「出去到處宣講,主與他們合作,並以奇跡相隨,証實所傳的道理」(谷 16:20)。 2 So that this call should resound throughout the world, Christ sent forth the apostles he had chosen, commissioning them to proclaim the gospel: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age."4 Strengthened by this mission, the apostles "went forth and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the message by the signs that attended it."5
3. 那些藉天主的助佑,接受了基督的邀請及自由地予以回應的人,也受了基督愛的驅使,到世界各處去傳播喜訊。這個由宗徒們所領受的寶庫,曾由宗徒的繼承者們忠 心耿耿地保管著。所有信奉基督的人,都奉召把這寶庫世世代代地傳授下去,一面宣揚信仰,一面將之活在手足情深的施與受中,並在禮儀和祈禱中加以慶祝。 3 Those who with God's help have welcomed Christ's call and freely responded to it are urged on by love of Christ to proclaim the Good News everywhere in the world. This treasure, received from the apostles, has been faithfully guarded by their successors. All Christ's faithful are called to hand it on from generation to generation, by professing the faith, by living it in fraternal sharing, and by celebrating it in liturgy and prayer.6

二、傳揚信仰::教理講授

4. 教會很早就把使人成為門徒、為協助世人相信基督是天主子的種種努力稱為教理講授,好使他們透過信仰,因祂的名而獲得生命,以便在此世加以培育和教導,從而建樹基督的身體 。

5. 「教理講授是對兒童、青年和成人的信仰教育,這教育特別包括基督教義的傳授,它通常是以一種有組織和有系統的方式進行,目的是引導他們度圓滿的基督徒生活」 。

6. 教理講授以教會牧民使命的某些要素有條理地組合而成,但教理講授有別於這些要素。這些要素雖有教理的特性,但它們或是為準備教理講授,或由教理講授而產 生:就是福音的首次宣告或旨在引起信仰的傳教講道、尋求信仰的理由、基督徒生活的體驗、舉行聖事慶典、教會團體的整合以及宗徒和傳教的見証。

7. 「教理講授與教會的整個生命息息相關。教會不但在地理上擴展,在人數上增加,更重要的,教會內部的成長和她對天主計劃的回應,主要是取決於教理講授」。

8. 教會更新的時期也是教理講授的重要時刻。事實上,我們看到在教父們的偉大時代中,聖善的主教們都把致力於教理講授,作為他們職務中重要的一分工作。這就是耶路撒冷的聖濟利祿、金口聖若望、聖安博、聖奧思定以及許多其他教父,他們的教理著作至今仍堪為典範。

9. 教理講授的職務從大公會議中時常取得新的活力。關於這點,特倫多大公會議是一個應予強調的例子:它在其憲章和法令中給了教理講授優先的地位;它是《羅馬教 理》的起源,此教理取了它的名字,成為基督教義大綱的上乘之作。它把教理講授在教會內系統地組織起來,又藉著聖善的主教和神學家們,如:聖伯多祿‧嘉尼削 (St Peter Canisius),聖嘉祿‧鮑祿茂 (St Charles Borromeo),聖杜里比奧‧莫格魯維豪(St Turibius of Mongrovejo)及聖羅伯‧白敏 (St Robert Bellarmine)的功績,使許多教理書終能出版。

10. 因此,若因梵二大公會議(教宗保祿六世視梵二為現代的偉大教理)所產生的動力,而使教會的教理講授重新引起人們的注意,是不足為奇的。1971年的《教理 講授指南》,世界主教會議先後處理「福音傳播」(1974)及「教理講授」(1977)的課題,以及有關的宗座勸諭:〈在新世界中傳福音〉(1975)和 〈論現時代的教理講授〉(1979) 都可証明此點。1985年非常規的世界主教會議要求「編一本教理或一套綜合全部天主教教義和倫理訓導的摘要」。教宗若望保祿二世接納了主教會議的這個願 望,認為它「必定滿全普世教會和個別教會的一個真正需求」,並從速著手工作,務使與會主教們的願望得以實現。

II. Handing on the Faith: Catechesis

4 Quite early on, the name catechesis was given to the totality of the Church's efforts to make disciples, to help men believe that Jesus is the Son of God so that believing they might have life in his name, and to educate and instruct them in this life, thus building up the body of Christ.7

5 "Catechesis is an education in the faith of children, young people and adults which includes especially the teaching of Christian doctrine imparted, generally speaking, in an organic and systematic way, with a view to initiating the hearers into the fullness of Christian life."8

6 While not being formally identified with them, catechesis is built on a certain number of elements of the Church's pastoral mission which have a catechetical aspect, that prepare for catechesis, or spring from it. They are: the initial proclamation of the Gospel or missionary preaching to arouse faith; examination of the reasons for belief; experience of Christian living; celebration of the sacraments; integration into the ecclesial community; and apostolic and missionary witness.9

7 "Catechesis is intimately bound up with the whole of the Church's life. Not only her geographical extension and numerical increase, but even more her inner growth and correspondence with God's plan depend essentially on catechesis."10

8 Periods of renewal in the Church are also intense moments of catechesis. In the great era of the Fathers of the Church, saintly bishops devoted an important part of their ministry to catechesis. St. Cyril of Jerusalem and St. John Chrysostom, St. Ambrose and St. Augustine, and many other Fathers wrote catechetical works that remain models for us.11

9 "The ministry of catechesis draws ever fresh energy from the councils. the Council of Trent is a noteworthy example of this. It gave catechesis priority in its constitutions and decrees. It lies at the origin of the Roman Catechism, which is also known by the name of that council and which is a work of the first rank as a summary of Christian teaching. . "12 The Council of Trent initiated a remarkable organization of the Church's catechesis. Thanks to the work of holy bishops and theologians such as St. Peter Canisius, St. Charles Borromeo, St. Turibius of Mongrovejo or St. Robert Bellarmine, it occasioned the publication of numerous catechisms.

10 It is therefore no surprise that catechesis in the Church has again attracted attention in the wake of the Second Vatican Council, which Pope Paul Vl considered the great catechism of modern times. the General Catechetical Directory (1971) the sessions of the Synod of Bishops devoted to evangelization (1974) and catechesis (1977), the apostolic exhortations Evangelii nuntiandi (1975) and Catechesi tradendae (1979), attest to this. the Extraordinary Synod of Bishops in 1985 asked "that a catechism or compendium of all Catholic doctrine regarding both faith and morals be composed"13 The Holy Father, Pope John Paul II, made the Synod's wish his own, acknowledging that "this desire wholly corresponds to a real need of the universal Church and of the particular Churches."14 He set in motion everything needed to carry out the Synod Fathers' wish.

 


三、目標和讀者

11. 這本教理的目標,是依照梵二大公會議和教會的整個傳統,把有關信仰和倫理的天主教教義的主要和基本內容,以綜合和有系統的方式陳述出來。 它的主要泉源是聖經、 教父著作、禮儀及教會的訓導。 它的目標是給「各地教理或綜合摘要 一個參照版本 」。

12. 這本教理主要是為負責教理講授的人編寫的:首先是為作為信仰導師和教會牧者的主教們,獻給他們當作一個工具,去盡好他們教導天主子民的本分。透過主教們,也獻給教理的編纂者、司鐸和傳道員,當然為所有其他的基督信徒,本教理也是一部有益的讀物。

III. The Aim and Intended Readership of the Catechism

11 This catechism aims at presenting an organic synthesis of the essential and fundamental contents of Catholic doctrine, as regards both faith and morals, in the light of the Second Vatican Council and the whole of the Church's Tradition. Its principal sources are the Sacred Scriptures, the Fathers of the Church, the liturgy, and the Church's Magisterium. It is intended to serve "as a point of reference for the catechisms or compendia that are composed in the various countries".15

12 This work is intended primarily for those responsible for catechesis: first of all the bishops, as teachers of the faith and pastors of the Church. It is offered to them as an instrument in fulfilling their responsibility of teaching the People of God. Through the bishops, it is addressed to redactors of catechisms, to priests, and to catechists. It will also be useful reading for all other Christian faithful.

 

四、結構

13. 本教理的設計是從教理的偉大傳統取得靈感,它把教理講授分為四大「支柱」:即洗禮信仰的宣認 (信經)、信德的聖事、信仰的生活 (誡命)、信徒的祈禱 (我們的天父)。
卷一:信仰的宣認

14. 那些藉信仰和洗禮而隸屬基督的人,必須在世人面前宣認他們洗禮的信仰。因此,教理首先講述啟示和信仰是甚麼;透過啟示,天主轉向人類及把自已賞賜給人;透過信仰,人類則向天主回應 (第一部分)。信經總結了天主作為一切美善的主宰所賜給人的各種恩典,祂也是造物主、救贖者和聖化者,並把這些恩典按我們洗禮宣認的「三章」連貫起來,就是信奉唯一的天主:全能的聖父、造物主;耶穌基督、祂的聖子、我們的主和救主;以及在聖教會內的聖神 (第二部分)。

卷二:信德的聖事

15. 教理的卷二講述天主的救恩,這救恩已由耶穌基督一次而永遠地實現,並藉聖神臨現於教會禮儀的神聖行動中 (第一部分),尤其是在七件聖事中 (第二部分)。

卷三:信仰的生活

16. 教理的卷三敘述按天主肖象而造的人的最後終向:真福及達至真福的旅程。這旅程是指順從法律和天主恩寵之援助的正直和自由的行為 (第一部分),以及按照天主十誡的昭示而去實現愛德雙重誡命的行為 (第二部 分)。

卷四:在信仰生活中的祈禱

17. 教理的最後一卷論及祈禱在信徒生活中的意義和重要性(第一 部分),並以主 的禱文七項祈求的簡單詮釋作為結束(第二部分)。事實上,在這些祈求中,可以找到我們該盼望,和我們的天父樂於施予的一切恩惠。



IV. Structure of this Catechism

13 The plan of this catechism is inspired by the great tradition of catechisms which build catechesis on four pillars: the baptismal profession of faith (the Creed), the sacraments of faith, the life of faith (the Commandments), and the prayer of the believer (the Lord's Prayer).

Part One: the Profession of Faith

14 Those who belong to Christ through faith and Baptism must confess their baptismal faith before men.16 First therefore the Catechism expounds revelation, by which God addresses and gives himself to man, and the faith by which man responds to God (Section One). the profession of faith summarizes the gifts that God gives man: as the Author of all that is good; as Redeemer; and as Sanctifier. It develops these in the three chapters on our baptismal faith in the one God: the almighty Father, the Creator; his Son Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour; and the Holy Spirit, the Sanctifier, in the Holy Church (Section Two).

Part Two: the Sacraments of Faith

15 The second part of the Catechism explains how God's salvation, accomplished once for all through Christ Jesus and the Holy Spirit, is made present in the sacred actions of the Church's liturgy (Section One), especially in the seven sacraments (Section Two).

Part Three: the Life of Faith

16 The third part of the Catechism deals with the final end of man created in the image of God: beatitude, and the ways of reaching it - through right conduct freely chosen, with the help of God's law and grace (Section One), and through conduct that fulfils the twofold commandment of charity, specified in God's Ten Commandments (Section Two).

Part Four: Prayer in the Life of Faith

17 The last part of the Catechism deals with the meaning and importance of prayer in the life of believers (Section One). It concludes with a brief commentary on the seven petitions of the Lord's Prayer (Section Two), for indeed we find in these the sum of all the good things which we must hope for, and which our heavenly Father wants to grant us.

 

五、應用此教理的實際指示

18. 本教理的設計,是把整個天主教信仰作一有系統的陳述,因此,必須把它當作一個整體來閱讀。正文旁的許多參照號碼,及書後的主題索引使人看到每個主題與信仰整體之間的聯繫。

19. 很多次,聖經文句並不逐字引用,而只以「參閱」字眼在註腳中指明其出處。為了深入了解這些章節,必須閱讀那些文本。聖經的引述是教理講授的工具之一。

20.某些段落使用較小字體較小字體,是表示這些解釋是屬於歷史和護教性質的,或者是教義的補充說明。
21.引証教父著作、禮儀、教會訓導或聖徒傳記時,都用較小字體印出。這些引証是為使教義的闡述變得更為充實。這些文字多次是為直接的教理講授用途而選的。

22. 在每個主題單元的結束,都有一系列的簡短文字以簡明的條文總結道理的要點。這些「撮要」的目的,是為給各地方的教理講授一些提示,以擬定綜合的和可供記憶的條文。

六、當作的編寫

23. 本教理書的重點是放在教理的闡述上。事實上,其目的是協助人深入明瞭信仰。正是為這緣故,它導向信仰的成熟,使信仰在生活中紮根,並透過見証而發揚光大。

24. 因教理講授對象的文化、年齡、精神生活、及社會和教會環境的不同,教理在陳述和方法上該作適當的編寫,但本教理書基於本身的目標,不打算實現此事。這項任務留待那些專用的教理課本、尤其留給那些教導信友的人士去執行:

《羅馬教理》,「導言」 :那些教導教理的人,必須「對一切人,成為一切」(格前 9:22),為贏得眾人歸向耶穌基督……首先,他們不要以為託付他們照顧的靈魂都有同一的程度。因此不能用一成不變的方法,去教導及培養信徒們真正的虔 誠。該知道他們在基督內有些像剛出世的嬰兒,有些像青少年,有的則看來已擁有一切力量,…… 那些奉召執行講道任務的,必須在傳授奧跡、信仰和倫理規條的訓示時,使自己的語言吻合聽眾的智力和才能。

愛德至上

25.為結束這段前言,宜牢記《羅馬教理》所宣布的以下的牧民原則:

整個教義和訓示的目的應導向永無止境的愛。我們可有系統地陳述信仰、望德或本分,但最重要的是應時常強調吾主的愛,務必使人明白,任何基督徒全德的行 動,無不是只以愛為起點,亦只以愛為終點。

V. Practical Directions for Using this Catechism

18 This catechism is conceived as an organic presentation of the Catholic faith in its entirety. It should be seen therefore as a unified whole. Numerous cross-references in the margin of the text (numbers found at the end of a sentence referring to other paragraphs that deal with the same theme), as well as the analytical index at the end of the volume, allow the reader to view each theme in its relationship with the entirety of the faith.

19 The texts of Sacred Scripture are often not quoted word for word but are merely indicated by a reference (cf.). For a deeper understanding of such passages, the reader should refer to the Scriptural texts themselves. Such Biblical references are a valuable working-tool in catechesis.

20 The use of small print in certain passages indicates observations of an historical or apologetic nature, or supplementary doctrinal explanations.

21 The quotations, also in small print, from patristic, liturgical, magisterial or hagiographical sources, are intended to enrich the doctrinal presentations. These texts have often been chosen with a view to direct catechetical use.

22 At the end of each thematic unit, a series of brief texts in small italics sums up the essentials of that unit's teaching in condensed formulae. These "IN BRIEF" summaries may suggest to local catechists brief summary formulae that could be memorized.

VI. Necessary Adaptations

23 The Catechism emphasizes the exposition of doctrine. It seeks to help deepen understanding of faith. In this way it is oriented towards the maturing of that faith, its putting down roots in personal life, and its shining forth in personal conduct.17

24 By design, this Catechism does not set out to provide the adaptation of doctrinal presentations and catechetical methods required by the differences of culture, age, spiritual maturity, and social and ecclesial condition among all those to whom it is addressed. Such indispensable adaptations are the responsibility of particular catechisms and, even more, of those who instruct the faithful:

Whoever teaches must become "all things to all men" ( I Cor 9:22), to win everyone to Christ. . . Above all, teachers must not imagine that a single kind of soul has been entrusted to them, and that consequently it is lawful to teach and form equally all the faithful in true piety with one and the same method! Let them realize that some are in Christ as newborn babes, others as adolescents, and still others as adults in full command of their powers.... Those who are called to the ministry of preaching must suit their words to the maturity and understanding of their hearers, as they hand on the teaching of the mysteries of faith and the rules of moral conduct.18

Above all - Charity

25 To conclude this Prologue, it is fitting to recall this pastoral principle stated by the Roman Catechism:

The whole concern of doctrine and its teaching must be directed to the love that never ends. Whether something is proposed for belief, for hope or for action, the love of our Lord must always be made accessible, so that anyone can see that all the works of perfect Christian virtue spring from love and have no other objective than to arrive at love.19

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